Adaptive co-management

A new frontier for nature-based tourism

Authored by: Ryan Plummer , Samantha Stone-Jovicich , Erin Bohensky

The Routledge Handbook of Tourism and the Environment

Print publication date:  July  2012
Online publication date:  August  2012

Print ISBN: 9780415582070
eBook ISBN: 9780203121108
Adobe ISBN: 9781136325564


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A re-orientation is under way in how environmental challenges should be approached and understood. Prompting this shift is the proliferation of environmental challenges, severity of ecosystem changes and widespread realisation of the limitations associated with conventional command and control approaches. Although these past approaches were relatively successful at addressing definable or point sources of issues such as pollution, there are increasing concerns about compliance and enforcement, growing conflicts pertaining to regulatory policies, and ineffectiveness in addressing ‘wicked’ problems characterised by complexity and uncertainty (Holling and Meffe 1996; Kettl 2002).

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