The Views of Freud and Wittgenstein Explored

Authored by: Linda A. W. Brakel

The Routledge International Handbook of Psychoanalysis and Philosophy

Print publication date:  November  2022
Online publication date:  November  2022

Print ISBN: 9780367276454
eBook ISBN: 9780429297076
Adobe ISBN:


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By 1900 Freud had observed two types of mental processes. Primary processes operate earlier in life, fuel impulses, and make connections based on associations and displacement rather than on any rational grounds or logical deliberations. Secondary processes are rationally based, reason-responsive, and “seem” to predominate in conscious adult life. Freud however, recognized that the primary processes are ubiquitous, unconsciously underpinning much of human behavior, across many domains. In the 1970s, “dual-process” psychologists provided compelling empirical evidence for two such systems of mentation – System Two, like the secondary processes, rational and deliberative; and System One, like Freud’s primary processes, associative, a-rational, jumping to rapid, often superficial solutions and conclusions.

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