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Authored by: Quattrocchi F.L.S. Umberto

CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants

Print publication date:  May  2012
Online publication date:  April  2016

Print ISBN: 9781420080445
eBook ISBN: 9781482250640
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b16504-4

 

Abstract

See Genera Plantarum 128. 1789, Cose Botaniche 1, 7, pl. 1. 1832.

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Caccinia Savi Boraginaceae

See Genera Plantarum 128. 1789, Cose Botaniche 1, 7, pl. 1. 1832.

Caccinia crassifolia Kuntze (Caccinia glauca Savi; Caccinia macranthera var. glauca (Savi) Govaerts)

India.

See Cose Bot. 1. t. 1. f. 1–6. 1832, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada x. (1887) 212. 1887 and World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1): 9. 1999

(Used in Unani. Leaves diuretic, demulcent, antiinflammatory, for asthma, cough.)

in India: gaozabaan

Cadaba Forssk. Capparaceae (Capparidaceae)

The Arabic common plant name kadhab, for Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk., collected in Yemen, Al Luhayyah [“Lohaja frequens”], Jan. 1763; see P. Forsskål, Flora aegyptiaco-arabica. 67–68. Copenhagen 1775, Genera Plantarum 242–243. 1789. Different Cadaba species were reported to contain alkaloids and sesquiterpene lactones; some Cadaba species were reported as toxic plants.

Cadaba aphylla (Thunb.) Wild (Cadaba juncea Harv.; Cadaba juncea Szyszył; Cadaba juncea (Sparrm.) Harv. ex Hook. f., nom. illegit.; Cadaba juncea Harv. ex Hook. f., nom. illegit.; Cleome aphylla Thunb.; Cleome juncea Sparrm.)

Namibia. Shrub, evergreen and leafless, spiky stems, tangled, dense, twigs spinescent, deep red to yellow glandular flowers, warty sticky fruits, small black seeds covered with a sticky bright orange pulp, only younger branches browsed by game and livestock, frost and drought resistant

See Gen. S. Afr. Pl. ed. 2, 13. 1868 and Flora Zambesiaca: Mozambique, Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Bechuanaland Protectorate. Volume 1, part 1 / edited by A.W. Exell and Hiram Wild, on behalf of the editorial board. London, 1960

(Toxic to sheep. Roots potentially poisonous, roots strongly purgative, an overdose might be toxic. Moist powdered plant applied as a poultice to draw boils and abscesses.)

in English: black storm, desert broom, leafless wormbush

in South Africa: bloustam, bobbejaanarm, swartstorm

Cadaba farinosa Forssk. (Cadaba dubia DC.; Cadaba mombassana Gilg & Gilg-Ben.; Streblocarpus fenzlii Parl.; Stroemia farinosa (Forssk.) Vahl)

East and West Africa, Yemen. Slender shrub, weak, tangled, spreading, many-branched from the base, densely twigged, arching branches, yellow-green flowers, cylindrical pods, black seeds surrounded by orange aril, leaves and young twigs edible, pounded leaves cooked in couscous, bark eaten with cereals, edible fruit, plant browsed by all stock

Se Flora aegyptiaco-arabica. 68. 1775, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 1: 19. 1790 and Journal of Ethnopharmacology 35: 25–63. 1991, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105: 387–399. 2006

(Leaves analgesic, antiviral, antirheumatic, antiphlogistic, antiscorbutic, tonic, stimulant, astringent, antihelmintic, purgative, antidote against food poisoning, emmenagogue; leaves decoction for gonorrhea; ground leaf powder for ulcers and skin complaints. Roots infusion used for protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Plant ash rubbed for body pains. Magic, ritual, charm, superstition, good luck, marriage. Veterinary medicine, roots and leaves used to treat anthrax in cattle.)

in Arabic: asal, el bejad, korraeb, saerah, toraeb

in India: viluti

in Benin: kobokayé

in East Africa: kibalazi-mwitu, mvunja-vumo, ol-amalogi

in Guinea: berekunan, kesebere tamba niogu, quinquemini

in Kenya: arerenion, eren, ereng, kalkacha hare, larasoro, luharamira, mchachale, orosoro

in Mali: abago, azrom, balamji, hassu ueil, kwemkwemini, minzin, to-magny, uggar

in Mauritania: azrom, szrom, zerom, zrum

in Niger: abago, abogu, bagahy, bagaie, bagayi, bagey, balamji, gursimé, harikanelifi, harkanelifi, hassu ueil, marga, tchuma, ugar, uggar

in Nigeria: anza, bagaji, bagayi, balamji, baldamhi, beelidamhi, beldamhi, bultù, dangarafa, guno, hadza, handja, hanza, surreih

in Senegal: azrom, balamji, bere kuna, demadugu, gavargi, kesebere tamba, n-debarka, ndebaré, ndebarga, ndebargé, ndegareg, ndegarek, nogu, sinsin, sinsini, szrom, tensen, tomani, tsinsini, zerom, zrum

in Somalia: geed-maaluugeed

in Tanzania: endamologi, eren, ereng, kaningwa, larasoro, luharamira, mchachale, mpambue, ol ameloki, ol jani el sirgon, sangwa sangwa

Cadaba farinosa Forssk. subsp. adenotricha (Gilg & GilgBen.) R.A. Graham

Tanzania. Shrub, herb, succulent, stem cream, densecrowned, leaves glaucous, flower pale green yellowish, exocarp pale green, endocarp orange

See Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 68. 1775 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 53: 227. 1915, Kew Bulletin 17: 161. 1963

(Roots poisonous.)

Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce (Cadaba fruticosa Druce; Cleome fruticosa L.)

India. Shrub, flowers dirty white

See Species Plantarum 2: 671. 1753 and Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Soc. Brit. Isles 3: 415. 1914, Pharmacologyonline 3: 136–142. 2008

(Used in Sidha. Leaves and roots antiphlogistic, purgative, anthelmintic, antipyretic, emmenagogue, analgesic, deobstruent, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, used to treat ulcer, syphilis, sores, vitiligo, worm infection; leaf juice to reduce swelling, in rheumatism; leaf juice boiled in castor oil applied for fracture and snakebite. Roots decoction in uterine obstructions. Veterinary medicine, leaves decoction given orally to cure tympany; leaf extract applied in boils, blisters, ulcers and wounds.)

in English: Indian cadaba

in India: aadamorinika, adamorinika, ayamiyamakki, ayattaiiyamakki, carapattiram, chaayagavache, chavukkuttiyanku, cheganike, chegaviche, chekonadi, chemudu, chikonadi, chikondi, chimurudu poola, ciramota, ciramotakacceti, ciramotakam, ciramotan, cirmotan, ciruviluticceti, cumirutam, curapicitti, dabi, habal, itankali, itankalimaram, kacitti, kadhab, kainaci, karppakalakkiruti, katagatti, kattakatti, keganike, kegnike, kodab, kodhab, konda mirapa, kunkilatikacceti, kunkilatikam, kutippanikam, mangare, maragacha, maragache, maragada, maragade, maragadegida, maravili, maravilicceti, margade, mattametikam, mattametikamaram, mirchikand, mota, motti, nacukatitam, narcitti, narivili, narivili, narivilicceti, palavili, palavilicceti, pattirakam, piluka, pittavaram, polumorinika, puttiracutanam, tarunikam, tarunikamaram, tatakam, tirucupattiram, uruvaracam, uruvaracamaram, uruvaraccammatti, uttarakarikai, vaelivee, vanamulam, veludhu, vilimmi, viliti, viluti, visanacini, vittuki, vittukicceti, vizhivi, vizhuthi, vizuthi, vutarasi chettu, vutharasi chettu, vutharasichettu

Cadaba glandulosa Forssk.

East and West Africa, Mali, Niger. Low shrub, erect, woody, leafy, viscid, many-branched, closely packed glandular-hispid round leaves, small inconspicuous yellow ligulate flowers, eaten by goats, sheep, camels, cattle and donkeys

See Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 68. 1775 and Journal of Ethnopharmacology 35: 25–63. 1991

(Flavonol glycosides. Drink roots infusion for stomachache; stems and roots antiinflammatory; pounded leaves on wounds. Magic.)

in Arabic: taennaim

in Kenya: emakak

in Mali: hassu, tabeibaret, tahalist, tarbéret, téhanizt, teheist, teis, todi farssa, uadagoré

in Niger: doburu, taïs, teera

in Somalia: qalanqal

in Sudan: kurmut, sogheir

Cadaba indica Lam.

India.

See Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 67(5): 637– 638. 2005, Pharmacologyonline 3: 136–142. 2008

(Used in Sidha. Leaves antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal.)

in India: adamorinika, cavukuttiyanku, cegavice, cekodi, cekodisakada, chekodi, chekonisi, chemoorda, chikonadi, chimurudu, cimurudu, kattakatti, manatukkurntu, maragace, maragade, margadde, polumorinika, sagedapu, vilathi, vili, viluti, vishuthi, vizhudi

Cadaba natalensis Sond.

South Africa. Woody shrub, small scrambling tree, sepals mauve or purplish, pink nectary guide not clasping the androgynophore, long narrow cylindrical worm-like fruit, seeds embedded in a powdery reddish pulp

See Linnaea 23: 8. 1850

(Roots to induce vomiting, to treat chest pain. Magic, ritual.)

in English: green-leaved wormbush, Natal worm-bush

in South Africa: amaNgwe emnyama, amaNgwe-ezidlayo, groenblaarwurmbos, Natalwurmbos, umAnzimane, uNoqungwa, uPhaphane

Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk.

Arabia, Abyssinia.

See Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 68. 1775 and Veterinary and Human Toxicology 29(2): 133–137. 1987

(For bronchitis, inhalation from leaves, also juice from crushed leaves; chewed leaves on wounds. Plant poisoning, the clinical signs in goats fed with the plant were pronounced depression, diarrhea, frothing at the mouth, dyspnea, ataxia, loss of condition and recumbency. The lesions consisted of diffuse hemorrhage in the abomasum, heart and lungs, catarrhal enteritis, erosions on the intestinal mucous membrane, degeneration and/or necrosis of the cells of the renal tubules, and fatty change and necrosis in the liver. Veterinary medicine, leaves for diarrhea, dysentery.)

in Arabic: kadhab

in Ethiopia: adangali

in Kenya: epuu

Cadaba termitaria N.E. Br. (Cadaba macropoda Gilg)

Tropical Africa. Many-branched shrub, slender, straggling, scandent, flowers solitary or clustered, green sepals, red nectary guide clasping the androgynophore, long narrow cylindrical worm-like fruit, seeds embedded in a powdery reddish pulp

See Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 26: t. 2527. 1897 and Z. Naturforsch. 57c, 216–220. 2002

(Caused death in murder trials.)

in English: grey-leaved wormbush, pink cadaba

in South Africa: vaalblaarwurmbos

Cadaba trifoliata Wight & Arn.

India.

See Cat. Ind. Pl. 7. 1833, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 24. 1834

(Used in Ayurveda. Boiled leaves vapors inhaled to relieve cough and cold.)

in India: balaya, chekonadi, chikondi, kodikaalu, kodikallu, kodikalu, mallaguru, manudukkurundu, nallagaara, nallagara, peddachikonadi, peddacikonadi, peddasivakonita, purana, purna, viluti

Caesalpinia L. Fabaceae (Caesalpiniaceae, Caesalpinieae, Leguminosae)

Named for the Italian botanist Andrea Cesalpino (Andreas Caesalpinus), 1519–1603, naturalist, botanical collector, philosopher and physician, systematist, physician to Pope Clement VIII, professor of medicine and botany at Pisa and at Sapienza in Rome. See Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 1: 380–381. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 178. 1754, A Voyage to Terra Australis 2: 551. 1814, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 481–483. 1825, Linnaea 5: 192. 1830, Linnaea 11(3): 406. 1837, Journal of Botany, being a second series of the Botanical Miscellany 2(10): 75. 1840, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 164. 1891 and U. Viviani, Vita e opere di Andrea Cesalpino. Arezzo 1922, North American Flora 23(5): 319, 327. 1930, A. Castiglioni, “Cesalpino Andrea.” Enciclopedia Italiana. 9: 866. Roma 1931, Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 13(4): 349. 1948, Garrison and Morton, Medical Bibliography. 755–756. 1961, J.H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 1: 327. 1965, T.W. Bossert, Biographical Dictionary of Botanists Represented in the Hunt Institute Portrait Collection. 69. 1972, Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 55(3): 426. 1974, G. Moggi, “Andrea Cesalpino botanico.” Atti Mem. Accad. Petrarca Lett. Arti Scienze. 42: 236–249. Arezzo 1976–1978, Kew Bulletin Addn. Ser. 7: 97–119. 1980, Karl Mägdefrau, in D.S.B. 15: 80–81. 1981, Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands (Dicotyledoneae—Part 1) 4: 334–538. 1988, Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta 2: 1–481. 1988, Mariella Azzarello Di Misa, a cura di, Il Fondo Antico della Biblioteca dell’Orto Botanico di Palermo. 68. 1988, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 77(4): 854. 1990, Flora Malesiana I, 12, 2: 409–784. 1996, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 57(7): 247–355. 2006.

Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baill.) Herend. & Zarucchi (Mezoneuron benthamianum Baill.; Mezonevron benthamianum Baill.)

West and Central Africa, Benin, Ghana. Perennial climbing shrub, straggling, armed with recurved spines, inflorescence a branched or unbranched terminal raceme, fruit a flattened indehiscent winged pod

See Adansonia 6: 196. 1866 and Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 77(4): 854–855. 1990

(A decoction of roots, bark and leaves to cure urethral discharge; root decoction for dysentery and diarrhea; stems and roots aphrodisiac. Leaves antibacterial, mildly laxative, applied as a paste to treat snakebites, wounds, skin infections, piles and ulcers; young leaves eaten for hookworm or Guinea worm. Stem liquid dropped in the eye to cure inflammation and cataract.)

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Bonduc minus Medik.; Caesalpinia bonduc Wight & Arn.; Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb.; Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb.; Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Fleming; Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming; Caesalpinia crista L.; Caesalpinia crista Thunb.; Caesalpinia crista sensu auct.; Caesalpinia cristata Prowazek; Caesalpinia grisebachiana Kuntze; Caesalpinia nuga (L.) W.T. Aiton; Caesalpinia sepiaria sensu auct.; Caesalpinia sogerensis Baker f.; Guilandina bonduc L.; Guilandina bonduc Aiton; Guilandina bonduc Griseb., nom. illeg., non Guilandina bonduc L.; Guilandina bonduc var. minus DC.; Guilandina bonducella L.; Guilandina crista (L.) Small; Guilandina gemina Lour.; Guilandina grisebachiana (Kuntze) Krug & Urban ex Duss; Guillandina bonduc L.; Guillandina bonducella (L.) Fleming; Ticanto nuga (L.) Medik.; Ticanto nuga Medik.)

