Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses 1 and 2

Authored by: Benjamin W. Newcomer

Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens

Print publication date:  August  2016
Online publication date:  May  2016

Print ISBN: 9781498700368
eBook ISBN: 9781498700375
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b19719-ch25

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Abstract

First described as "an apparently new transmissible disease of cattle" in 1946 [1], bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has become one of the most widespread viral pathogens of cattle. Since 2007, bovine viral diarrhea has been listed by the International Office of Epizootics as a reportable disease of cattle. Despite its moniker, the effects of BVDV infection are manifested not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also in the respiratory, reproductive, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, integumentary, or central nervous systems [2] of cattle, as well as several domestic and feral mammalian species of the order Artiodactyla [3]. The virus is responsible for a wide variety of clinical syndromes, but infection may also be subclinical or asymptomatic, emphasizing the need for accurate and efficient diagnostic tests. This is especially true in the case of persistent infection, where animals may appear phenotypically normal but consistently shed high amounts of live virus, playing a significant role in the epidemiology of the virus. The clinical and economic importance of BVDV as a livestock pathogen demands fast and accurate diagnostic tests at both the herd and individual animal levels.

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