Risk, resilience, and retaliation

American perspectives on international cybersecurity

Authored by: James A. Lewis

Routledge Handbook of International Cybersecurity

Print publication date:  February  2020
Online publication date:  January  2020

Print ISBN: 9781138489011
eBook ISBN: 9781351038904
Adobe ISBN:


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The liberal institutions created after 1945 are being challenged by powerful new states, by understandable populist discontent in Western democracies, and by revanchist powers. This evolving political environment creates tension and conflict. Cyberspace is a principal domain for this conflict. At the same time, many researchers and officials in the US have concluded that no information technology can ever be made completely secure against advanced and persistent opponents (DOD, 2018, p. 3). This leads them to conclude that a defensive strategy will always be inadequate. The effect of this combination of increasing conflict and inadequate defense has been to reshape the America perspective on international cybersecurity.

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