Strategies for Health Promotion in Individuals Experiencing Depression

Authored by: Kunsook S. Bernstein

Routledge Handbook of Global Mental Health Nursing

Print publication date:  September  2016
Online publication date:  September  2016

Print ISBN: 9781138017610
eBook ISBN: 9781315780344
Adobe ISBN: 9781317702221

10.4324/9781315780344.ch13

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Abstract

Depressive disorders were reported to be the second leading cause of disability and the eleventh leading cause of global burden (or disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) in 2010, and major depressive disorder (MDD) accounted for 8.2(5.9–1 percent 0.8 percent) of global years lived with disability (YLDs) (Ferrari et al., 2013). Although direct information on the prevalence of depression does not exist for most countries, particularly low- to middle-income countries, major depressive disorder (MDD) currently affects an estimated 350 million people worldwide (WHO, 2012). Furthermore, depression at its most severe case can lead to suicide and has been responsible for 850,000 deaths every year (BioMed Central, 2011). MDD is also reported to be a contributor of burden allocated to 16 million suicides related to DALYs and to almost 4 million ischemic heart disease related to DALYs. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing cost-effective interventions to reduce its burden (Ferrari et al., 2013). In conjunction with the WHO’s report, World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative, researchers in 18 different countries conducted the study of cross-national epidemiology of major depressive episode (MDE) and collected data from over 89,000 people (Bromet et al., 2011). The results of the study showed that the average lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of MDE were; 14.6 percent and 5.5 percent in the 10 high-income countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, and United States) and 11.1 percent and 5.9 percent in the eight low- to middle-income countries (Brazil, Colombia, India, Lebanon, Mexico, South Africa, Ukraine, and China). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2010) also reports that depression is a major mental health problem across all ethnic groups in the United States. This chapter will cover global mental health issues and strategies for mental health promotion in individuals experiencing depression.

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