Are civic integration tests justifiable?

A three-step test

Authored by: Bouke de Vries

The Routledge Handbook of Ethics and Public Policy

Print publication date:  November  2018
Online publication date:  October  2018

Print ISBN: 9781138201279
eBook ISBN: 9781315461731
Adobe ISBN:


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In recent decades, many liberal democracies have introduced civic integration tests for certain groups of would-be residents and would-be citizens. These are standardised exams that determine whether an individual can gain entry, long-term residence, and/or citizenship within a given society. The aim of this chapter is twofold: (1) to propose a three-step test for determining whether civic integration tests are justifiable and (2) to show that it is doubtful whether civic integration tests can pass these steps.

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