Tropics. Perennial non-climbing tree, scandent shrub, liana, usually armed with robust prickles, racemes or panicles, yellow petals, oblong dehiscent inflated hairy prickly pod, very hard and stony seeds largely sea-dispersed

See Species Plantarum 1: 380–381. 1753, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 1: 545. 1762, Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 319. 1763, Flora Japonica, ... 179. 1784, Theodora Speciosa 52. 1786, Asiatic Researches 11: 159–160. 1810, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... The second edition 3: 32. 1811, Hort. Bengal. 32. 1814, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 480. 1825, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 2: 362. 1832, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 280. 1834, Flora of the British West Indian Islands 204. 1860, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 166. 1891, Flore phanérogamique des Antilles françaises ... 229. 1897 and Flora of the Southeastern United States 591, 1331. 1903, Bor, Norman Loftus (1893–1972), Some beautiful Indian climbers and shrubs Bombay, 1954, J. Arnold Arbor. 55 (3): 425–430. 1974

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Seeds and leaves used to relieve colic, indigestion, fever, hydrocele, liver trouble, diarrhea and rheumatism; seed and decoctions of the leaves and roots taken to treat asthma, to avoid miscarriage; leaves, bark and roots anthelminthic, antiviral, febrifuge, rubefacient, to cure fever, jaundice, diarrhea, skin diseases, headache, chest pain. Leaves astringent, febrifuge, anthelmintic, emmenagogue; to cure bodyache in fever, pounded leaves mixed with coconut oil and rubbed on the body; leaf paste in coconut oil used for skin infection. Seeds antifungal, antibacterial, hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic, used in asthma, whooping cough, diabetes, chronic fever, malaria, swelling; oil from the seeds to treat rheumatism; kernels pounded, mixed with oil and applied to relieve bodyache; seed paste applied on boils; powdered seeds for healing wounds, tied on swollen testicles. Root anthelmintic, febrifuge and astringent, for venereal diseases; root decoction with honey used for fever. Veterinary medicine, seed paste applied locally for rheumatism; powdered seeds given for worms and fever. For snakebite, seed pulverized mixed in hot water and drunk. Fruit pulp a fish poison. Caution, taken in large doses it is believed to be poisonous.)

in English: ash-coloured nicker, bonduc, bonduc nut, Brazilian redwood, cockspur, fever nut, gray nickarnut, gray nickel, gray nicker, gray nickerbean, grey nicker, guilandina seed, Indian nut, Mysore thorn, nickar bean, nicker bean, nicker nut, nickernut, nikkar nut, Pernambuco redwood, physic nut, poor man’s quinine, sappan liane, sea pearl, sea pod, yellow nicker

in Hawaii: hihikolo, kakalaioa

in Madagascar: vatolalaka

in Rodrigues Isl.: cadoque

in Southern Africa: knikkertjie, msoro

in Tanzania: mburuga, mkomwe, mnamu

in Yoruba: ayo, sayo, senwo, seyo olopon

in Latin America: Brasil cojones de gato, garrapata de playa, guacalote, guacalote amarillo, guacalote prieto, haba de San Antonio, jabilla, ojo de venado, quasha, taray, villa de mar

in India: avil, bagni, cakarakoti, capavalam, caretti, carivacantam, cayavalam, cetitta, curiyintu, curppuka, curppukakkoti, gacca, gach-chakaya, gacha kaya, gachakayalu, gachcha, gachha, gachhaakaaya, gachika, gajaga, gajaga-kayi, gajega, gajga, gajikekayi, gajjege, gajjgada balli, gajjiga, gajjikai, gajjuga, gajkaayi, gajkai, gajuga, gataran, gatchakaaya, gatchkaya, gech-chakkay, gejjige balli, getsa kela, getsakaia, gil, gutsakai, heggajjiga, heggajjuga, heggejjuga, heggerjige, kaachaka (sagargota), kaccakkay, kaccarkoti, kaccukkay, kaccuram, kaccurankay, kaccurankoti, kachka, kalachikkaai, kalakunti, kalakunticceti, kalalmani, kalanchik-karu, kalanchikuru, kalanci, kalancikkuru, kalangu, kalankukkay, kalarci, kalarcikkay, kalarcikkoti, kalarcivittu, kalarkay, kalarkkay, kalarkodi, kalarkoti, kalavirutti, kalcuri, kalein, kaliccakkay, kaliccikkai, kalu vavuletiya, kanakam, kanappantupokkicceti, kanchaki, kanderi, kanja (sagargota), kantaki karanja, kantakikaranjah, kantikaranja, kantkarej, karanj, karanjava, karanjave, karanjin, karanjo, karanju, karanjwa, karanjwaa, karaunj, karbath, karccurankay, karcurakkoti, karcuram, kat-kalija, kat-karanj, katkaliji, katkaranch, katkaranj, katklija, katukarancam, kazhanchik-karu, kazhanji kuru, kazhanji veru, kazhar-shikkay, kazharchikkaai, kazharchikodi, kazhichi-kai, keccakkay, khar konda, kilinaval, kitta, kopakkitam, kotikaccikkoti, kotikkacci, kotikkalarci, kuberaakshi, kuberaksha, kuberakshi, kuberaksi (Kuber, God of Wealth in Hindu mythology, aksi, eyes), kulunje, kumburu wel, kumpika, kuperatcam, kuperatci, lataakaranja, latakaranjah, letaguti, mancirakam, manciram, maruti, mulal, mulalkalanku, mularci, mularcikkoti, naktamala, narumparuppu, nata, nata-karaja, natakaranj, nataphal, patalar, pentukam, punaikklaichchi, puti, putikarancam, puutikaranja, rahedo, rocanaikkottai, saagaragota, saagargota, sagar-gholah, sagargota, sagargoti, sagargotya (gotya = small stones), sagur-ghota, sanna gajjuga, sanna gejjuga, suka jambuka, sukajambuka, tampiraputpi, tapasi, tettan, tettiyan, thellagachha, tuticcam, ulankucakkay, ulankucam, utarikam, utarikkoti, vaccirapicakkay, vaccirapicam, vajjirapijam, vajrapijam, vaknuato, wael kumburu, yalakhi, yalakshi

in Indonesia: areuy mata hiyang, kate-kate, kemrunggi

in Japan: mayanupusu, shiro-tsubu

Malayan names: bondok, gorek, gorek-gorek, kelichi, kelubu, kuku tupai, renting, ulang

in Nepal: boksi kanda, boksi khanda, gainde kanda, karaunjee, karaunji

in Pakistan: katkaranj, khayah-i-iblis

in Papua New Guinea: kurere

in Philippines: kalumbibit, sabinit, singor

in Thailand: waat

in Tibetan: ka-ranydza

in Vietnam: mac meo, m[os]c m[ef]o, vu[oos]t h[uf]m

Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. (Caesalpinia coriaria Willd.; Caesalpinia thomaea Spreng.; Libidibia coriaria Schltdl.; Libidibia coriaria (Jacq.) Schltdl.; Poinciana coriaria Jacq.)

Tropical America and the West Indies. Perennial non-climbing tree, spreading, fragrant yellowish flowers, flexuous indehiscent twisted pod

See Species Plantarum 1: 380. 1753, Jacquin, Nicolaus (Nicolaas) Joseph von (1727–1817), Selectarum Stirpium Americanarum Historia ... 123–124, pl. 175, f. 36. Vindobonae, 1763, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta [Willdenow] 2(1): 532. 1799, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta [Sprengel] 2: 343. 1825, Linnaea 5: 192–193. 1830

(Used in Sidha and Unani. Leaves antifungal. Pods astringent, algicidal, molluscicidal, antiperiodic, for wounds, burns, boils, cuts, sores; pods powder astringent, antiperiodic, tonic; pods decoction for washing bleeding piles. Bark febrifuge, antiperiodic, used in chronic fevers.)

in English: American sumac, divi-divi plant

in Latin America: agallo, cascalote, dibi-dibi, divedive, dividivi, guaracabuya, guastapana, guatapan, guatapanare, libi-dibi, muata pana, nacascol, nacascolo, nacascolote, nacascolotl, nacascul, ouatta pana, xa gala

in India: alde kaayi, amrique-ka-sumaq, angrezi imli, dividivi, dividivi, dividivithumma, dividivitumma, ingimaram, inki maram, kodichittal, kodivelam, konaivel, konakkay, konalkay, konarkay, konavel, konavelan, konvel, koticcitam, koticcittal, kotivel, kotivelam, libi-libi, libidibi, mullilladavel, sumaq, sumaq-amriquab, tividivi, tivitikkay, tivitivi, vilayatialdekayi, vilayatiyaldekayi

in Indonesia: dewi

in Thailand: tanyong

Caesalpinia crista L. (Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Fleming; Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb.; Caesalpinia chinensis Roxb.; Caesalpinia kwangtungensis Merr.; Caesalpinia laevigata Perr.; Caesalpinia nuga Ait.; Caesalpinia nuga (L.) W.T. Aiton; Caesalpinia paniculata Desf.; Caesalpinia paniculata (Lam.) Roxb.; Caesalpinia scandens Roth; Caesalpinia szechuenensis Craib; Genista scandens Lour.; Guilandina bonduc var. minus DC.; Guilandina bonducella L.; Guilandina crista (L.) Small; Guilandina crista Small; Guilandina nuga L.; Guilandina paniculata Lam.; Guilandina semina Lour.; Ticanto nuga Medik.; Ticanto nuga (L.) Medik.)

China. Perennial non-climbing tree, liana, straggling, prickly, climbing shrub, scandent, branches more or less armed, yellow flowers spotted with red, panicle axillary or terminal, indehiscent stipitate oblong pods with wiry prickles

See Species Plantarum 1: 380–381. 1753, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 1: 545. 1762, Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. London (W.T. Aiton), (2nd ed.) 3: 32. 1811 and Flora of the Southeastern United States 591, 1331. 1903

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Stem juice for the treatment of eye diseases; shoots of Caesalpinia crista with seeds of Mucuna nigricans pounded and warmed and given in colds and cough. Leaves useful in hepatic troubles, malaria and leprosy; leaves powder a postpartum remedy; leaves and bark febrifuge, anthelmintic, externally in inflammation; tender leaves used in disorders of the liver; prematured leaves used in malaria and for removing intestinal worms of babies; leaves and bark emmenagogue, febrifuge, anthelmintic. Seeds used in malarial fever; seeds paste applied in hydrocele; seed oil applied on ringworms; crushed seeds decoction emetic, astringent, antidysenteric; roasted seeds powder given in stomachache; leaves and seeds antiperiodic, antipyretic, tonic, febrifuge, used in asthma and snakebite; seed oil emollient, used in ear discharges. Roots decoction diuretic, anthelmintic, tonic, useful in the treatment of leprosy, bladder and kidney stones. Fruits applied externally in the treatment of rash; young fruits decoction with seeds of Sapindus mukorossi given in tuberculosis, malaria, fevers. Veterinary medicine, anthelmintic, febrifuge.)

in English: bonduc nut, fever nut, nuga brasiletto

in China: ci huo su mu, hua nan yun shi

in India: akitmakit, akthamakhath, anataitus, ashak-e-marium, avil, ban-karetti, caretti, catalanemi, ceckhbar, chingsum-araung, gacachakaya, gacca, gaccakaya, gajaga, gajega, gajga, gajige, gajigekayi, gajikaimullu, gajjegaballi, gajji, gajjiga, gajjige, gajjigekayi, gajjuga, gajkai, gajri, gajuga, gatsakai, gattsa, gazzaga, gejige, gotchi, hajra ilaqi, hajraul-waladat, hajra-ul-masak, hajra-ul-unnisa, hajra-ul-nasara, hajra-ul-aqaab, kaccakikay, kaccakkay, kaka-moullou, kakachika, kakamullu, kalachikai, kalanci, kalarci, kalarcik-koti, kalarci ver, kalarcik koluntu, kalarcik koti, kalarcip paruppu, kalarkay, kali gathar, kalichikai, kalimarakam, kallarchikai, kamburu-rikang, kanchaki, kanderi, kanja sagargota, kanja sagargota kankach, kanta-karanja, kantakikaranja, kantakini, karanja, karanju, karanjwa, karaunj, karbath, kashachikai, kat-karanj, kath karanj, katkaranj, katklija, kazanchik-kuru, kazanchikasi, kazarci, kazhanchi, kazhanji, kazharchi kodi, kazharchikkaai, kazhchikai, kharare, khayahe-iblis, khayahe-i-iblis, kiri gejjuga, kitmakit, krakachika, kuberaksah, kuberakshi, kuberaksi, kuberaksiphalam, kuperatci, latakaranja, maghz karanjwah, mechka, mechkhar, molluteega, morata, mulluthige, mulutige, mutkonrai, nata, natakaranja, natukoranza, nemaliaduda, nentai, prakiriya, prakirnah, pulithadiki-kodi, putikah, putikaranja, putikaranjah, putikaranji, qana-e-iblees, qarma-e-abujahal, rohedo, sagaragota, sagargota, sannagajjiga, sannagejje, sapiniti, shukajambukam, sukajambuka, tapasi, tellagacca, thellagatcha, tinagachhika, tirini, vaakeri, vajjirapijam, vakeri, valli, varini, vitapakaranja

in Indonesia: kemrunggi, mata hiyang, rembete

in Japan: nanten-kazura

in Papua New Guinea: kait

in Philippines: bakaig, binit

in Thailand: sawaat, thephee, waat

in Tibet: srin sman ma ru, srin sman me rud

in Vietnam: chi[ee]ng chi[ees]ng

Caesalpinia cucullata Roxb. (Mezoneuron cucullatum (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.; Mezoneuron cucullatum var. grandis Baker; Mezoneuron cucullatum var. robustum Craib; Mezoneuron macrophyllum Miq.; Mezoneurum cucullatum (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.; Mezonevron cucullatum (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.; Mezonevron macrophyllum Benth. ex Miq.)

