International entrepreneurship

A review and future directions

Authored by: Rialp Alex , Josep Rialp , Gary A. Knight

The Routledge Companion to International Entrepreneurship

Print publication date:  December  2014
Online publication date:  December  2014

Print ISBN: 9780415829199
eBook ISBN: 9780203517161
Adobe ISBN: 9781134096398


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Business internationalization, generally understood as the process of increasing involvement in international operations across borders (Welch and Loustarinen, 1988) and of adapting firms’ operations to such international environments (Calof and Beamish, 1995) has become a core part of the strategy-driven process of many contemporary firms (Welch and Welch, 1996). Accordingly, the internationalization of the firm has received much academic interest in the last four decades (Rialp and Rialp, 2001; Werner, 2002). For a long time, a large portion of scientific research on internationalization had focused on empirically testing the behavioral-based sequential or gradualist approach earlier postulated by the Internationalization Process Model or Uppsala-Model (Cavusgil, 1980; Johanson and Vahlne, 1977, 1990). This model views firm internationalization as a lengthy process that develops in stages, assuming that market knowledge is acquired primarily through experience from current business activities in increasingly psychologically distant target foreign markets. This gradualist approach, however, has been criticized and lately revisited (Andersen, 1993; Johanson and Vahlne, 2006, 2009) due largely to the emergence of early internationalization perspectives (Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servais, 1997; Oviatt and McDougall, 1997).

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