Ecosystem Services and the Greening of Business

Authored by: Guy Duke

Routledge Handbook of Ecosystem Services

Print publication date:  January  2016
Online publication date:  January  2016

Print ISBN: 9781138025080
eBook ISBN: 9781315775302
Adobe ISBN:


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Businesses are linked to natural capital and ecosystem services through impacts and dependencies. All businesses have an impact on natural capital and ecosystem services, either directly (e.g. through consumption of biotic products, or clearance or conversion or disturbance of natural ecosystems) or indirectly (e.g. through energy use, which contributes to climate change, which, in turn, affects ecosystems). Conversely, all businesses are dependent, either directly (e.g. for raw materials) or indirectly (e.g. for clean water, or an attractive living environment for their employees), on ecosystem services (Figure 43.1).

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