India. Perennial climbing tree, straggling shrub, hooked thorns, bipinnate leaves, yellow flowers, flat reddish-brown pods, reniform compressed seeds

See Hort. Bengal. 32. 1814, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants (Roxburgh) 2: 358–359. 1832, Cat. Ind. Pl. 37. 1833, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 1: 283. 1834, FBI 2: 258. 1878

(Paste of the roots of Mezoneuron cucullatum given in stomach pain and gastric disorders. Paste of the roots of Mezoneuron cucullatum with bark of Tabernaemontana divaricata applied on painful swelling of joints. Young fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus pounded with roots Mezoneuron cucullatum and given in swellings of feet, arms, legs, also to cure convulsion and cramps.)

in India: ingsu-chartel-araung, taulinchikar

Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Biancaea decapetala (Roth) O. Deg.; Biancaea scandens Tod.; Biancaea sepiaria (Roxb.) Todaro; Caesalpinia benguetensis Elmer; Caesalpinia crista auct. non L.; Caesalpinia decapetala var. japonica (Siebold & Zucc.) H. Ohashi; Caesalpinia decapetala var. japonica (Siebold & Zucc.) Isely; Caesalpinia ferox Hassk.; Caesalpinia japonica Siebold & Zucc.; Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb.; Caesalpinia sepiaria var. auricoma Trimen; Caesalpinia sepiaria var. japonica (Siebold & Zucc.) Gagnep.; Caesalpinia sepiaria var. japonica (Siebold & Zucc.) Hand.-Mazz.; Caesalpinia sepiaria var. japonica (Siebold & Zucc.) Makino; Mezoneuron benguetense (Elmer) Elmer; Mezonevron benguetense Elmer; Reichardia decapetala Roth)

Tropical and subtropical Asia, India, Sri Lanka. Perennial non-climbing tree, shrub, liana, tomentose, armed with hooked prickles, yellow flowers, raceme axillary or terminal, dehiscent pod

See Species Plantarum 1: 380–381. 1753, Novae Plantarum Species 212. 1821, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 2: 360–361. 1832, Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Konigl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(2): 117. 1845, Nuovi Gen. Sp. Orto Palermo 21. 1860, Hort. Bot. Panorm. 3. 1876 and Leafl. Philipp. Bot. i. 362. 1908, Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 2: 180. 1913, A Hand-book to the Flora of Ceylon suppl. 6: 89. 1931, Ill. Fl. Nippon 431. 1940, Pollen et Spores 22: 355–423. 1980, Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 27: 219–235. 1986, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 23: 219–228. 1988, Acta Botanica Austro Sinica 5: 161–176. 1989

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Bark decoction abortifacient. Roots, stems, and pods used for relieving pain. Roots purgative; roots juice decoction applied to treat sprain and muscular swellings. Leaves as emmenagogue; bruised leaves applied to burns. Seeds astringent, anthelmintic, analgesic, antipyretic, antimalarial; seeds and roots insecticide. Flowers infusion in bronchitis, asthma and malarial fevers. Caesalpinia sepiaria leaves decoction given in stomach disorders. Veterinary medicine, leaves given for sores in the mouth.)

in English: Mauritius thorn, Mysore thorn, wait-a-bit, water honey locust, wild honey locust

in Madagascar: roimainty, roinombilahy, tsiafakomby, tsifakombilahy

in South Africa: kaffer-wag-’n-bietjie, kraaldoring, Mauritiusdoring

in Hawaii: puakelekino

in China: ma tou, tien tou, yun shi, yun shih

in India: aila, airi, alai, arlu, bara durghar, cakkarakarakam, cakkirakarakam, cakkirakarakkoti, cakkirakaram, chilhar, chillara, chillari, chillur, gaddakorinda, gajalige, gajalike, gajalikke, gajilikke, gajjiga, gilo, goodda-korinda, good-dakorinda, godhocili, grevdra, gundugajjiga, hotasige, hotsige, hunnula, hunnulla, ikai, ikkai, indu, inga, inku, inna, intai, intu, iraittu, iraittumakkoti, iraittumam, iyacceti, iyai, iyakkoti, kadiyindu, kander, kanderi, kando, karacam, karanj, karanjika, karongsi, kather, kencige, kenjige, kilgach, kingan, kundugajjikai, kurudu gejjuga, kurudugajjida, kurudugajjiga, kurudugajjige, kuruttugajjigai, kurutugajjika, puli tatukki, pulitadukki, pulitatukki, pulithaduki-kodi, pulithadukki, pulitotakki, pulittodakki, pulittotakki, puliyukili, putthadukki, ralan, relan, relu, sagargoti, totali, totari, unalla, undla, uppili, uri, urn

in Indonesia: areuy mata hiyang gunung, secang lembut

in Nepal: arile kanda, ute kanda

in Pakistan: kanderi, relan

in Philippines: puto

in Thailand: krachaai

in Vietnam: vu[oos]t h[uf]m, m[os]c di[eef]u

Caesalpinia digyna Rottler (Caesalpinia gracilis Miq.; Caesalpinia oleosperma Roxb.; Caesalpinia olesperma Roxb.)

Tanzania, India. Perennial non-climbing tree, liana, scandent shrub or small tree, armed, panicle axillary or terminal, indehiscent pod constricted between the seeds

See Der Gesellsschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, neue Schriften 4: 198–200, pl. 3. 1803

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Roots astringent, febrifuge, antipyretic and antidiabetes, for tuberculosis. Pounded bark used as a fish poison.)

in English: teri pods

in Cambodia: khvaw bânla

in India: bakaininari, bakam, bakarinari, ghrtakaranja, gilo, noonagatcha, noonagatchandi, noone gachha, nooneeglika, nooniglika, nunegacha, nunegachcha, nuni-gatcha, nunigatcha, patang, tari, teri, teri beeja, umulkuchi, vaakeri, vakerimul, vakerichebhate, vakerimul, vakerimula, wakirimul

in Laos: kachaay

in Thailand: kamchaai, khee raet, ngaai

in Vietnam: m[os]c m[ef]o xanh, vang xanh

Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Apuleia ferrea (Mart.) Baill.; Caesalpinia ferrea var. cearensis Huber)

South America. Perennial non-climbing tree

See Dictionnaire de Botanique 1: 440. 1876 and Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 1: 304. 1901, J. Ethnopharmacol. 53(3): 175–178. 1996, Cancer Lett. 177: 119–124. 2002, J. Ethnopharmacol. 81: 135–137. 2002, Mutat. Res. 523–524: 1–8. 2003, Vascular Pharmacology 47(1): 41–47. 2007, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124(2): 289–294. 2009

(Antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiulcer, antipyretic, antimutagens, anticarcinogens, cancer chemopreventive. Treatment of wounds and bruises, gastric ulcer, alleviation of chronic cough and asthma. Stem bark infusion used for hypertension, enterocolitis, diarrhea. Roots antipyretic, febrifuge. Fruits for oral infections, diabetes.)

in English: Brazilian ironwood, leopard tree

in Brazil: jucá, pau ferro

Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) D. Dietr. (Caesalpinia gilliesii Wall. ex Hook.; Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook.) D. Dietr.; Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook.) Benth.; Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Benth.; Caesalpinia macrantha Delile; Erythrostemon gilliesii Klotzsch; Erythrostemon gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook.) Klotzsch; Erythrostemon gilliesii (Hook.) Link & al.; Poinciana gilliesii Hook.; Poinciana gilliesii Wall. ex Hook.) (for the Scottish physician John Gillies, 1792–1834 (d. Edinburgh), botanist, naval surgeon, M.D. 1817, 1820–1828 in Argentina; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 2: 50. 1965)

South America. Perennial non-climbing tree

See Botanical Miscellany 1: 129–131, pl. 34. 1830, Ind. Sem. Hort. Monsp. (1838) 3. 1838, Synopsis Plantarum 2: 1495. 1840, Link, Johann Heinrich Friedrich (1767–1851), Icones plantarum rariorum Horti Regii Botanici Berolinensis Berlin, 1841–1844, Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) 15(2): 71. 1870

(Poisonous.)

in English: bird-of-paradise, paradise poinciana

in Argentina: barba de chivo, disciplina de monja, flor del indio, lagana de perro, mal de ojos, piscala

Caesalpinia globulorum Bakh. f. & P. Royen (Bonduc major Medikus; Bonduc majus Medikus; Caesalpinia bonduc auct. non (L.) Roxb.; Caesalpinia glabra (Mill.) Merr.; Caesalpinia jayabo M. Gómez; Caesalpinia jayabo Maza; Caesalpinia major (Medik.) Dandy & Exell; Guilandina bonduc L.; Guilandina major (DC.) Small; Guilandina ovalifolia (Urb.) Britton; Guilandina viridiflora Teijsm. & Binn.)

Caribbean, SE Asia, Papua New Guinea. Perennial non-climbing shrub, armed liana, climbing shrub, raceme or panicle supra-axillary, bristly pod densely hairy

See Herb. Amb. 5, 89, t. 48. 1747, Sp. Pl. 1: 381. 1753, Theodora Speciosa 43–47, pl. 3 [in suppl.]. 1786, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 480. 1825, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 19: 234. 1890 and Flora of the Southeastern United States 591, 1331. 1903, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 76(906): 180. 1938, Blumea 12(1): 62. 1963

(Used in Ayurveda. Roots decoction tonic, anthelmintic, to treat rheumatism and backache. Roasted seeds infusion drunk to cure respiratory illnesses.)

in English: Hawaiian pearls, yellow nicker

in Central America: guacalote amarillo, guacolote amarillo, mato amarillo

in Hawaii: hihikolo, kakalaioa, kinikini

in Cambodia: kouat

in India: gacha, gajjiga, heggajjiga, kaccuram, kachuram, kalal, kalanji, kalanei, kalargodi, kalarsi, kalarsikkodi, karchuram, kitta, kuberaksi, vaknuato

in Indonesia: areuy mata hiyang, kate-kate, kemrunggi

in Thailand: waat

in Vietnam: vang l[as] l[ows]n

Caesalpinia hildebrandtii (Vatke) Baill. (Mesoneuron grevei Baill.; Mesoneuron hildebrandtii Vatke; Mezoneuron grevei Baill.; Mezoneuron hildebrandtii Vatke; Mezoneurum hildebrandtii Vatke; Mezonevron grevei Baill.; Mezonevron hildebrandtii Vatke)

Madagascar. Perennial non-climbing shrub, woody, spiny, liana, spreading, sprawling and scrambling, strongly perfumed flowers, terminal erect dense branched thorny inflorescences

See Linnaea 43: 338. 1882, Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Paris 1: 371. 1883, Hist. Pl. Madag., Atlas pl. 24B-C. 1886

(Used to counteract poison.)

in Madagascar: kitomba, tsiafakomby, tsirofonta

Caesalpinia jayabo M. Gómez

Caribbean. Perennial climbing shrub

See Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 19: 234. 1880

(Leaves decoction given in bodyache.)

in India: gacha, gajjiga, heggajjiga, kaccuram, kachuram, kalal, kalanji, kalanei, kalargodi, kalarsi, kalarsikkodi, karchuram, kitta, kuberaksi, vaknuato

Caesalpinia latisiliqua (Cav.) Hattink (Bauhinia latisiliqua Cav.; Caesalpinia torquata Blanco; Mezoneuron balansae Gagnep.; Mezoneuron cabadbarense Elmer; Mezoneuron glabrum sensu Fern.-Vill.; Mezoneuron keo Gagnep.; Mezoneuron latisiliquum (Cav.) Merr.; Mezoneuron oxyphyllum Gagnep.; Mezoneuron platycarpum Merr.; Mezoneuron rubrum Merr.; Mezoneurum balansae Gagnep.; Mezoneurum latisiliquum (Cav.) Merr.; Mezoneurum oxyphyllum Gagnep.; Mezoneurum procumbens Blanco; Mezonevron cabadbarense Elmer; Mezonevron glabrum Desf.; Mezonevron keo Gagnep.; Mezonevron latisiliquum Merr.; Mezonevron oxyphyllum Gagnep.; Mezonevron platycarpum Merr.; Mezonevron procumbens Blanco; Mezonevron rubrum Merr.)

Philippines, Brunei. Perennial climbing shrub

See Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... 5: 5. 1799, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 [F.M. Blanco] 235. 1845 and Philippine Journal of Science, C 4: 268. 1909, Philipp. J. Sci., C 11: 85. 1916, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. x. 3757. 1939, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. sér. 2, 24: 318–319. 1952, Reinwardtia 9(1): 37. 1974

(Leaves decoction given for relief of asthma.)

Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. (Caesalpinia mimosoides Heyne ex Wall.; Caesalpinia resupinata Roxb.; Caesalpinia simora Roxb.)

India, China. Perennial non-climbing tree, many-branched, erect, climbing, creeping, armed, densely hispid, bristly, inflorescence in terminal raceme, flowers yellow, falcate recurved bristly pod, branchlets emitting a characteristic acid odour when broken

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1(2): 462. 1785, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] n. 5837. 1831 and Food Chemistry 92(3): 491–497. 2005, Food Chemistry 100(3): 1044–1048. 2007

(Used in Sidha. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, fibrinolytic activity. Fresh young twigs eaten as vegetable for hypotension; paste of young shoots and onion used in the treatment of ulcer. Leaves used as blood tonic and for vertigo; tender leaves cooked as vegetable and eaten to cure chest pain.)

in English: thorny flower of the Panya

in India: chingamullu, chingey, cinje, cinnamullu, eejimullu, engeeri, ganajali, ganajile, ganajilu, ganijele, ijemullu, ijimullu, kal-toddavaddi, kandige, kenchige, kencige, kilansadu, kombe, kombe gida, komme, komme gida, lajri, malanteri, nallagane, nallaganne, nallekane, nallikane, narkati, pulinakkagonrai, punaikkalarci, shimullu, simullu, siyije, timullu, timulu, vaisakhamantha

in Myanmar: gyabo-zawnan, sukyanbo, tikayan-gyi

in Thailand: chalueat, dok nam panya, nham pu ya, phak pu ya

Caesalpinia minax Hance (Caesalpinia globulorum sensu auct.; Caesalpinia minax var. burmanica Prain; Caesalpinia morsei Dunn)

Vietnam, China. Perennial climbing shrub, creeping, sarmentose, lianescent, armed, petals green-white, upper petals red-purple, immature pods softly spiny

See Herb. Amb. 5, 89, t. 48. 1747, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 22(12): 365. 1884 and Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 35(247): 492–493. 1903, Blumea 12(1): 62. 1963

(Roots and leaves analgesic and sedative, prescribed for insomnia, pains, toothache.)

in China: hui jia yun shi

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Swartz (Caesalpinia pulcherrima G. Don; Caesalpinia pulcherrima Sw.; Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. var. flava Bailey & Rehder; Poinciana bijuga Lour.; Poinciana elata Lour.; Poinciana pulcherrima L.)

