Strategies for Health Promotion After Violence Exposure

Authored by: Leilani Marie Ayala , Michael Hazelton , Vicki P. Hines-Martin

Routledge Handbook of Global Mental Health Nursing

Print publication date:  September  2016
Online publication date:  September  2016

Print ISBN: 9781138017610
eBook ISBN: 9781315780344
Adobe ISBN: 9781317702221


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Pinker (2011) has argued that we are living through one of the most peaceful times in the history of humankind. While this may be the case in historical comparative terms, the recent shooting down of Malaysian Airlines Flight 17 (MH17) serves as a tragic reminder of the globalization of risk (Beck, 1992) and we might add violence. For many of us, the violence associated with war, terrorism, civil disturbance or crime is something we watch on television or read about online – from our location in McLuhan’s (1964) ‘global village’; we might be aware of and concerned about distant wars and local crime rates, but these are often vague and remote apprehensions. Nonetheless, as 9/11, the downing of MH17 and the attack on Atatürk Airport indicate, the potential for exposure to violence now extends well beyond concerns over crime in our local community. For some, exposure to violence will be as primary victims – those directly affected by violence. For others, exposure will be as secondary victims – the family, friends and work colleagues of the primary victim. The notion of secondary victimhood may also be extended to include those who attend the crime scene, support the victims or investigate the crime.

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