Migration and refugees in EU–Middle East relations

Authored by: Beste İşleyen , Tamirace Fakhoury

Routledge Handbook of EU–Middle East Relations

Print publication date:  December  2021
Online publication date:  December  2021

Print ISBN: 9780367330767
eBook ISBN: 9780429317873
Adobe ISBN:


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The objective of this chapter is to give an overview of the politics of borders, migration and refugees in EU–Middle East relations. More specifically, the chapter looks at EU cooperation with Lebanon and Turkey, which are two major refugee hosting countries in the EU’s so-called Southern neighbourhood and main recipients of EU funds in the management of borders and displaced populations. The chapter identifies the main drivers, policies, mechanisms and practices of EU–Middle East relations in migration and border governance. Special attention will be paid to the concept of “externalisation”, which is regarded as the main legal and policy framework through which the EU transfers migration and border control to third countries. Here, we discuss “accession” and “association” as the two central ways for the operation of externalisation and relate them to our two cases. In both cases, we emphasise the legal, ethical and normative underpinnings and implications of the politics of borders, migration and refugees in EU relations with the Middle East.

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