Cosmopolitan, South America. Perennial non-climbing tree, shrub or small tree, unarmed or with a few straight prickles, yellow-red flowers, raceme or panicle axillary and terminal

See Exot. Pl. Cent. t. 22. 1678, Species Plantarum 1: 380. 1753, Flora Cochinchinensis 260–261. 1790, Observ. Bot. (Swartz) 166. 1791, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 2: 431, non Sw. 1832 and Webbia 13: 214. 1957

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Toxins. Bark juice abortifacient and febrifuge, tonic, stimulant. Roots abortifacient, emmenagogue, used for infantile convulsions; root juice given to treat peptic ulcer. Flowers for intestinal worms, coughs and chronic catarrh. Fruits and leaves febrifuge, astringent. Leaves emmenagogue, purgative, antifungal, abortifacient, to relieve constipation; leaf paste applied to treat boils, pimples and ringworm. Seed paste applied on infected teeth and ringworm; fresh seeds decoction used for inflamed gums.)

in English: Barbados flower fence, Barbados pride, bird of paradise flower, dwarf poinciana, flamboyant, flamboyant tree, flower-fence poinciana, flowering-fence, gold mohur, paradise-flower, peacock flower, peacock tree, poinciana, pride-of-Barbados

in Latin America: angel sisa, carzazo, clavellina, clavellina colorado, fleur du paradis, flor del angel, flor de la Virgen, guacamaya, guacamayo, krere-krere, macata, pauwebloem, poincillade, rosa Santa Maria, sin k’in

in Cambodia: dok fang, fang ham, kan gok meas

in China: chin feng hua, feng huang chang

in India: cekkimandaram, cemmayirkkonrai, channakeshava gida, chekkimandaram, chettimandaram, chinaturayi, cinnaturayi, cirontakam, cirontakamaram, cittimantarai, cittimantaram, eejimullu, gul-tora, guleturaa, guletura, gulu tora, hote seege, irattinakanti, kanjage, kapura maddi, kenchige, kencige, kendge, keneige, kenji gida, kenjige, kenjige mara, kenjigemara, kenjuga, kittimantaram, komari, kotinalal, krishanchura, krishnachuda, krishnachura, krishnachuudaa, maikkonrai, mailkondarai, mancika, mayikonnai, mayil-konai, mayilkonnai, mayilkonrai, mayirkkonrai, mayirkonrai, mayirpelavam, mayirpelavamaram, mayurakonnai, mayuram, mayuramaram, mucuppira, mucuppiramaram, muyarcevitakkonnai, muyarcevitam, nalal, nalligaane, narikkonrai, padangam, paidithangedu, pamidi tangedu, pamiditangedu, pamidithangedu, perumayirkonrai, peydi-tangedu, pillicarikai, pillicarikaimaram, pirayakacceti, piriyakam, ponmayirkkonrai, puccilakkonnai, pumalekkinam, puraiphul, ratanagandhi, rathnagandhi, ratna gandhi, ratnagandhi, ratnagandi, ratnaganhi, sankeshvara, sankeshwara, settimandaram, shankasur, sidhakhya, sidhanasha, sidheshwara, sinnathuraayi, sinnaturayi, sirumayirkonrai, tarra, techimandaram, teccimandaram, thuraayi, tsettimandaram, tsjetti-mandarum, torai, tuccimam, tuccimamaram, turayi, vatamatakki

in Indonesia: bunga merak, bungan merak, kembang merak (merak = peacock), kembang patra, kemerakan

in Japan: ô-gochyô

in Malaya: chana, jambul merak

in Nepal: areli, bhas bhul

in Philippines: bulaklak ng paraiso, caballero

in Thailand: khwaang yoi, som pho, haang nokyuung thai

in Vietnam: di[eej]p ta, di[eej]p c[us]ng, kangok meas, kim phuong, kim ph[uw][owj]ng

Caesalpinia sappan L. (Biancaea sappan (L.) Tod.; Biancaea sappan Tod.)

India, Myanmar and Thailand. Perennial non-climbing tree, shrub, prickly, yellow flowers, upper petal with a red spot at the base, dehiscent strongly flattened shiny pod

See Species Plantarum 1: 381. 1753, Nuovi Gen. Sp. Orto Palermo 21–22. 1858 and Recent Res. Pl. Sci. (New Delhi). 7: 252–260. 1979

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Heartwood decoction or infusion emmenagogue, astringent, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, antibiotic, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidative, vulnerary, hemostatic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antifertility, to ease pain, to stop menstrual pain, to cure wounds, skin diseases, tuberculosis, diarrhea and dysentery; vomiting blood, boil the red wood and drink the decoction. Seeds sedative.)

in English: Brazil-wood, bukkum wood, false sandalwood, Indian redwood, narrow-leaved braziletto, sappan tree, sappan wood tree, sappanwood

in Burma: teing-nyet

in Cambodia: sbaèng, sbeng

in China: su fang mu, su mu

in India: anaikuntrumani, bakaanu chekka, bakam, bakami-kirmyz, bakamu, bakanu, bakanu-chekka, bakapu, bakarucakka, bakaruchakka, bakasu chekka, bakkapu, bakkapu-chekka, bakkom, baqam, baqqam, baqum, bharyavriksha, bukkamu, bukkapu, bukkapuchettu, bukkum, cappan, cappanam, cappanga, cappankam, cappanki, cappanku, cappannam, cayamaram, cemmaram, chapenga, chappanam, chappanga, chappannam, ciyapankam, isiapangam, isiyapangam, kaparimaddi, kapuramaddi, kashtha, kuchandana, lohitaranga, okaanu, okanu, okanu-katta, padangam, parthangi, patamg, patamgam, patang, patang-ki-lakri, patanga, patanga-chekke, patanga-katta, patangachekke, patangada, patangah, patangam, patankam, patankan, patanku, pataranjaka, pathang, pathanga, pathanga chakka, pathangee, pathimukham, patranga, patrangah, patrangam, pattanga, pattangi, pattanki, pattaranga, pattaranjaka, pattaranjakah, pattraanga, pattranya, pattura, patunga, patungam, raktaka, raktamukta, raktasaara, raktasar, ranjana, rogakashtha, ruktamukta, sapangu, sappamgu, sappan, sappanga, sappangu, sappannam, sayamaram, suranga, surangada, tairi, tsiapangum, tsja-pangan, tsjampangam, varatanci, varattangi, vartangi, varttanki, varttankikkattai, vattangi, vattanki, vattankkattai, vattekku, vatunghe cuttay, vetteku, vurthingi

in Indonesia: kaju setjang, kayu secang, secang, soga jawa

in Laos: faang dèèng

in Malaysia: bakapu, sapang, sepang, sipang

in Philippines: sapan, sapang, sibucao, sibukau

in Thailand: faang, faang som, ngaai

in Tibetan: shing bo-kka’i shing-kun

in Vietnam: cay vang, co vang, may vang, vang, vang nhuôm, vang nhu[ooj]m, tô môc, to moc, t[oo] m[ooj]c, to phuong

Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze (Caesalpinia pectinata Cav.; Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze; Caesalpinia tara Ruiz & Pav.; Caesalpinia tinctoria (Kunth) Benth. ex Reiche; Caesalpinia tinctoria Dombey ex DC., nom. nud.; Caesalpinia tinctoria (Kunth) Benth.; Caesalpinia tinctoria DC.; Coulteria tinctoria (Molina) Kunth; Coulteria tinctoria Kunth; Poinciana spinosa Molina; Tara spinosa Britton & Rose; Tara spinosa (Molina) Britton & Rose)

South America. Perennial non-climbing tree

See Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chili ... 158. 1782, Descripción de las Plantas (Cavanilles) 467. 1799, Flora Peruviana [Ruiz & Pavon] 4: pl. 374. 1802, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum [H.B.K.] (quarto ed.) 6: 331–332, pl. 569. 1823[1824], Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 2: 481. 1825, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3[3]: 54. 1898 and North American Flora 23(5): 320. 1930, Anales del Instituto Botánico A. J. Cavanilles 14: 731. 1956, Bol. Soc. Peruana Bot. 7(1/2): 40–68. 1974, Legum. Agric. Boliv. 409–423. 1996

(Infusion or decoction as purgative, laxative.)

Common name: tara

Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb. (Caesalpinia sumatrana Wall.; Mezoneuron koordersii Backer; Mezoneuron peekelii Harms; Mezoneuron sulfureum Miq.; Mezoneuron sumatranum (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.; Mezoneuron sumatranum (Roxb.) Wight & Arnott ex Miq.; Mezonevron koordersii Backer ex Koord.-Schum.; Mezonevron peekelii Harms; Mezonevron sulfureum Miq.; Mezonevron sumatranum Wight & Arn. ex Voigt; Mezonevron sumatranum Wight & Arn.)

Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. Perennial climbing shrub, liana, branchlets sometimes armed, panicle supraaxillary or terminal

See Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 23. 1814, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] n. 5831 B-C. 1831, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 283. 1834 and Syst. Verz. i. Fam. 128, 36. 1911, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. lv. 58. 1917

(Leaves decoction vermifuge, for intestinal complaints, diarrhea, a postpartum remedy; worms in children, pound the leaves and poultice with them.)

in Malaysia: darah belut, gorek, kelichi rimba, mati chaching, matichang, mentiong, tampu rengat

in Philippines: siit

Caesalpinia trothae Harms (Caesalpinia trothaei Harms)

Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania. Perennial non-climbing shrub, leaves a good browse for camels

See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 26: 277. 1899 and Kew Bulletin 17(2): 201. 1963

(Fruits poisonous.)

Caesalpinia volkensii Harms (Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.; Caesalpinia major sensu Brenan)

Tropical Africa, Ethiopia, Tanzania. Perennial climbing shrub, woody or herbaceous, liana, straggling, armed with recurved and straight prickles, yellow flowers, prickly flattened fruits

See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 45: 304. 1910

(Leaves decoction to treat malaria; leaf decoction taken to fight pains during pregnancy, to relieve stomachache. Roots aphrodisiac eaten cooked or raw; roots boiled and mixed with other species as male aphrodisiac, also to treat gonorrhea and bilharzia. Seeds for cure stomach ulcers. Crushed flower buds applied for eye problems.)

in Tanzania: kete, msoo, msoro

Caesalpinia welwitschiana (Oliv.) Brenan (Mezoneuron welwitschianum Oliv.; Mezoneurum welwitschianum Oliv.; Mezonevron welwitschianum Oliv.)

Central, East and southern Africa. Perennial climbing shrub, liana, fiercely armed, yellow petals

See Flora of Tropical Africa [Oliver et al.] 2: 261. 1871 and Kew Bulletin 17(2): 203. 1963

(Leaf sap instilled in the nostrils to treat madness.)

Caesulia Roxb. Asteraceae

Latin caesullae, caesullarum ‘having gray eyes’, caesius ‘bluish gray’, referring to the flowers, see Plants of the Coast of Coromandel 1: 64. 1795[1798].

Caesulia axillaris Roxb.

India. Ascending to prostrate herb with narrowly lanceolate leaves tapering at both the ends

See Taxon 26: 107–109. 1977, J. Cytol. Genet. 33(2): 201–205. 1988, Proc. Indian Sci. Congr. Assoc. 83(3:VIII): 77. 1996

(Plant poisonous for sheep. Whole plant juice given to cure amebic dysentery, indigestion and loss of appetite. Leaves kept in pulses as insecticide; leaf extract sprayed as pesticide. Oil from the seeds applied in rheumatic pains.)

in India: akshaphula, borasda, nichini

Caiophora Presl Loasaceae

Greek kaiein ‘to burn’ and phoros ‘bearing’, referring to the stinging hairs, see Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen unter der Augsicht der Königl.... 1825: 1705. 1825, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 2(1): 41–42, t. 56. 1831, Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] 3(6a): 119. 1894 and Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. German. Nat. Cur. 76: 270–271, 329. 1900, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(4/1): 143–181. 1941, Sendtnera 4: 221–242. 1997, Darwiniana 45(1): 45–67. 2007.

Caiophora cirsiifolia C. Presl (Blumenbachia contorta (Desr.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Hieron.; Blumenbachia contorta Benth. & Hook.f. ex Hieron.; Blumenbachia contorta Hook.f.; Blumenbachia contorta Griseb.; Blumenbachia punicea Ruiz & Pav. ex G. Don; Blumenbachia punicea G. Don; Blumenbachia sepiaria Ruiz & Pav. ex G. Don; Blumenbachia sepiaria G. Don; Caiophora cinerea Urb. & Gilg; Caiophora contorta C. Presl; Caiophora contorta (Desr.) C. Presl; Caiophora contorta (Desr. ex Lam.) C. Presl; Caiophora contorta Urb. & Gilg, nom. illeg.; Caiophora cymbifera Urb. & Gilg; Caiophora lechleri Urb. & Gilg; Caiophora pachylepis Urb. & Gilg; Caiophora preslii Urb. & Gilg; Caiophora sepiaria (Ruiz & Pav. ex G. Don) J.F. Macbr.; Cajophora contorta (Desr.) C. Presl; Cajophora lechleri Urb. & Gilg; Loasa chuquitensis Wedd.; Loasa chuquitensis Meyen; Loasa contorta Desr.; Loasa punicea Ruiz & Pav. ex A. López; Loasa punicea Phil.; Loasa sepiaria Ruiz & Pav.)

South America.

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3: 579. 1789, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 2(1): 41–42, t. 56. 1831, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 3: 62. 1834, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(6a): 119. 1894 and Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum 76: 281, 288, 306, 321. 1900, Candollea 8: 23. 1940, Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 16: 416, tab. 446. 1958, Sendtnera 4: 221–242. 1997

(Infusion or decoction drunk to induce menstruation.)

Vernacular name: pomaysancca

Cajanus DC. Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae)

From the Malayan vernacular names catjuna or katjang or katchang for the pigeon pea; see Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 326, 529. 1763, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis. 85. 1813, Sylva Tellur. 25. 1838, Mueller, Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von (1825–1896), Essay on the plants collected by Mr. Eugene Fitzalan, during Lieut. Smith’s expedition to the estuary of the Burdekin. Melbourne: J. Ferres, Government Printer, [1860?], Helios 11: 133. 1893.

Cajanus albicans (Wight & Arn.) Maesen (Atylosia albicans (Wight & Arn.) Benth., nom. nud.; Atylosia albicans Benth.; Cajanus albicans Graham ex Wallich; Cajanus albicans Graham; Cajanus wightianus Graham; Cajanus wightii Wight & Arn.; Cantharospermum albicans Wight & Arn.)

India. Perennial climbing shrub

See A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] n. 5582, 5583. 1831, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 256. 1834, Plantae Junghuhnianae 2: 243. 1852 and Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 85(4): 55. 1985 [publ. 1986]

(Terminal parts including flowers boiled in water and the decoction drunk to cure severe cold. Veterinary medicine, used as galactagogue.)

in India: amanchi, kollukoppankodi, wal-kollu

Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Cajan cajan (L.) Millsp., nom. inval.; Cajan cajan (L.) Huth, nom. inval.; Cajan indorum Medik.; Cajan inodorum Medik.; Cajanum thora Raf.; Cajanus bicolor DC., nom. illeg.; Cajanus cajan (L.) Druce; Cajanus cajan (L.) Merr.; Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth; Cajanus cajan fo. bicolor (DC.) Baker; Cajanus cajan var. bicolor (DC.) Purseglove; Cajanus cajan var. flavus (DC.) Purseglove; Cajanus flavus DC.; Cajanus indicus Spreng., nom. illeg. superfl.; Cajanus indicus var. bicolor (DC.) Kuntze; Cajanus indicus var. flavus (DC.) Kuntze; Cajanus indicus var. maculatus Kuntze; Cajanus inodorum Medik.; Cajanus inodorus Medik.; Cajanus luteus Bello; Cajanus obcordifolius V. Singh; Cajanus pseudo-cajan (Jacq.) Schinz & Guillaumin; Cajanus pseudocajan (Jacq.) Schinz & Guillaumin; Cajanus striatus Bojer; Cytisus cajan L.; Cytisus guineensis Schumach. & Thonn.; Cytisus pseudo-cajan Jacq.; Cytisus pseudocajan Jacq.; Phaseolus balicus L.)

