Cyber-Security and Private Actors

Authored by: Myriam Dunn Cavelty

Routledge Handbook of Private Security Studies

Print publication date:  October  2015
Online publication date:  October  2015

Print ISBN: 9780415729352
eBook ISBN: 9781315850986
Adobe ISBN:


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In the last few years, cyber-security has received much attention internationally. Events and occurrences such as the cyber-attacks on Estonia in 2007; the discovery of Stuxnet, the industry-sabotaging super worm in 2010; numerous instances of cyber-espionage, culminating in the Snowden revelations in 2013; and the growing sophistication of cyber-criminals as evident by their impressive scams served to give the impression that cyber-attacks are becoming more frequent, more organized, more costly, and altogether more dangerous. As a result, cyber-fears have percolated upwards, from the expert level to executive decision-makers and politicians, and diffused horizontally, advancing from mainly being an issue of relevance to the US to one that is at the top of the threat list of more and more countries, resulting in a flurry of government-led and private-led cyber-security initiatives.

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