Shadow education in East Asia

Entrenched but evolving private supplementary tutoring

Authored by: Wei Zhang , Yoko Yamato

Routledge International Handbook of Schools and Schooling in Asia

Print publication date:  May  2018
Online publication date:  May  2018

Print ISBN: 9781138908499
eBook ISBN: 9781315694382
Adobe ISBN:


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East Asia is perhaps the best-known of the world’s regions for shadow education in the form of both specialist enterprises and informal private tutoring. Japan is known for its juku, South Korea for its hagwons, and Taiwan for its buxiban. These institutions have been prominent in public consciousness for decades. In more recent times, Hong Kong and Mainland China have been “catching up” with other parts of the region.

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