Popular Song Remixed

Mashups, Aesthetic Transformation, and Resistance

Authored by: Christine Boone

The Routledge Handbook of Remix Studies and Digital Humanities

Print publication date:  February  2021
Online publication date:  February  2021

Print ISBN: 9780367361426
eBook ISBN: 9780429355875
Adobe ISBN:


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On March 7, 2017, a statue called Fearless Girl suddenly appeared opposite the famous Charging Bull on Wall Street in front of the New York Stock Exchange. 1 She became an immediate sensation, a symbol of female empowerment and defiance. After Fearless Girl was installed, however, the Charging Bull sculptor, Arturo Di Modica, wanted it taken down. 2 Internet users went crazy, defending this brave little girl from the dominant patriarchy who wanted to silence and remove her. New York mayor Bill de Blasio tweeted: “Men who don’t like women taking up space are exactly why we need the Fearless Girl.” 3 But there is more to this story: Charging Bull is a work of guerilla art, self-funded by Di Modica, meant to represent the “strength and power of the American people.” Fearless Girl, on the other hand, is a corporate-commissioned advertising campaign. 4 More specific details about the history of each sculpture can be easily found online, but for this chapter, I will focus on the meaning and the interplay of power that result when these two works of art are juxtaposed to form a sculptural mashup. The language that reporters and bloggers use to talk about the way they interact could easily be applied to a musical mashup, as well.

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