Authored by: Leonid Nadolinets , Eugene Levin , Daulet Akhmedov

Surveying Instruments and Technology

Print publication date:  June  2017
Online publication date:  June  2017

Print ISBN: 9781498762380
eBook ISBN: 9781498762397
Adobe ISBN:


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The most ancient of known maps were found in Spain. They were engraved 13,667 years ago on a hand-sized rock and probably were made by Magdalenian hunter-gatherers (Bates 2009) (see Figure 1.1). In spite of ease of use, the metric quality of that map is questionable and it was produced based on the visual perception and imagination of the hunter-gatherers. Thus we may call them the first cartographers, but not surveyors. The surveying profession combines professionalism in measurements on terrain with social (land-laws related) responsibilities.

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