The descent into a ‘soft state’

Authored by: Anthony P. Maingot

Handbook of Caribbean Economies

Print publication date:  November  2020
Online publication date:  November  2020

Print ISBN: 9780367210489
eBook ISBN: 9780429265105
Adobe ISBN:


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This chapter traces the development of the Venezuelan political culture of caudillismo and the tendency towards perpetuation in office (continuismo). With the virtual collapse of the economy under Nicolas Maduro, maintaining the loyal of the military has meant making use of every source of funding, legal and illegal. Any return to pluralist democratic politics will have to deal with a military and paramilitary accustomed to illegal kickbacks.

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