School bullying: risk factors, theories and interventions

Authored by: Maria M. Ttofi , David P. Farrington

Handbook on Crime

Print publication date:  February  2010
Online publication date:  February  2010

Print ISBN: 9781843923725
eBook ISBN: 9781843929680
Adobe ISBN:


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School bullying is an important social problem with serious consequences. Many studies show that involvement in bullying (as a perpetrator or a victim) is associated with negative short-term effects on the physical and psychological health of children and with long-term effects on their future psychosocial adjustment as adults (Ttofi and Farrington 2008a). For example, in a school-based survey of 16,410 Finnish adolescents aged 14–16, Kaltiala-Heino et al. (1999) showed that adolescents who were bullied and those who were bullies had an increased risk of depression and severe suicidal ideation. In a review of existing literature, Salmon et al. (2000) found that being bullied was frequently a factor influencing the referral of adolescents to psychiatric services, with depression being diagnosed in over 70 per cent of cases.

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