Authored by: Leonid Nadolinets , Eugene Levin , Daulet Akhmedov

Surveying Instruments and Technology

Print publication date:  June  2017
Online publication date:  June  2017

Print ISBN: 9781498762380
eBook ISBN: 9781498762397
Adobe ISBN:


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The cornerstone of any surveyor’s leveling instrument is a device that creates a horizontal line, or a surface perpendicular to a plumb line. Ancient pendulum and hydraulic leveling systems have been useful for several thousand years. However, those systems have reached the limits of their technological accuracy.

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