China, Tropical Africa. Perennial non-climbing shrub, erect, silky pubescent ribbed stems, spindly branches, leaves pinnately trifoliolate, leaflets in short stalks, flowers borne on corymbiform racemes, petals yellow, standard red outside and yellow inside, wings yellow, oblong linear pods constricted between the seeds, beans eaten, the green seeds can be cooked and eaten and also the ripe seeds but less frequently, leaves used to clean teeth, dry leaves and pods food for donkeys, cattle and goats

See Species Plantarum 2: 739. 1753, Familles des Plantes 2: 326, 529. 1763, Hortus Botanicus Vindobonensis 2: 54, pl. 119. 1772, Vorlesungen der Churpfälzischen physicalischöconomischen Gesellschaft 2: 363. 1787, Flora Atlantica 2: 139. 1798, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis 85. 1813, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 3: 248. 1826, Beskrivelse af Guineeiske planter 349, nr 208. 1827, An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany 148. 1836, Hortus Mauritianus 109. 1837, Sylva Telluriana 25. 1838, Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 10: 260. 1881, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 167. 1891, Helios 11(8): 133. 1893 and Publications of the Field Columbian Museum, Botanical Series 2(1): 53. 1900, Fl. Manilla 255. 1912, (Report) Botanical Society and Exchange Club of the British Isles 1916: 611. 1917, Nova Caled. 1: 159. 1920, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 15: 312. 1920, The Leguminosae of Tropical Africa 2: 459–460. 1929, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 12: 783. 1942, J. Agric. Sci. (Tokyo) 8: 49–62. 1962, Trop. Crops, Dicotyl. 1: 237. 1968, Catálogo Ilustrado de las Plantas de Cundinamarca 3: 1–136. 1968, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 6: 18–24. 1971, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 67: 555. 1980, Cytologia 46: 397–412. 1981, Ann. Bot. 49: 235–239. 1982, Nucleus 25: 181–185. 1982, Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 53: 342–371. 1983, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 8: 215– 223. 1983, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 9: 237–260. 1983, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 72(3—X): 46. 1985, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 73(3—VI): 160. 1986, Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 65: 124–129. 1986, Acta Botanica Austro Sinica 3: 137–139. 1986, Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 85(4): 1–228. 1986, Willdenowia 15: 521–527. 1986, Fl. Lesser Antilles 4: 452. 1988, Cytologia 54: 51–64, 121–128. 1989, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 173–219. 1990, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 29: 295–323. 1990, Cytologia 56: 511–515. 1991, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 78(3,VIII): 142. 1991, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81: 792–799. 1994, Plant Systematics and Evolution 189: 211–216. 1994, Cytologia 63: 279–282. 1998, Cytologia 64: 29–36. 1999, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106: 158–165. 2006

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Leaves decoction for measles, cough, diarrhea, abdominal troubles, catarrh and hepatitis; sap of leaves, drops in eyes, for epilepsy; powdered leaves applied to sores; leaf juice given for flu, jaundice and as a poison antidote; leaf infusion baths for stroke and bewitchment; green leaves hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and antimicrobial; poultice of the young leaves used for burning skin and gums inflammation; young leaves chewed for curing reddish sores on tongue, spongy gums, aphthae; leaves decoction drunk by pregnant women for easy delivery. Flowers paste or leaf paste applied on sores of mouth and tongue. Boil the roots, drink the decoction to cure food poisoning from eating bad fish; roots for mental illness. Seeds used in snakebite; seed coat powder applied as a paste on skin eruptions, when mixed with root powder of Cordia dichotoma in severe toothache; boiled seed juice taken in jaundice; juice from the seeds put into the ear for earache; seeds and leaves made into a warm paste applied over the mammae to check secretion of milk. Ceremonial, important food during ceremonies. Veterinary medicine, cooked leaves fed to cattle with diarrhea.)

in English: African pigeon pea, cadjan pea, cajan, catjan pea, catjang, Congo beans, Congo pea, dhal, dhal bean, green peas, no-eye pea, peas, pigeon pea, red gram

in Benin: adjayi klwékoun, blikodje, eklwi, ofiri, otili, otinini

in Burundi: agacaruzo, inkunde, urucaruzo

in Comoros: ambrevade, mtsongi

in Congo: kassa, nwandu, wandu

in Gabon: bésangé-bé-djélé, butsangi-bu-muri, modjangi-agétété, mutsangi-a-mwiri, osangé-w’éréré, osangé w’orungu, osang’éréré, osang-éli, uhangé-mwa-mulungu

in Kenya: mbaazi, mbalazi, mbanzi, mbubalazi, mubalazi, mucugu, musuu, muusu, nangu, ncugu, ngogu, njugu, nzuu, obong

in Madagascar: ambarivatry, ambatribe, ambatry, ambaty, amberivatry, ambote, ambraty, ambrevade, ambrevate, antsotry, bokan’ambatry

in Rwanda: intenderwa, umukunde

in Senegal: waken-masar, waken-turawa

in Sierra Leone: Congo binch, e-konsho, kollgo-binch, kongo-binch

in Southern Africa: duiwe-ertjie, Kongoboontjie, mbaasi

in Tanzania: madohola, mbaazi, mbaazi-mkosa, mbainisiri, mbanzi, musuu, muusu, ngogu, njaghalai

in Togo: eklui

in Uganda: apena, empinamuti, enkolimbo, ntondigwa

in Yoruba: otili, otinli

in China: mu dou, shan tou ken, chieh tu, chieh tu tzu

in India: aadhaki, adagam, adagi, adaki, adhaki, amakam, amam, arahar, arahar dall, arardal, arhar, arhar dal, arhardal, atacai, atakam, ataki, athaki, baele, byale, candaloo, catjan, chinnacandi, cinnakandi, condacandaloo, curattam, dahl, dalu, dangri, dhaal, dhal, duvarai, errakandulu, ettakandulu, huklek, ihora, impurupali, irumpali, iruppappuli, iruppuli, iruppulikam, iruppulikamaram, iyavai, iyavu, iyavucceti, kacci, kaccikacceti, kaccikam, kakshi, kalvayam, kalvayamaram, kandhi, kandi, kandool, kandu, kandul, kandulu, kanti, karaviram, kari uddu, kariuddu, kariyuddu, kariyudu, karkai, karkaicceti, karvirabhuja, kattu-thovarai, kattuthovarai, kaycci, kecapukacceti, kecapukam, kondakandi, kunthaloo, kuvalam, kuvalamaram, laher, mairongbi, malaittuvarai, malikaittuvarai, malur, miruttalakam, miruttanam, miruttanam yarai, mritana, mrittala, mrittalaka, muluttuvarai, naiciravam, naiciravamaram, nattuttuvarai, oroha, oror, paruppu, pataippeyan, pataippeyanmaram, peddacandi, peddakandi, peddakondakandi, peddakondakandulu, pitapushpa, polukandi, potujandalu, potukandi, potukandulu, rahar, rahar dal, rahban, rahor, rohor mar, shakhil, shakull, shanapushpika, shanapushpikaa, shaz, sinnakandi, soopyah, soppyah, supya, surashtaja, thaka, thakak, thogari bele, thogarukoy, thoora, thoori, thoovar, thorapaerou, thoraporu, thugari bele, thurukara thogari, thuvara parippu, thuvarai, thuvarchilakkaaram, togari, tor, torai, tuar, tuberika, tumara, tur, turi, turukutogari, tuur, tuvar, tuvara, tuvaracatjan, tuvarai, tuvarai-p-paruppu, tuvaraippayaru, tuvarankay, tuvarapparippu, tuvari, tuvarika, tuvarikam, tuver, tuvvar, tuwaran, vellaittuvarai, vritabija, yarai, yerracandaloo, yerrakandi

in Japan: ki-mame, Ryûkyû mame

Malayan name: kachang kayu

in Nepal: rahar

in the Philippines: gablas, gablos, kadios, kagios, kagyos, kagyus, kaldis, kalios, kardis, kidis, kudis, tabios

in Thailand: ma-hae, ma-hae-ton, thua-mae-tai, thua-rae, thua-raet

in Tibet: tu ba ri, tu pa rip

in Hawaii: pi nunu, pi pokoliko

in South America: cuandu, gandul, guandu, mumacriri, wandu

Cajanus cajanifolius (Haines) Maesen (Atylosia cajanifolia Haines; Cantharospermum cajanifolium (Haines) Raizada)

India. Perennial non-climbing shrub, seeds cooked and eaten as vegetable

See Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 255. 1834 and Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 15: 312. 1920 [1919 publ. May 1920], Suppl. Bot. Bihar & Orissa (Mooney) 53. 1950, Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 85(4): 91. 1985 [publ. 1986], Proc. Indian Sci. Congr. Assoc. 78(3,VIII): 142. 1991, Proc. Indian Sci. Congr. Assoc. 80(3:VIII): 224–225. 1993, Proc. Indian Sci. Congr. Assoc. 80(4A): 107. 1993

(Seed coat powder applied as a paste on skin eruptions; boiled seed juice given in jaundice.)

in India: banokandulo

Cajanus crassus (King) Maesen (Atylosia crassa King; Atylosia crassa Prain ex King; Atylosia mollis Benth., pro parte; Atylosia volubilis Gamble; Atylosia volubilis (Blanco) Gamble; Cajanus crassus (Prain ex King) Maesen; Cajanus volubilis (Blanco) R.D. Gaur; Cajanus volubilis Blanco; Cajanus volubilis (Blanco) Blanco; Cantharospermum volubile Merr.; Cantharospermum volubile (Blanco) Merr.; Cantharospermum volubilis (Blanco) Merr.; Cytisus volubilis Blanco) (Atylosia Wight & Arnott, Greek a ‘without’ and tylos ‘a knob, swelling’, referring to the absence of callus on the standard petal; see Robert Wight (1796–1872) and G. Arnott Walker Arnott (1799–1868), Prodromus florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis. 257. London 1834.)

SE Asia, Indian Ocean. Perennial climbing shrub

See Flora de Filipinas [F.M. Blanco] 417, 599. 1837, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 [F.M. Blanco] 417. 1845, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 66: 45. 1897 [1898 publ. 1897] and Philippine Journal of Science 5(2): 127–128. 1910, Flora of the Presidency of Madras 369. 1918, Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 85(4): 105, 110. 1985 (1985 publ. 1986), Fl. Distr. Garhwal N.W. Himalaya 259. 1999

(Leaf infusion taken orally and used as a bath for jaundice. Atylosia volubilis root decoction taken orally with cow’s milk to treat piles; a paste applied to mumps. Magic, ritual, contact therapy, stem tied as an amulet on the waist to cure swelling of body.)

in Bangladesh: mewape

in India: ban-simi, birmlhan, jangli chhoto, jungli baler

Cajanus goensis Dalzell (Atylosia babarta (Benth.) Baker; Atylosia barbata (Benth.) Baker; Atylosia calycina (Miq.) Kurz; Atylosia goensis (Dalzell) Dalzell; Atylosia siamensis Craib; Cantharospermum barbatum (Benth.) Koord.; Cantharospermum barbatum Koord. ex Keuchenius; Dolichos barbatus Benth., nom. nud.; Dunbaria barbata Benth.; Dunbaria calycina Miq.; Dunbaria stipulata Thuan; Dunbaria thorelii Gagnep.; Endomallus pellitus Gagnep.; Endomallus spirei Gagnep.)

Asia, China, India. Perennial climbing shrub

See A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] n. 5548. 1831, Prodr. 258. 1834, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 265. 1850, Plantae Junghuhnianae 2: 242. 1852, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 13: 186. 1873, The Flora of British India [J.D. Hooker] 2(4): 216. 1876 and Meded. Proefstat. Thee No. xc. 15. 1924

(Used in Ayurveda. Decoction of powdered roots given in rheumatism, impure blood, biliousness, fevers, swellings.)

in India: kaadu thogari, kaattupayar, kattulunnu, maasha parni, masaparni, mashaparni, peruvidukol

Cajanus lineatus (Wight & Arn.) Maesen (Atylosia lawii Wight; Atylosia lawii Dalzell; Atylosia lineata Wight & Arn.; Cajanus lineatus Graham; Cajanus lineatus Graham ex Wallich; Cantharospermum lineatum (Wight & Arn.) Raizada)

Sri Lanka, India. Perennial shrub, non-climbing

See A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] n. 5578. 1831–1832, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 1: 258. 1834, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 13: 186. 1872 [1873 publ. 1872] and Mooney, Herbert, Supplement to the Botany of Bihar and Orissa. Ranchi, Bihar, Catholic Press, 1950, Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 85(4): 143. 1985 (publ. 1986)

(Fresh leaves paste analgesic, antiseptic, applied over wounds; dried leaves smoked to get relief from asthma.)

in India: janglitur, jungle tur, kaadu kadale gida, nattuteri, ran-tur, rantur

Cajanus platycarpus (Benth.) Maesen (Atylosia geminiflora Dalzell; Atylosia platycarpa Benth.; Cantharospermum distans Royle ex Baker; Cantharospermum distans Baker; Cantharospermum geminiflorum (Dalzell) Raizada; Cantharospermum geminifolium (Dalzell) Raizada; Cantharospermum platycarpum (Benth.) Raizada)

India. Perennial climbing shrub

See Plantae Junghuhnianae 2: 243. 1852, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 13: 185. 1872 [1873 publ. 1872], Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 2: 216. 1876 and Supplement to the Botany of Bihar and Orissa. 52–53. 1950, Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 85(4): 160. 1985 (publ. 1986)

(Seed paste decoction to cure eye sore.)

in India: sukli sengha

Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars (Atylosia pauciflora (Wight & Arn.) Druce; Atylosia scarabaeoides (Baill.) Benth.; Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth.; Atylosia scarabaeoides Benth.; Atylosia scarabaeoides var. queenslandica Domin; Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Graham ex Wallich; Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) F. Muell.; Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars ex Graham; Cajanus scarabaeoides Thouars ex Graham; Cantharospermum pauciflorum Wight & Arn.; Cantharospermum scarabaeoides Koord.; Cantharospermum scarabaeoides (L.) Baill.; Cantharospermum scarabaeoideum (L.) Baill.; Dolichos medicagineus Willd. ex Roxb.; Dolichos medicagineus Roxb.; Dolichos minutus Wight & Arn.; Dolichos minutus Roxb. ex Wight & Arn.; Dolichos scarabaeoides L.; Dolichos scarabaeoides Roxb. ex Graham, nom. nud.; Glycine mollis Willd.; Glycine scarabaeoides Hb. Ham. & HBC ex Wallich, nom. nud.; Hedysarum biflorum Willd. ex Wallich; Rhynchosia biflora DC.; Rhynchosia scarabaeoides (L.) DC.; Stizolobium scarabaeoides (L.) Spreng.)

