Rift Valley Fever Virus

Authored by: William C. Wilson , Natasha N. Gaudreault , Mohammad M. Hossain

Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens

Print publication date:  August  2016
Online publication date:  May  2016

Print ISBN: 9781498700368
eBook ISBN: 9781498700375
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b19719-ch62

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Abstract

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus (or arbovirus) that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in the loss of human and animal life [1], with significant economic impact [2]. The disease in livestock is primarily associated with sheep, goats, and cattle, leading to abortions and hemorrhagic disease. Camel deaths were also reported in the 2010 RVF outbreak in Mauritania, which has raised concerns about the effects of the virus on these important domestic animals [3]. Severe disease outbreaks that involve human cases and mortality can be predicted by high rainfall and other measurable environmental conditions that contribute to the increased mosquito populations [4]. Similarly, prevalence of the disease in domestic and wild animals is associated with ideal environmental conditions [5]. Climate change and human activities (trade, irrigation, etc.) have increased concerns of arboviral disease outbreaks and movement of arboviruses into new ecosystems [6]. The potential of RVFV 1 day being introduced into new ecosystems such as Europe [7] or North America [8] has emphasized the need for the development and application of highly specific and sensitive diagnostic assays.

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