Ecological Modeling: General Issues

Authored by: Jon C. Wakefield , Theresa R. Smith

Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology

Print publication date:  April  2016
Online publication date:  April  2016

Print ISBN: 9781482253016
eBook ISBN: 9781482253023
Adobe ISBN:


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Ecological studies are based on grouped data, with the groups in a spatial context corresponding to geographical areas. In addition to epidemiology and public health [1], ecological studies have a long history in many disciplines, including political science [2], geography [3], and sociology [4]. Due to aggregation, ecological studies are susceptible to unique challenges, in particular the potential for ecological bias, which is the difference between estimated associations based on ecological- and individual-level data.

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