Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

Authored by: M. Hutber , E. Pilipcinec , J. Bires

Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins

Print publication date:  April  2014
Online publication date:  April  2014

Print ISBN: 9781466553965
eBook ISBN: 9781466553989
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b16752-63

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Abstract

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by a single-stranded RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family, is the most economically significant disease for animal farming. While adult animals infected with FMD usually recover from the disease and mortality rates remain low, morbidity within a susceptible population is invariably high and farm production losses can become significant. There is little economic benefit in maintaining national herds that become nonproductive, although the level at which production is considered economically useful or viable varies for any given geographical region. Regions that export animal products have historically included developed countries which remain free of FMD, and the international bans that are imposed upon any countries which lose their disease-free status can significantly affect trade. Consequently, disease-free regions usually become proactive in controlling FMD epidemics through a variety of control measures: these include vaccination, the culling of infected herds and flocks, and various biosecurity measures.

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