Narcissism and Protection Against Social Threat

Authored by: Stephanie D. Freis , Ashley A. Brown , Robert M. Arkin

Handbook of Personal Security

Print publication date:  May  2015
Online publication date:  April  2015

Print ISBN: 9781848726758
eBook ISBN: 9781315713595
Adobe ISBN: 9781317498476


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In the 1960s, the United States was swept away with the self-esteem movement, a cause that stressed the importance of instilling a sense of positive self-regard and self-worth in children from a young age. The self-esteem movement bolstered children’s self-images by promoting praise and encouragement without correction. These practices were implemented to promote the assumed positive benefits of self-esteem and other forms of positive self-regard (e.g., self-efficacy), such as academic motivation, growth, and well-being (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, & Vohs, 2003).

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