State development of incapacitating chemical agent weapons

Implications including potential terrorist misuse

Authored by: Michael Crowley , Malcolm Dando

Routledge Handbook of Law and Terrorism

Print publication date:  July  2015
Online publication date:  July  2015

Print ISBN: 9780415870375
eBook ISBN: 9780203795835
Adobe ISBN: 9781134455096


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In his classic book on the Utility of Force: The Art of War in the ModernWorld, 2 General Rupert Smith warned of the dangers of treating the wars of this century as if they were the same as the force-on-force wars between industrial states that characterised the last century. Amongst the characteristics of modern wars that he identified was that: ‘We fight amongst the people, a fact amplified literally and figuratively by the central role of the media: we fight in every living room in the world as well as on the streets… of a conflict zone.’ 3 As the events in the Middle East and Ukraine during 2014 demonstrate so clearly, the wars of this century are unlikely to be resolved by military force alone. Indeed the development, deployment, and use of military force can be counter-productive to the political objectives of the parties involved in such conflicts and potentially contravene international law.

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