Peronosclerospora philippinensis and Related Species

Authored by: László Kredics , László Galgóczy , Csaba Vágvölgyi

Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins

Print publication date:  April  2014
Online publication date:  April  2014

Print ISBN: 9781466553965
eBook ISBN: 9781466553989
Adobe ISBN:


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Maize is among the most important crops of the world. As exotic downy mildew species are capable of causing severe losses to maize production, they represent significant biosecurity threats. To date, eight downy mildew species have been reported to be pathogenic on maize, three of which have been reported in the United States: Peronosclerospora sorghi (downy mildew of sorghum and maize), Sclerophthora macrospora (crazy top), and Sclerophthora graminicola (green ear downy mildew). 1 Peronosclerospora philippinensis (W. Weston), C. G. Shaw 1978, is an oomycetous fungus that causes the Philippine downy mildew (PDM) disease of maize. Although PDM has not been reported in the United States and the western hemisphere, this disease is known to cause significant crop losses in Asia and the Philippines. On farms across the Philippines, the annual yield losses due to PDM on maize have been 40%–60%, but in the case of sweet corn, losses of 100% have also been reported. 13 The national yield loss in the 1974–1975 crop year was estimated to be about 8%, which was corresponding to US $23 million. 2 The disease is generally less severe in India, but losses up to 60% have been reported. 4,5 Data available on yield losses in the case of P. philippinensis infection of sugarcane are limited; however, losses of 35% of the harvested and extracted sugar have been noted. 2 The most severe disease occurs in tropical climates and in areas where the annual amount of rainfall is between 154 and 307 mm. 2

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