Sport Policy-Making

Authored by: Barrie Houlihan

Routledge Handbook of Sport and Politics

Print publication date:  October  2016
Online publication date:  October  2016

Print ISBN: 9781138792548
eBook ISBN: 9781315761930
Adobe ISBN: 9781317646679


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The following four public policies have had an undeniably significant impact on sport either globally or within a particular country: Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments legislation in the United States; the ruling by the European Court of Justice in the Jean-Marc Bosman case in 1995; the operation of apartheid in South Africa from 1948 to 1994 and the decision by the People’s Republic of China to re-join the Olympic Movement in 1979. What the four policies have in common is that the primary motive for their implementation was not sport. Title IX was a part of an educational reform of access to United States’ higher education institutions which “single-handedly revolutionised how American postsecondary institutions treat women and set the stage for women to outpace men as the recipients of bachelor’s degrees” (Rose 2015: 158). However, the reform is also widely recognised as having radically impacted US college (and subsequently high school) sport and greatly expanded the opportunities for women to participate in competitive sport and contribute significantly to US success at Olympic Games (Lopiano 2000; Staurowsky 2003).

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