Integration among unequals

How the heterogeneity of European varieties of capitalism shapes the social and democratic potential of the EU

Authored by: Martin Höpner , Armin Schäfer

Routledge Handbook of European Politics

Print publication date:  January  2015
Online publication date:  December  2014

Print ISBN: 9780415626750
eBook ISBN: 9781315755830
Adobe ISBN: 9781317628361


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One and a half decades have passed since Lisbet Hooghe and Gary Marks wrote their seminal article ‘The Making of a Polity: The Struggle over European Integration’ (Hooghe and Marks 1999). Hooghe and Marks argued that with the Single European Act and the Maastricht Treaty the European Union 2 had entered a phase of struggle between two competing projects: regulated and neoliberal capitalism, two ideals championed by different coalitions of member states, national and international interest groups, and European institutions and organizations. They also observed that the politics of European integration had changed. The struggle over Europe’s future had become politicized and could no longer be fought by technocrats behind the scenes. In short, Hooghe and Marks described an integration phase in which both European social and economic governance and the legitimacy of European decisions appeared in a new light.

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