Authored by: Dongyou Liu

Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens

Print publication date:  August  2016
Online publication date:  May  2016

Print ISBN: 9781498700368
eBook ISBN: 9781498700375
Adobe ISBN:


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Betanodavirus is the etiological agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), also known as vacuolating encephalopa-thy and retinopathy (VER) or encephalomyelitis, which is a devastating viral disease affecting marine and freshwater fish species worldwide. First observed in 1986 on an aqua-culture farm of Japanese parrotfish (Calotomus japonicus) in Nagasaki, Japan, VNN was linked to loss of balance, necrosis in the brain and retina, and death of fish fry (of 6-25 mm length) during the summer (June-July) [1]. Almost simultaneously, VNN was discovered in Australia, Norway, and France, involving barramundi (Asian sea bass, Lates calca-rifer), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara), striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) [2-5], and other cultured warm-water and cold-water marine fish species (n = 30) throughout the world [1]. Given its capacity to induce high mortality (80%-100%) in juvenile fish, VNN exerts huge economic and ecological burdens on aquaculture industry and wild marine species [6]. In this chapter, we focus on beta-nodavirus in relation to its taxonomy, morphology, genome structure, epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control, together with stepwise molecular protocols for its identification and diagnosis.

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