Menangle Virus

Authored by: Timothy R. Bowden

Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins

Print publication date:  April  2014
Online publication date:  April  2014

Print ISBN: 9781466553965
eBook ISBN: 9781466553989
Adobe ISBN:


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Menangle virus, a recent addition to the family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Paramyxovirinae, was isolated in 1997 from stillborn piglets at a large commercial piggery in New South Wales, Australia, during the investigation of an outbreak of severe reproductive disease, which persisted from April to September of that year. 1 The index piggery, which housed 2,600 sows in four separate breeding units, was located approximately 60 km southwest of Sydney on a property that was adjacent to the Nepean River. 2,3 The disease was characterized by a reduction in both the farrowing rate and the number of live piglet births per litter, occasional abortions, and an increase in the proportion of mummified and stillborn piglets, some of which had deformities. 1,2,4 Although Menangle virus was only ever isolated from affected stillborn piglets, subsequent seroepidemiological investigations resulted in the implementation of a successful eradication program, 3 the identification of a likely natural host (fruit bats, also known as flying foxes, in the genus Pteropus), 1 and the unexpected realization that the virus had infected two piggery workers, causing severe influenza-like illness and a rash. 5

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