India. Perennial non-climbing herb, hairy, herbaceous perennial twiner, creeping, flowers in axillary pairs on short stalks, broad pods, tender fruits cooked as vegetable

See Species Plantarum 2: 726. 1753, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles 6: 167. 1817, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 2: 387. 1825, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 3: 253. 1826, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] n. 5580. 1831, Census Austra. Pl. Suppl. 1–4: 41. 1881, Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Paris 1(48): 384. 1883, Ind. Kew. 1: 312. 1895 and An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants 2 (3): 241–323. 1923, A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon 7: 108–381. 1991

(Used in Ayurveda. Whole plant decoction taken orally as tonic after delivery, mixed with honey and given to woman after delivery; a decoction of the plant mixed with black pepper fruits given in diarrhea and dysentery. The paste of the leaves administered orally to cure swelling of the body; fresh leaf paste applied externally in rheumatism; paste of fresh stems and leaves applied on sores and in venereal diseases. Powder of root taken for indigestion, stomachache and abdominal gas; crushed roots extract used as ear drop in deafness. Veterinary medicine, plant given to cattle in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery; plant decoction given to cows as a remedy of tongue and mouth sores; leaves paste for foot and mouth disease.)

in India: bagbasa, ban kulatha, ban kulthia, ban kurti, banakolathia, bankullhi, bankulshia, bankulthi, bankulthia, bankurthi, banur halai, birghore, birhare, birhore, birhorec, birjugihore, bonkutti, bororhore, gaisami, itchour ghoraladi, jamakanga, jangal tor, jangli tur, jarul, karbani, pangakadang, pirikurti, ram kurti, rantur, tephne, tonangrahari, tor, wal kollu, walkollu

in Nepal: ban bhartha, ban kurthi

in Madagascar: vahi-tsokona

Cajanus trinervius (DC.) Maesen (Atylosia candollei Wight & Arn.; Atylosia major Wight & Arn.; Atylosia trinervia (DC.) Gamble; Atylosia trinervia (DC.) Gamble var. major (Wight & Arn.) Gamble; Cantharospermum trinervium (DC.) Taub.; Cantharospermum trineurum Taub.; Collaea trinervia DC.; Odonia trinervia (DC.) Spreng.)

India. Perennial non-climbing shrub

See Mémoires sur la Famille des Légumineuses 6: 247. 1825, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 4: Cur. Post. 279. 1827, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 1: 257. 1834, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(3): 373. 1894, Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 34(238): 300–365. 1899 and Flora of the Presidency of Madras 2: 368. 1918 & 1: 260. 1957, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 85(4): 199. 1985 [1986]

(Antibacterial.)

in English: jungle dhal

in India: atta-tora, et-tora, kadukadale, kadutogari, katutogari, katutogaridai, thevarai, thevari, tifiry, tiviri

Caladium Vent. Araceae

Kaladi or kelady, a common vernacular name in Malaya for this genus and herbs of tropical origin; some suggest Greek kalathion ‘a small cup, small basket’; see Étienne Pierre Ventenat, Description des plantes nouvelles et peu connues cultivés dans le jardin de J.M. Cels. t. 30. Paris [1800– 1803] and Selbyana 5(3–4): 342–377. 1981, Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 92: 59–200. 2003. Stinging oxalate crystals are common to many members of the family Araceae and are capable of causing intense irritation and dermatitis. Can cause burning and irritation of the lips. The plant can be a problem to children who ingest the leaves as well as to family pets that might nibble on the foliage.

Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent. (Alocasia rex N.E. Br., nom. nud.; Alocasia roezlii N.E. Br.; Arum bicolor Aiton; Arum pellucidum Fulchir ex Kunth; Arum pulchrum Salisb.; Arum vermitoxicum Vell. ex Kunth; Arum vermitoxicum Vell., nom. illeg., non Arum vermitoxicum Vell. ex Kunth; Caladium adamantinum L. Linden; Caladium albopunctatissimum JacobMakoy ex H. Karst.; Caladium amoenum Engl.; Caladium appunianum Engl., nom. inval.; Caladium argyrospilum Lem.; Caladium barraquinii Lem.; Caladium belleyenei Hort. Chantin ex Lemaire; Caladium belleyenei Lem.; Caladium bicolor Vent.; Caladium bicolor fo. argyrospilum (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor f. argyrospilum (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor f. barraquinii (Hérincq) Engl.; Caladium bicolor f. barraquinii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. brongniartii (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor f. brongniartii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor f. chantinii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. chantinii (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor fo. devosianum (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor f. devosianum (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. haematostigma (Kunth) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. macrophyllum (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor f. macrophyllum (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor f. mirabile (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. mirabile (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor fo. neumannii (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor f. neumannii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor f. perrieri (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. perrieri (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor fo. poecile (Schott) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. regale (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor f. regale (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor f. robustum Jonker; Caladium bicolor fo. rubicundum (Engl.) Stehlé; Caladium bicolor f. splendens (K. Koch & Fint.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. surinamense (Miq.) Stehlé; Caladium bicolor fo. vellozianum Engl.; Caladium bicolor f. vellozianum (Schott) Engl.; Caladium bicolor fo. verschaffeltii (Lem.) Vent.; Caladium bicolor f. verschaffeltii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor f. wightii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor subvar. donizettii Engl.; Caladium bicolor subvar. rosaceum Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. albomaculatum Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. argyrospilum (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. barraquinii (Hérincq) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. bohemicum Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. brongniartii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. chantinii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. curwadlii Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. devosianum (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. duchartrei Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. eckhartii Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. enkeanum (K. Koch) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. haematostigma Kunth; Caladium bicolor var. hendersonii Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. houbyanym Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. houlletii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. ketteleri Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. kochii Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. kramerianum Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. laucheanum (K. Koch) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. leopoldii Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. lindenii Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. macrophyllum (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. marginatum (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. mirabile (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. neumannii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. pellucidum (DC.) Kunth; Caladium bicolor var. perrieri (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. pictum (DC.) Kunth; Caladium bicolor var. poecile (Schott) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. regale (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. roseomaculatum Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. rubellum (K. Koch & Fint.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. rubicundum Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. rubrivenium Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. sieboldii Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. splendens (K. Koch & Fint.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. stangeanum (K. Koch) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. surinamense Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. surinamense (Miq.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. transparens Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. vellozianum (Schott) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. vermitoxicum (Vell. ex Kunth) Stellfeld; Caladium bicolor var. vermitoxicum (Vell.) Stellfeld; Caladium bicolor var. verschaffeltii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium bicolor var. wightii (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium brongniartii Lem.; Caladium chantinii Lem.; Caladium concolor K. Koch; Caladium connaertii Engl.; Caladium curwadlii Engl.; Caladium devosianum Lem.; Caladium discolor Engl.; Caladium duchartrei Engl.; Caladium dussii Sieber & Voss; Caladium eckhartii Lem. ex Engl.; Caladium enkeanum K. Koch; Caladium fermulum Schott; Caladium firmulum Schott; Caladium gaerdtii K. Koch & Fint.; Caladium griseoargenteum Engl.; Caladium haageanum K. Koch; Caladium haematostigma Kunth; Caladium hastatum Lem.; Caladium hendersonii Engl.; Caladium hortulanum Birdsey; Caladium hortulanum Bridsey; Caladium houbyanum Engl.; Caladium houlletii Lem.; Caladium ketteleri Engl.; Caladium kochii K. Koch; Caladium kramerianum Engl.; Caladium laucheanum K. Koch; Caladium lemaireanum Barraquin; Caladium leopoldii Engl.; Caladium lindenii Engl.; Caladium macrophyllum Lem.; Caladium marginatum K. Koch & Bouché; Caladium marmoratum Mathieu ex K. Koch; Caladium martersteigianum Engl.; Caladium medio-radiatum L. Linden & Rodigas; Caladium medioradiatum L. Linden & Rodigas; Caladium mirabile Lem.; Caladium mooreanum Engl.; Caladium neumanni Lem.; Caladium neumannii Lem.; Caladium ottonis Engl., nom. inval.; Caladium pallidinervium Engl.; Caladium pallidum K. Koch & Bouché; Caladium pellucidum DC.; Caladium perrieri Lem.; Caladium pictum DC.; Caladium picturatum K. Koch & Bouché; Caladium picturatum C. Koch; Caladium picturatum var. hastatum (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. porphyroneuron (K. Koch) Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. sagittatum Engl.; Caladium poecile Schott, nom. nud.; Caladium porphyroneuron K. Koch; Caladium punctatissimum Engl.; Caladium purdieanum Schott; Caladium pusillum K. Koch; Caladium regale Lem.; Caladium reichenbachianum Stange ex Engl.; Caladium rougieri Verschaff.; Caladium rubellum K. Koch & Fint.; Caladium rubricaule Lem.; Caladium rubrovenium Engl.; Caladium sagittatum L. Linden & Rodigas; Caladium sagittifolium Sieber ex Engl.; Caladium sieboldii Engl., nom. inval.; Caladium smaragdinum K. Koch & Bouché; Caladium sororium Schott; Caladium splendens K. Koch & Fint.; Caladium spruceanum Schott; Caladium stangeanum K. Koch; Caladium steudneriifolium Engl.; Caladium surinamense Miq.; Caladium thelemannii Verschaff.; Caladium thripedestum Lem.; Caladium troubetzkoyi Hérincq; Caladium vellozianum Schott, nom. illeg.; Caladium verschaffeltii Lem.; Caladium wagneri Engl.; Caladium wightii Lem.; Caladium x hortulanum Birdsey; Cyrtospadix bicolor (Aiton) Britton & P. Wilson)

Nicaragua to Argentina. Glabrous herb, underground stem, thin almost trasparent leaves, glabrous greenish-white spathe

See Species Plantarum 2: 964. 1753, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... 3: 316. 1789, Magasin Encyclopédique 4(16): 464–471. 1801, Description des Plantes Nouvelles ... Jardin de J. M. Cels 30. 1801, Meletemata Botanica 1: 18. 1832, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 3: 41. 1841, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 13. 1853, Delectus Seminum quae in Horto Hamburgensium Botanico. 1853, Index Seminum [Berlin] App. 6. 1854 [Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 6. 1854], Oesterreichisches Botanisches Wochenblatt 4: 417. 1854, Berliner Allgemeine Gartenzeitung 135. 1857, L’illustration horticole Misc. 58–59, 61, t. 185. 1858, Flora do Paraná ser. 2 3: 164. 1858, Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 9: 38. 1859, Bonplandia 7: 163. 1859, L’illustration horticole 7: t. 252, 257. 1860, Wochenscrift des Vereines zur Befördung des Gärtenbaues in den Königl. Preussischen Staaten für Gärtnerei und Pflanzenkunde 136, 266–267. 1861, L’illustration horticole t. 311, 316, 322, f. 1. 1862, Wochenschrift für Gärtnerei und Pflanzenkunde 1862: 135. 1862, L’illustration horticole t. 354. 1863, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 2: 459, 463, 465–466. 1879, Arquivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro 5(1–4): 386. 1881, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 6: 284. 1885, L’illustration horticole 38: 71, 101, t. 138, 532. 1890, L’illustration horticole 51, t. 128. 1891 and Arquivos do museo paraense 8: 176. 1950, The Cultivated Aroids 42. 1951, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 62: 125. 1975, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 63: 123. 1976, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 123: 452. 1976, Cytologia 43: 289–303. 1978, Cytologia 53: 59–66. 1988, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 78(3,VIII): 136–137. 1991, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 81(3:VIII): 116. 1994, Science in China. Series B, Chemistry, life sciences & earth sciences. 37(3): 280–285. 1994, Plant Cell Rep. 23(10–11): 716–720. 2005, Plant Biol. (Stuttg). 8(4): 529–534. 2006

(Acrid and caustic sap. Rootstalk emetic, emmenagogue and purgative; fresh plant cathartic and anthelmintic; dried pulverized leaves as a dusting powder for unclean wounds, for ulcers. Corms used for paralysis. Powdered rhizome used to relieve bodyache. Veterinary medicine, leaves in the nostrils of dogs to make them better hunters.)

in English: angel wing, caladium, elephant ear, elephant’s ear, fancy-leaved caladium, heart of Jesus, mother-in-law plant

in Peru: oreja de perro, sachapaico, tasha, ushu

in India: sam taupi

in Japan: karajiumu

in Philippines: corazon de Maria, corazon de Santa Maria, linsang pula

in Congo: eyeka la ngeie

in Yoruba: kooko obalufon, kooko oodua, kooko soponna

Caladium picturatum K. Koch & C.D. Bouché (Caladium adamantinum L. Linden; Caladium aturense G.S. Bunting; Caladium belleyenei Lem.; Caladium hastatum Lem.; Caladium lemaireanum Barraq.; Caladium picturatum K. Koch; Caladium picturatum f. viridissimum K. Koch; Caladium picturatum var. adamantinum (L. Linden) Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. albostriatulum K. Koch; Caladium picturatum var. belleyenei (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. elegans Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. hastatum (Lem.) Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. lemaireanum (Barraq.) Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. osyanum K. Koch; Caladium picturatum var. porphyroneuron (K. Koch) Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. sagittatum (L. Linden & Rodigas) Engl.; Caladium picturatum var. troubetzkoyi (Hérincq) Engl.; Caladium porphyroneuron K. Koch; Caladium sagittatum L. Linden & Rodigas; Caladium troubetzkoyi Hérincq)

Venezuela, Brazil. Variable leaves

See Index Seminum [Berlin] 1854: 6. 1854, L’illustration horticole 1860: t. 252. 1860, Flora Brasiliensis 3(2): 187. 1878 and Phytologia 60(5): 298–300. 1986, Aroideana 9: 193. 1986 (Contains irritant crystals of calcium oxalate and can cause dermatitis. Rootstalk emetic and purgative; fresh plant cathartic and anthelmintic.)

in English: fancy-leaved caladium

Calamagrostis Adanson Poaceae (Gramineae)

Greek kalamos ‘reed’ and agrostis, agrostidos ‘grass, weed, couch grass’; a difficult genus often included in Deyeuxia, species polymorphic, see Familles des plantes. 31, 530. Paris 1763, Tentamen Florae Germanicae 1: 34. 1788, Ess. Agrostogr. 43–44, 160. 1812, Principes Fondamentaux de Somiologie 27. 1814, Observations sur les Graminées de la Flore Belgique 126. 1824, Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis 50. 1828, Reise um die Erde 1: 456. 1834, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 414. 1841, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 101. 1854, Flore de Département des Hautes-Pyrénées 74. 1867, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 256–257, t. 2, f. 7. 1874, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 109. 1886, Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Wien. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe. Abteilung 1 102: 135, 147. 1893 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 3(42–43): 241–244. 1906 [1907], Philippine Journal of Science 5(4): 328–330. 1910, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 246: 169 1925, Journal of Japanese Botany 12: 18. 1936, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 74: 19. 1947, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 48(4): 117–118, f. 2. 1958, Grasses of Burma ... 395, 397. 1960, Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 63(3): 229–251. 1960, Darwiniana 19(2–4): 404–412. 1975, Botanical Magazine 89: 99–114. 1976, Darwiniana 21(2–4): 417–453. 1978, Taxon 31(3): 561. 1982, Turun yliopiston julkaisuja—Annales Universitatis Turkuensis, Sarja A II, Biologia-Geographica 3: 1–12. 1982 [also Ann. Univ. Fenn. Abo., A 3: 1–12. 1982], American Journal of Botany 71: 285–293. 1984, Parodiana 4(1): 73–95. 1986, Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Comenianae, Botanica 33: 51–55. 1986, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 73: 294–295. 1988, Willdenowia 18: 243–252. 1988, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 74: 1671–1673. 1989, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 76: 1331–1332. 1991, Cytologia 56: 437–452. 1991, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 78(4): 36–47. 1993, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 240–241. 1994, Xenia Villavicencio, Revision der Gattung Deyeuxia in Bolivien: eine taxonomisch-anatomische studie... 1–304. Berlin 1995, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 51–52. 1995, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81(5): 98–101. 1996, Flora Mediterranea 8: 251–262. 1998, Opera Botanica 137: 1–42. 1999, Am. J. Bot. 86: 1–16, 17–31. 1999, Am. J. Bot. 87: 591– 596. 2000, Am. J. Bot. 88: 1058–1064, 1065–1070, 1863– 1867. 2001, Am. J. Bot. 89: 346–351, 642–654. 2002, Am. J. Bot. 90: 85–92, 270–277, 364–369. 2003, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 191–227. 2003, Am. J. Bot. 91: 1147–1153, 1333–1344, 2004–2012, 2013–2021. 2004, Am. J. Bot. 92: 422–431. 2005, Ecography 28(1): 37–48. 2005.

