Indonesia’s energy trilemma

Authored by: Peter Maslanka

Handbook of Transitions to Energy and Climate Security

Print publication date:  November  2016
Online publication date:  November  2016

Print ISBN: 9781857437454
eBook ISBN: 9781315723617
Adobe ISBN:


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As one of the largest developing and emerging countries, with a population of roughly 250 million and Southeast Asia’s biggest economy, Indonesia faces three dilemmas. Coined by the World Energy Council in 2020, the energy trilemma characterizes the balancing act Indonesia is subject to regarding its energy equity, energy security, and environmental sustainability. 1 Due to the country’s energy demand growing 7% per year, it is becoming increasingly difficult to achieve and ensure energy access for Indonesia’s people and economy, and reduce emissions. 2 Similar to other developing countries, rising energy consumption is following the increase in gross domestic product (GDP), and consequently Indonesia is struggling to meet its domestic energy demand.

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