Surveys and Retrospective Self-reports to Measure Strategies and Strategic Processing

Authored by: Jan D. Vermunt

Handbook of Strategies and Strategic Processing

Print publication date:  February  2020
Online publication date:  January  2020

Print ISBN: 9781138389939
eBook ISBN: 9780429423635
Adobe ISBN:


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This chapter is about surveys and retrospective reports as measurement tools for learning strategies and strategic processing. It starts with a historical overview of the first generation of surveys and self-report inventories in the area of student learning strategies from the early 1970s onward. The emergence of research on metacognition in the mid-1980s gave rise to the development of a second generation of student learning strategy instruments, broader in nature and including metacognition as a central concept. Two widely used instruments will be discussed. The chapter continues with very recent developments in this area, characterized by new instruments, new measurement and analytical techniques, and the inclusion of new populations and contexts including teachers’ learning. This is followed by a critical discussion of the domains of applicability and limitations of inventories and questionnaires on learning strategies. The chapter closes with a discussion of future directions for research and implications for practice.

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