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. (Arundo agrostoides Pursh; Arundo canadensis Michx.; Arundo cinnoides Muhl.; Arundo conoides Eaton; Arundo fissa Willd. ex Steud.; Calamagrostis agrostoides (Pursh) Pursh ex Spreng.; Calamagrostis alaskana Kearney; Calamagrostis anomala Suksd.; Calamagrostis atropurpurea Nash; Calamagrostis blanda Beal; Calamagrostis canadensis var. campestris Kearney; Calamagrostis canadensis var. pallida Stebbins; Calamagrostis canadensis var. robusta Vasey ex Rothr.; Calamagrostis cinnoides (Muhl.) W.P.C. Barton; Calamagrostis columbiensis Nutt. ex A. Gray; Calamagrostis hirtigluma Steud.; Calamagrostis langsdorfii var. acuminata (Vasey ex Shear & Rydb.) Litw.; Calamagrostis mexicana Nutt.; Calamagrostis michauxii Trin. ex Steud.; Calamagrostis oregonensis Buckley; Calamagrostis pallida C. Mueller; Calamagrostis pallida Vasey & Scribn. ex Vasey, nom. illeg.; Calamagrostis scribneri Beal; Calamagrostis scribneri Beal var. imberbis Stebbins; Cinna purshii Kunth; Deyeuxia canadensis (Michx.) Munro ex Hook.)

Northern America, Canada, USA. Perennial bunchgrass, vigorous, densely clumped, rhizomatous, inflorescence erect, long hairs on florets, forage, fodder, most palatable when young and succulent

See Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 73. 1803, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 15, 152, 157. 1812, Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, ... 1: 86. 1814, Descriptio uberior Graminum 187. 1817, The Genera of North American Plants 1: 46. 1818, Manual of the Flora of the northern States and Canada ed. 2 147. 1818, W.P.C. Barton (1786–1856), Compendium Florae Philadelphicae: containing a description of the indigenous and naturalized plants found within a circuit of ten miles around Philadelphia. 1: 45. 1818, Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. 225, t. 4, f. 10. 1824, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 252. 1825, Révision des Graminées 1: 67. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 144. 1840, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 188. 1854, Annales Botanicae Systematicae 6: 986. 1861, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23: 345. 1861, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14: 92, 334. 1862, Report Upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian, in Charge of First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler ... vol. vi—Botany 6: 285. 1878 [1879], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 79. 1892, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 343, 349. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 5: 26. 1897, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 31–32. 1898 and Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden 2(6): 153–154. 1901, Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik, Floristik, Pflanzengeographie 12(3): 43. 1906, Rhodora 32: 45–46. 1930, Contr. U.S.Natl. Herb. 48: 192. 2003

(Infected with ergot.)

in English: bluejoint, bluejoint reedgrass, Canada blue-joint, Canada reedgrass, marsh pinegrass, marsh reedgrass, meadow pinegrass

Calamovilfa (A. Gray) Hack. Poaceae (Gramineae)

From the Greek kalamos ‘reed’ plus the genus Vilfa Adans., type Calamovilfa brevipilis (Torr.) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw., see A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 582. 1848, True Grasses 113. 1890 and U.S.D.A. Bull. 772: 126. 1920, Brittonia 12: 71–77. 1960, J.W. Thieret, “Synopsis of the genus Calamovilfa (Gramineae).” Castanea [The Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society] 31(2): 145–152. 1966, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 94: 199–200. 1967, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 35–36. 2001, Restoration Ecology 9(1): 60–70. Mar 2001.

Calamovilfa gigantea (Nutt.) Scribn. & Merr. (Calamagrostis gigantea Nutt.; Toxeumia gigantea Nutt. ex Scribn. & Merr.)

Utah, Nebraska, Arizona, Texas. Perennial, tall, mostly solitary, ligule a ring of hairs, rhizomes elongate and scaly, panicle long exserted and open, panicle branches ascending to strongly divergent, spikelets flattened and 1-flowered, glumes unequal and straight, lemmas straight and pubescent, excellent sand binding, grows on sand dunes, sandy banks, prairies, river banks, flood plains

See Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, 5: 143. 1837 and Circular, Division of Agrostology, United States Department of Agriculture 35: 2. 1901

(Ceremonial, medicine.)

in English: big sand reed, giant sand reed

Calamus L. Arecaceae (Palmae)

Latin calamus and Greek kalamos ‘a reed, cane’; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 1: 325. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 152. 1754, Definitiones Generum Plantarum 395. 1760, Familles des Plantes 2: 24, 599. 1763, Geoffroy, Etienne-Francois (1672–1731), Description, vertus et usages de sept ceuts dix-neuf plantes ... : et de cent trente-quartre animaux, en sept cents trente planches, gravées en taille-douce, sur les desseins d’après natures, de m. de Gersault [Garsault, Francois Alexandre Pierre de, 1691–1778], par mm. de Fehrt, Prevost, Duflos, Martinet, & c. / et rangées suivant l’ordre du livre intitulé Matiere médicale de m. Geoffroy... Paris: P.F. Didot le jeune, 1767 [Vols. 2,5 have title: Les figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en medecine, décrits dans Matiere médicale de m. Geoffroy ... dessinés d’apres nature par m. de Garsault... Paris, L’auteur.], Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 24: 432. 1864, Les Palmiers 230. 1878, Genera Plantarum 3: 937. 1883, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 731. 1891 and Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden. Calcutta. 11(1): 496. 1908, Gardens’ Bulletin ser. 3. 14: 518, 523, 525. 1955, Kiew, R. “Conservation status of palms in Peninsular Malaysia. Utilization of palms in Peninsular Malaysia.” Malayan Naturalist 43(1 & 2): 3–15 and 43–67. 1989.

Calamus acanthospathus Griff. (Calamus feanus Becc.; Calamus feanus var. medogensis S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus montanus T. Anderson; Calamus yunnanensis Govaerts; Calamus yunnanensis S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus yunnanensis var. densiflorus S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus yunnanensis var. intermedius S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Palmijuncus acanthospathus (Griff.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus montanus (T. Anderson) Kuntze)

India.

See Calcutta Journal of Natural History and Miscellany of the Arts and Sciences in India 5: 39. 1845, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 11: 9. 1869, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 733. 1891, The Flora of British India [J.D. Hooker] 6(18): 448. 1893 and Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 27(2): 134–137, pl. 1, f. 1–12. 1989, World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1): 11. 1999

(Antiinflammatory, astringent, antidiarrheal. Flagellum for catching small animals.)

in China: yun nan sheng teng

in India: esong

Calamus andamanicus Kurz (Palmijuncus andamanicus (Kurz) Kuntze)

India. Climber

See Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 43(2): 211. 1874, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 733. 1891

(For skin diseases.)

in India: motabet

Calamus brandisii Becc.

India.

See Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 6: 448. 1892

(For earache.)

in India: sural

Calamus caesius Blume (Calamus glaucescens Blume, nom. illeg.; Palmijuncus caesius (Blume) Kuntze; Palmijuncus glaucescens Kuntze; Rotang caesius (Blume) Baill.)

Thailand, Philippines. Rattan, clustering, high-climbing, dioecious, short horizontal stolons. compact cluster of aerial stems, leaf-sheath dull green armed with triangular spines, rachis with reflexed spines on the lower surface, leaflets usually in alternate pairs, male flower greenish-yellow, female flower larger than the male, mature fruit 1-seeded ovoid, seed with an outer fleshy seed-coat, closely related to Calamus optimus Becc. and Calamus trachycoleus Becc., found in the lowlands on alluvial flats, seasonally flooded river banks, margins of freshwater or peat-swamp forest

See Species Plantarum 1: 325. 1753, Rumphia 3: 57, 65. 1847, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 733. 1891 and Dransfield, J. “C. caesius and C. trachycoleus compared.” Gardens’ Bulletin, Singapore 30: 75–78. 1979, Plant Systematics and Evolution 189: 83–122. 1994

(Irritant to the mucous membranes.)

in Indonesia: rotan sega, rotan sego, rotan taman

in Philippines: sega, seka, sika

in Thailand: takathong, wai ta kha thong

Calamus castaneus Griff. (Calamus castaneus Becc.; Calamus castaneus var. griffithianus (Mart.) Furtado; Calamus griffithianus Mart.; Palmijuncus griffithianus (Mart.) Kuntze)

Thailand, Sumatra. Clustering, leaf-sheaths spiny

See Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 28. 1845, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 733. 1891 and Gard. Bull. Singapore 15: 50. 1956

(Immature fruits used for cough.)

in Malaysia: rotan cucor

in Thailand: wai-chakkao, wai-khao

Calamus draco Willd. (Calamus draconis Oken; Daemonorops draco (Willd.) Blume; Daemonorops draco Blume; Palmijuncus draco Kuntze; Palmijuncus draco (Willd.) Kuntze)

India.

See Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 2(1): 203. 1799, Allg. Naturgesch. iii. (1) 648. 1841, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 732. 1891 and Journ. Arn. Arb. xxxi. 272. 1950

(Used in Sidha.)

in India: catikkilanku, curalkilanku, kandamoorgarittum, prappankilanku, tevattirattal

Calamus erectus Roxb. (Calamus collinus Griff.; Calamus erectus var. birmanicus Becc.; Calamus erectus var. collinus (Griff.) Becc.; Calamus erectus var. macrocarpus (Griff. ex Mart.) Becc.; Calamus erectus var. schizospathus (Griff.) Becc.; Calamus macrocarpus Griff. ex Mart.; Calamus schizospathus Griff.; Palmijuncus collinus (Griff.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus erectus (Roxb.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus macrocarpus (Griff. ex Mart.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus schizospathus (Griff.) Kuntze)

SE Asia, China, Vietnam. A non-climbing rattan palm, densely tufted, clump-forming, spiny green stems, dark brown ovoid-oblong fruits subtended by spreading perianth, fruits edible after removing the pericarp, bitter shoots can be eaten, pioneer species

See Hort. Bengal. 72. 1814, Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 774. 1832, Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 31–32. 1845, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 733. 1891, Fl. Brit. India 6: 439. 1892 and Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 197. 1902, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11: 125. 1908, Pharmaceutical Biology 27(2): 65–73. 1989

(Tender young shoots eaten for skin diseases, stomach problems, removal of worms, chest complaints and gastrointestinal disorders. Masticatory, seeds used in place of betel nut. Seeds eaten for indigestion and stomachache.)

in English: viagra palm

in India: arotong, azotong, jeng, jengu, nelapoka, pre, tare, taur

Calamus extensus Roxb.

India.

See Hort. Bengal. 77. 1814, Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 777. 1832

(Used in Ayurveda. Pulp of the ripe fruit surrounding the seeds astringent, also for snakebites.)

in India: berisu, bet, betasu, bettam, jatayurkuli, vetasa

Calamus flagellum Griff. ex Mart. (Calamus flagellum var. furvifurfuraceus S.J. Pei & San Y. Chen; Calamus flagellum var. karinensis Becc.; Calamus karinensis (Becc.) S.J. Pei & San Y. Chen; Calamus polygamus Roxb.; Palmijuncus flagellum (Griff. ex Mart.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus polygamus (Roxb.) Kuntze)

China.

See Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 3: 780. 1832, Historia Naturalis Palmarum 3: 333, pl. 176, f. 9. 1849, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 733. 1891 and Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden. Calcutta. 11(1): 129–130, t. 6. 1908, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 27(2): 133. 1989

(Young tender shoots eaten for stomach problems, removal of worms, dysentery, cold and coughing. Edible fruits used as betel nut. Magic, leaves and stem kept in the vicinity of the house to prevent the entry of evil spirit.)

in China: chang bian teng

in India: ramang, resin

Calamus gamblei Becc. (Calamus gamblei Becc. ex Becc. & Hook.f.; Calamus gamblei var. sphaerocarpus Becc.)

India. Palm, long and sharp spines

See Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 6: 453. 1893

(Religious and supernatural beliefs, conserved in sacred groves.)

in India: pachchooral

Calamus gracilis Roxb. (Calamus gracilis Thwaites, nom. illeg.; Calamus blancoi (Blanco) Kunth; Calamus gracilis Blanco, nom. illeg.; Calamus hainanensis C.C. Chang & L.G. Xu ex R.H. Miao; Palmijuncus gracilis (Roxb.) Kuntze)

India.

See Hort. Bengal. 73. 1814, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 3: 781–783. 1832, Flora de Filipinas 267. 1837, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... 3: 595. 1841, Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae 330. 1864, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 733. 1891 and Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni 1981(3): 116. 1981

(Ceremonial, ritual, worship, leaves used in poojas.)

in China: hai nan sheng teng, xi jing sheng teng

in India: yoyee

Calamus javensis Blume (Calamus amplectens Becc.; Calamus borneensis Miq.; Calamus borneensis Becc., nom. illeg.; Calamus equestris Blume, nom. illeg.; Calamus filiformis Becc.; Calamus javensis subvar. intermedius Becc.; Calamus javensis subvar. penangianus Becc.; Calamus javensis subvar. polyphyllus Becc.; Calamus javensis subvar. purpurascens Becc.; Calamus javensis subvar. tenuissimus Becc.; Calamus javensis var. acicularis Becc.; Calamus kemamanensis Furtado; Calamus tetrastichus Blume; Palmijuncus amplectens (Becc.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus borneensis (Miq.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus javensis (Blume) Kuntze; Palmijuncus tetrastichus (Blume) Kuntze)

Thailand, Malesia, Philippines. Sparsely spiny, spiny leaf-sheaths, in tropical rain forest

See Rumphia 3: 62. 1847, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 733. 1891, Fl. Brit. India 6: 443. 1892 and Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(1): 185. 1908, Gard. Bull. Singapore 15: 170. 1956

(The edible raw cabbage for curing coughs.)

