Swine Vesicular Disease Virus

Authored by: Cristina Cano-Gómez , Paloma Fernández-Pacheco , Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero

Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins

Print publication date:  April  2014
Online publication date:  April  2014

Print ISBN: 9781466553965
eBook ISBN: 9781466553989
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b16752-69

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Abstract

Overview: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is an Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae that infects pigs. In these hosts, it causes an infectious, contagious disease, called swine vesicular disease (SVD), characterized by the appearance of vesicles on the coronary bands of feet, heels, skin, snout, tongue, lips, and teats, along with fever. These symptoms are indistinguishable from those caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV), and hence its importance for animal health authorities. SVDV is closely related to coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5), 1 a human virus, from which it is thought to derive by adaptation to pigs, possibly through changes in receptor usage. 2 Although originally considered as zoonotic, 3 public health risk is negligible as the infection of humans hasn’t been reported recently and the late isolates of the virus have lost the ability to infect human cells 2 therefore decreasing its original zoonotic potential. Thus far, the disease, which was first described in Italy in 1966 4 has only been reported in farmed pig populations in Europe and far-East Asia. In Europe, since 1994 and after a period of relatively high activity and broader geographic distribution, the disease was effectively cleared from most countries, except from Italy, where, despite the application of intense eradication programs, SVD has been persistently reported causing occasional foci, and for this reason intense surveillance and eradication plans are in place. 5 The disease is also likely to be present in far-East Asia. The last reported case from this region occurred in Taiwan in 2000.

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