Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

Authored by: Laura D. Kramer , Norma P. Tavakoli

Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins

Print publication date:  April  2014
Online publication date:  April  2014

Print ISBN: 9781466553965
eBook ISBN: 9781466553989
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b16752-8

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Abstract

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne virus that is amplified in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and avian hosts. It produces severe fatal encephalitis in horses and humans and neurologic symptoms in certain other mammals, such as deer, swine, cervids, and camelids, all of which experience high mortality following infection. EEEV is considered the most virulent of the encephalitic alphaviruses for horses and humans with a case fatality of 90%–95% in equines [1,2] and 30%–70% in humans, with children and the elderly experiencing the highest mortality [3,4]. Neurologic sequelae are commonly experienced by survivors. The ecologic and evolutionary factors that cause an enzootic EEEV cycle to become an epizootic are unknown and are critical for predictive modeling and public health control. The virus presents an important public health problem and has the potential for use as a biological weapon.

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