Life Skills and Community-Based Instruction

Authored by: David W. Test , Sharon Richter , Allison R. Walker

Handbook of Adolescent Transition Education for Youth with Disabilities

Print publication date:  December  2011
Online publication date:  March  2012

Print ISBN: 9780415872782
eBook ISBN: 9780203837320
Adobe ISBN: 9781136869761


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While early transition education movements (1960–1980) focused on cooperative work study programs and career education (Halpern, 1992), and Will’s (1984) “bridges model” of transition had employment as the primary outcome of the secondary transition process, Halpern’s (1985) transition model maintained the employment focus while expanding the model to include a broader focus called “community adjustment.” According to Halpern (1985), community adjustment rested on three pillars called residential environment, employment, and social and interpersonal networks. Since then, the field of secondary transition has continued to recognize that there is more to life than just work.

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