Authored by: Becky P.Y. Loo , Tessa Kate Anderson

Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

Print publication date:  September  2015
Online publication date:  December  2015

Print ISBN: 9781439874127
eBook ISBN: 9781439874134
Adobe ISBN:


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Enforcement is part of the three E’s that are commonly known as enforcement, education, and engineering. Each has its own unique and intertwined role to play in reducing and preventing road collisions. Often the lines become blurred between the three as they intertwined with each other. First, it is important to make the distinction between automated and manual enforcement. While this chapter deals with both types of enforcement, it is important to differentiate between the two. Automated enforcement uses technology to reduce the need for human intervention in the enforcement process. In many instances, the use of automated enforcement technologies does not completely eliminate human intervention, as the equipment must be set up and monitored during its operation by qualified persons to meet legal or operational requirements. However, there are a number of key characteristics of automated enforcement that distinguish it from manual enforcement. These include the ability to detect a large number of offences per hour of operation, delayed notification of the offence or issuance of infringement notice to the offender, and a lack of human interaction with the driver at the time the offence is committed. Examples of automated enforcement include fixed position and mobile speed cameras. In contrast, manual enforcement, as the name suggests, requires human intervention throughout the enforcement process. In general, manual enforcement will involve the operator identifying that an offence has occurred, intercepting the offender, and immediately issuing the penalty notice where the offence attracts one (Leggett 1997).

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