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Knowledge and learning in new venture internationalization research

Authored by: Harry J. Sapienza , Dirk De Clercq , Liman Zhao

The Routledge Companion to International Entrepreneurship

Print publication date:  December  2014
Online publication date:  December  2014

Print ISBN: 9780415829199
eBook ISBN: 9780203517161
Adobe ISBN: 9781134096398


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Internationalization has been viewed as an important strategy for the sustainable growth of new and young ventures. 1 Indeed, international entrepreneurship emanated out of the dual issues of whether early internationalization is feasible and, if it is feasible, whether it is advisable. Theories prior to the mid-1990s offered only a limited ability to explain why and how such ventures successfully operate across national borders from their inception (McDougall et al., 1994; Oviatt and McDougall, 1994). Oviatt and McDougall (1994) revolutionized thinking about the initiation of the internationalization process by challenging the widely accepted stage-based perspective that conceived of the internationalization process as commencing later in development and proceeding incrementally (Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Eriksson et al., 1997). McDougall and colleagues coined the term “international new ventures” to recognize the phenomenon of firms rapidly internationalizing early in their life cycle (McDougall and Oviatt, 2000; McDougall et al., 1994; Oviatt and McDougall, 1994). They observed that many ventures spread internationally early and dramatically, and often successfully (McDougall and Oviatt, 1996).

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