X-Ray, MRI, and Ultrasound Agents

Basic Principles

Authored by: Michael F. Tweedle , Krishan Kumar , Michael V. Knopp

Handbook of Small Animal Imaging

Print publication date:  April  2016
Online publication date:  February  2016

Print ISBN: 9781466555686
eBook ISBN: 9781466555693
Adobe ISBN:


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This chapter describes the basic chemistry and biology of the contrast agents (CAs) used as imaging pharmaceuticals in the X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound (US) imaging modalities. As other chapters deal with the instrumentation used to create images, we will move directly to the pharmaceuticals themselves. Sections are divided by modality and include brief sections before and after “Basic Principles” to describe, respectively, the history and future directions. The primary emphasis will be the required and desired chemical and biological characteristics of the CA molecules as exemplified by the approved human variants. We include references throughout, but will not repeat the excellent published, often exhaustive, reviews of technical literature, preferring rather to teach the principles and cite one or more references for further details and nuances. Controversial issues are few, but, when encountered, we will label opinions clearly.

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