Past, present and future sentences: what do we know about their effectiveness?

Authored by: Carol Hedderman

Handbook of Probation

Print publication date:  May  2007
Online publication date:  May  2013

Print ISBN: 9781843921905
eBook ISBN: 9781843926184
Adobe ISBN: 9781134014910


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The punishment of offenders by the state may be justified philosophically in two ways: as an expression of public disapproval for what has happened (retributivism); or as a mechanism for reducing the chances of such an act being committed by the same or another offender (utilitarianism).

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