Indicators for Ecosystem Services

Authored by: Felix Müller , Benjamin Burkhard , Ying Hou , Marion Kruse , Liwei Ma , Peter Wangai

Routledge Handbook of Ecosystem Services

Print publication date:  January  2016
Online publication date:  January  2016

Print ISBN: 9781138025080
eBook ISBN: 9781315775302
Adobe ISBN:


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Indicators are depictions of system qualities, quantities or states, which are not directly accessible by the observer. Ecological indicators provide aggregated information on phenomena within human-environmental systems to characterize environmental management options. They provide signals that relay complex messages in a simplified and useful manner, providing communication tools in environmental management (Dale and Beyeler, 2001, Müller and Wiggering, 2004, Turnhout et al., 2007, Niemeijer and de Groot, 2008, ten Brink et al., 2011, Müller and Burkhard, 2012).

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