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Environmental peacebuilding in Iraq

Restoring the Iraqi Marshes and the ancient kahrez systems in the northern governorates

Authored by: Hannah Moosa

Routledge Handbook of Environmental Conflict and Peacebuilding

Print publication date:  April  2018
Online publication date:  April  2018

Print ISBN: 9781138202528
eBook ISBN: 9781315473772
Adobe ISBN:


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Iraq depends primarily on the waters from the Tigris and Euphrates, which provide an estimated 98 per cent of the country’s water supply. Despite low levels of average annual rainfall, estimated at 154mm, the country has good renewable water resources, estimated at 3,287m3/capita/year, due to the flows from these two rivers, and their tributaries. The Tigris and Euphrates are now the main sources of potable and agricultural water for the country (“Iraq’s shared water resources” 2016).

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