Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus

Authored by: Devendra T. Mourya , Pragya D. Yadav

Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens

Print publication date:  August  2016
Online publication date:  May  2016

Print ISBN: 9781498700368
eBook ISBN: 9781498700375
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b19719-ch61

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Abstract

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) constitute one of the largest groups of vertebrate viruses of which a majority have the potential to cause devastating epidemics of public health importance. The last few decades witnessed a spurt in the number and frequency of arboviral epidemics impeding socioeconomic development of many tropical countries, majority with a weaker health system. During these outbreaks, death rates were exceptionally high, and the survivors were left in a state of debilitating chronic arthralgia or with neurological complications for the rest of their lives. Introduction of the West Nile virus to the United States in 1999; explosive outbreaks of the Chikungunya virus in Indian Ocean islands, India, and Southeast Asian countries; outbreaks of the tick-borne encephalitis virus in Scandinavian countries; and geographic expansion of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Europe, Africa, and Asia, including India, are some of the major arboviral outbreaks that caused high mortality and morbidity in recent years. Dengue, caused by four different serotypes of dengue virus, continued to be a major global threat with approximately 390 million cases and one million deaths annually. Global warming in association with rapid increase in population, urbanization, and advancements made in human transport and the changing agricultural practices are thought to be the major reasons for the spurt in arboviral outbreaks/epidemics. The changing environmental conditions favored the growth of vector populations, which showed a rapid increase in recent years thereby enhancing the transmission of arboviral infections. Recent decades have shown heavy migration of people across the nations and continents in search of opportunities either exposing themselves or exposing the naïve population to infections with an exotic agent. Despite considerable national and international efforts, arboviral infections continued to be a major public health issue, mainly due to the nonavailability of prophylactics and therapeutics.

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