Rift Valley Fever Virus

Authored by: Marc Grandadam

Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins

Print publication date:  April  2014
Online publication date:  April  2014

Print ISBN: 9781466553965
eBook ISBN: 9781466553989
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b16752-20

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Abstract

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is an arthropod-transmitted virus that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants and humans. Among arthropod-borne viruses, RVFV is probably one of those infecting the wider spectrum of vertebrates through the most diversified range of vectors. RVFV primarily infects ruminants in either wildlife or livestock in eastern and subSaharan Africa. Since its discovery in 1931, the virus continuously spread in Africa, but a profound epidemiological switch occurred in 2000 when the virus spread out of the African continent to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian Ocean islands. Outbreaks are in most cases explosive especially in domestic ruminants, provoking high abortion and mortality rates. Humans are also susceptible to RVFV infection, which may lead to severe hemorrhagic forms.

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