Pain and justified evaluative belief

Authored by: Robert Cowan

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Pain

Print publication date:  June  2017
Online publication date:  July  2017

Print ISBN: 9781138823181
eBook ISBN: 9781315742205
Adobe ISBN:


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I believe that I am sitting at a computer and that birds are singing outside. Not only do I believe these things, I seem justified (in the sense associated with evidence or probability of truth) in doing so. Further, my beliefs seem justified independently of their standing in relations of inferential support to other beliefs of mine, i.e., the justification is “immediate.”

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