Common names: arorog, arurug, coonk stook, hoe cating, howe cacing, lempinit ular-ular, pelus, pelus mingay, pelus susu, penjalin cacing, pulut putih, rattan, rotan cacing, rotan lilin, rotan mendon, rotan opot, rote batu, timai, uwai peladas, uwai podos, wai kuan, wai tek, wi anak, wi peladas

in Indonesia: howe cacing, rotan lilin, rotan opot

in Malaysia: coonk stook, lempinit ular-ular, rotan lilin

in Philippines: arorog, arurug, rotan cacing

in Thailand: rote batu, wai kuan, wai tek

Calamus latifolius Roxb. (Calamus humilis Roxb.; Calamus inermis T. Anderson; Calamus inermis var. menghaiensis San Y. Chen; Calamus latifolius Kurz, nom. illeg.; Calamus latifolius var. marmoratus Becc.; Calamus macracanthus T. Anderson; Palmijuncus humilis Kuntze; Palmijuncus humilis (Roxb.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus inermis Kuntze; Palmijuncus inermis (T. Anderson) Kuntze; Palmijuncus latifolius (Roxb.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus macracanthus (T. Anderson) Kuntze; Palmijuncus macroacanthus Kuntze)

China, Nepal, Himalaya. Robust climbing cane, leaf sheaths armed

See Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 72–73. 1814, Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 751, 775. 1832, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 11: 10–11. 1869 [1871 publ. 1869], Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 43: 20, 210. 1875 [1874 publ. 26 Apr 1875], Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 732–733. 1891 and Phil. J. Sci. 7: 413–415. 1912, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12: 107. 1918, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 24(2): 202. 2002

(Young tender shoots taken for cold and coughing. Stems for fracture. Ceremonial, ritual, leaves used in poojas, at the time of marriage or shifting houses.)

in Bangladesh: karat-bet

in India: katu-tsjurel, peddapemu, perim-tsjurel, pre, takat, takit, taur

Calamus longispathus Ridley

Peninsular Malaysia. Clustering, thicket-forming, low climbing, without leaf-sheaths

See Mat. Fl. Malay. Penins. 2: 209. 1907

(The fruits astringent.)

in Malaysia: rotan kunyung

Calamus macrorrhynchus Burret

China.

See Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 13(120): 590–592. 1937

(Astringent.)

Calamus nambariensis Becc. (Calamus banlingensis Chang Y. Yang, Zheng H.Yang & J.Lu; Calamus doriaei Becc.; Calamus giganteus var. robustus S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus inermis T. Anderson; Calamus inermis var. menghaiensis S.Yung Chen, S.J. Pei & K.L. Wang; Calamus khasianus Becc.; Calamus multinervis var. menglaensis S.Yung Chen, S.J. Pei & K.L. Wang; Calamus nambariensis var. alpinus S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus nambariensis var. furfuraceus S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus nambariensis var. menglongensis S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus nambariensis var. xishuangbannaensis S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus nambariensis var. yingjiangensis S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus obovoideus S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus palustris var. longistachys S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Calamus platyacanthoides Merr.; Calamus platyacanthus Warb. ex Becc.; Calamus platyacanthus Mart.; Calamus platyacanthus var. longicarpus S.Yung Chen & K.L. Wang; Calamus platyacanthus var. mediostachys S.J. Pei & S. Yang Che; Calamus polydesmus Becc.; Calamus wailong S.J. Pei & S. Yang Chen; Palmijuncus inermis (T. Anderson) Kuntze)

China, India. Young tender bitter shoots eaten

See Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 11: 11. 1871, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 733. 1891, The Flora of British India 6: 456. 1893 and Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden. Calcutta. 11(1): 430–431, 433–436, 442–444, t. 193–194, 198. 1908, Lingnan Science Journal 13(1): 54. 1934, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 27(2): 138–144, pl. 2–3. 1989, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 24(2): 202–203. 2002, World Bamboo Rattan 5(4): 25. 2007

(Ceremonial, ritual, leaves used in poojas, at the time of marriage or shifting houses.)

in China: nan ba sheng teng

in India: takit

Calamus ornatus Blume (Palmijuncus ornatus (Blume) Kuntze; Rotang ornatus (Blume) Baill.)

Thailand, Sumatra, Java, Borneo. Rattan, massive clustering, climbing, dioecious, minute terminal leaflets, stem without leaf-sheaths, nodes rather prominent, armed with flattened triangular black spines with yellowish bases, flagellum armed with short black yellow-based spines inflorescence flagelliferous, ripe fruit short beaked, seed ellipsoid angular, related to Calamus scipionum Lour. and Calamus peregrinus Furt., in secondary to primary forest, tropical rain forest

See Rumphia 3: 58. 1847, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 733. 1891

(Water from the raw cabbage used to cure stomachache and diarrhea. During childbirth, women may drink the extract of the roots to alleviate pain. Ash of the stem used to cure yaws.)

in Indonesia: rotan buku dalam, rotan kesup, rotan lambang

in Malaysia: rotan dok, rotan saga badak, sek batang, we maliang

in Philippines: borongan, limuran, rimoran

in Thailand: waai chaang

Calamus paspalanthus Becc. (Calamus intumescens (Becc.) Ridl.; Daemonorops intumescens Becc.)

Malaysia, Borneo. Rattan, solitary, creeping, stem without leaf-sheaths, adventitious roots develop at almost every node near the ground, ripe fruit edible, young shoot eaten, in primary forest

See Fl. Brit. India 6: 450. 1893 and Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 222. 1902, Mat. Fl. Malay. Penins. 2: 200. 1907

in Malaysia: rotan sirikis, wi (= lempinit) singkau (= tingkau), wi lohong

(For skin diseases.)

Calamus pseudotenuis Becc. (Calamus pseudo-tenuis Beccari ex Becc. & Hook. f.; Calamus pseudotenuis Beccari ex Becc. & Hook. f.; Calamus pseudotenuis Becc. & Hook. f.)

India, Sri Lanka.

See Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 6: 445. 1892

(Seed paste taken against sterility.)

in India: pirambu

Calamus rheedei Griff. (Daemonorops rheedei Mart.; Daemonorops rheedei (Griff.) Mart.; Palmijuncus rheedei (Griff.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus rheedei Kuntze)

India.

See Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 73. 1845, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 732. 1891

(Seeds powered and applied in ulcer.)

in India: kattucural

Calamus rotang L. (Calamus monoecus Roxb.; Calamus roxburghii Griff.; Draco rotang Crantz; Palmijuncus monoecus (Roxb.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus monoecus Kuntze; Rotang linnaei Baill.; Rotanga calamus Crantz)

India, Sri Lanka.

See Species Plantarum 1: 325. 1753, Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 43. 1845, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 733. 1891 and Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(1): 271–272. 1908, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 63(3): 123. 1976, Cell and Chromosome Research 8: 69–73. 1985, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 73(3-vi): 157. 1986

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Astringent, tonic, spasmolytic, antidote, antiinflammatory, antidiarrheal, for snakebites, chronic fevers, piles, strangury, convulsions. Roots a remedy for dysentery, biliousness and febrifuge. Wood vermifuge. A fungus present on the canes. Magico-religious beliefs and performances.)

in English: chair bottom cane

in India: abhrapushpa, arini, bed, bedisu, bemt, bet, betham, bethama, bethamu, bethasu, betta, bettam, bettamu, bettha, betthada balli, betthama, betthamu, betthapu chettu, catikkilanku, choorai, chooral, chural, churei, churel, cural, curalkilanku, dirghapatraka, dirghavalli, dodda bettha, gandhapusha, habbe, hebbe, hejje, jatayarkuli, kalana, latavamsa, manjarinamra, mellisuppirambu, naagabettha, naagara bettha, nagabetta, neeruprabha, nichula, niruprabba, nirvanji, nirvanni, paemu bethamu, pemu, pepa, perambu, pirambu, pirampu, pirapan kizhangu, pirappan, pisin, prabba, prabbali, prabbili, prabha, prabili, prappankilanku, punampu, purampu, ratha, rathabhra, rattan, rotang, sadi, sannabethamu, sannabettamu, shita, sothu perambu, sural, suralbetta, sushena, suvedagandam, suvedam, tevattirattal, vaanira, vaeth, vaethasamu, vanira, vaniram, vanjula, vetagra, vetasa, vetasah, vetasi, vetra, vetrah, vettiram, vetus, vidula

in Sri Lanka: wewel

Calamus tenuis Roxb. (Calamus amarus Lour.; Calamus heliotropium Buch.-Ham. ex Kunth; Calamus horrens Blume; Calamus royleanus Griff.; Calamus stoloniferus Teijsm. & Binn., nom. inval.; Calamus tenuis Thwaites, nom. illeg. hom.; Palmijuncus amarus Kuntze; Palmijuncus amarus (Lour.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus heliotropium (Buch.-Ham. ex Kunth) Kuntze; Palmijuncus heliotropium Kuntze; Palmijuncus horrens (Blume) Kuntze; Palmijuncus horrens Kuntze; Palmijuncus royleanus Kuntze; Palmijuncus royleanus (Griff.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus tenuis Kuntze; Palmijuncus tenuis (Roxb.) Kuntze; Rotang royleanus (Griff.) Baill.)

India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.

See Hort. Bengal. 73, Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 780. 1832, Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae 330. 1864, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 733. 1891 and Economic Botany 56(2): 147–153. 2002

(Used in Ayurveda. Astringent, tonic, spasmolytic, antidote, antiinflammatory, antidiarrheal, for snakebites, chronic fevers, piles, strangury, convulsions. Roots a remedy for dysentery, biliousness and febrifuge. Wood vermifuge.)

in English: bareilly cane

in India: bernt, jail bet, jali bet, kashri-bet, vetasa, vetra

Calamus thwaitesii Becc. (Calamus thwaitesii var. canaranus Becc.)

India, Sri Lanka.

See Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 6: 441. 1893 and Journal of Ethnopharmacology 47(3): 149–158. 1995

(Stem sap as antifertility drug.)

in India: handi beettha, jiddu bettha, kumaari bettha

in Sri Lanka: ma wewel

Calamus travancoricus Bedd. ex Becc. (Calamus travancoricus Bedd. ex Hook.f.)

India. Slender climbing canes

See Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 6: 452. 1893 [Sep 1893]

(Used in Ayurveda. Young tender leaves for worms, dyspepsia and ear disease. Religious and supernatural beliefs, conserved in sacred groves.)

in English: cane

in India: baale bettha, erucural, kannichchooral, kattucural, manichooral, maniperambu, naayi bettha, naibetta, nayibetta, pirambu, tsjeratsjurel, tsjeru-tsjurel, tsjerutsjurel, vethra, vetra

Calamus viminalis Willd. (Calamus extensus Mart., nom. illeg.; Calamus fasciculatus Roxb.; Calamus fasciculatus subvar. andamanicus Becc.; Calamus fasciculatus subvar. bengalensis Becc.; Calamus fasciculatus subvar. cochinchinensis Becc.; Calamus fasciculatus subvar. pinangianus Becc.; Calamus litoralis Blume; Calamus pseudorotang Mart. ex Kunth; Calamus viminalis subvar. pinangianus Becc.; Calamus viminalis var. andamanicus Becc.; Calamus viminalis var. bengalensis Becc.; Calamus viminalis var. cochinchinensis Becc.; Calamus viminalis var. fasciculatus (Roxb.) Becc.; Palmijuncus fasciculatus (Roxb.) Kuntze; Palmijuncus litoralis (Blume) Kuntze; Palmijuncus pseudorotang (Mart. ex Kunth) Kuntze; Palmijuncus viminalis (Willd.) Kuntze; Rotang viminalis (Willd.) Baill.)

India, China. Clumping, armed petioles, vicious spines, large clusters of hooks

See Sp. Pl. Editio quarta 2(1): 203. 1799, Rumphia 3: 43. 1847, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 732–733. 1891 and Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(1): 206–207. 1908

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha.)

in English: bitter rattan palm, lawyer palm, rattan

in Cambodia: piidau

in India: amalavetasamu, ambuvetasa, amlavetasamu, bet, betham, bettamu, cerucural, chural, cirupirappankilanku, cural, kyeingkha, kyenka, naadeyi, nadeyi, niruhabbe, papatige, parambu, pepa, pepabettamu, pirambu, pirampu, purampu, tsjerutsjurel, umbavetus, vetra

Calandrinia Kunth Portulacaceae (Montiaceae, Talinaceae)

For the Swiss botanist Jean Louis Calandrini, 1703–1758, professor of mathematics and philosophy at Geneva, traveller, author of Theses physicae de vegetatione et generatione plantarum. Genevae 1734; see Familles des Plantes 2: 245, 609. 1763, Sir William Watson (1715–1787), Observations upon the effects of lightning, with an account of the apparatus proposed to prevent its mischiefs to buildings ... being answers to certain questions proposed by Mr. Calandrini. London 1764, Bonpland, Aimé (1773–1858), Nova Genera et Species Plantarum. [H.B.K.] Lutetiae Parisiorum: Sumtibus Librairie Graeco-Latino-Germanicae, 1815–1825, Philos. Mag. Ann. Chem. 2(1): 123. 1827, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 3: 358. 1828, Edinburgh Journal of Science 3: 356. 1831, Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux. Phanérogames 5: 229. 1836, Lilja, N. (Nils) (1808–1870), Flora Öfver Sveriges Odlade Vexter Stockholm: Zacharias Haeggström, 1839, Novarum Stirpium Decades 84. 1839, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 15: 500– 502. 1897 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(4): 207–214. 1946, Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 5: 28. 1953, Parodiana 3(2): 330. 1985, Gayana, Bot. 42: 1–157. 1985, Fl. Veracruz 51: 1–38. 1986, Phytologia 60(3): 172. 1986, Phytologia 70(3): 223. 1991, Phytologia 74(4): 277. 1993, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 15(3): 419–439. 2000.

Calandrinia monandra Hershkovitz (Calandrinia monandra DC.; Monocosmia corrigioloides Fenzl, nom. illeg.; Monocosmia monandra (Ruiz & Pav.) Baill.; Monocosmia monandra Baill.; Talinum monandrum Ruiz & Pav.)

South America.

See Fl. Peruv. Prodr. 65, in obs. 1794, Systema Vegetabilium Florae Peruvianae et Chilensis 118. 1798, Prodr. (DC.) 3: 359. 1828, Novarum Stirpium Decades 93. 1839, Histoire des Plantes (Baillon) 9: 72, fig. 86. 1888

(Antioxidant and antiseptic.)

Calanthe R. Br. Orchidaceae

Greek kalos ‘beautiful’ and anthos ‘a flower’, pretty flowers; see Robert Brown, Edwards’s Botanical Register. 7: sub t. 573. 1821, Botanical Register; consisting of coloured ... 9: ad t. 720. 1823, Mémoires de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 4: 39. 1828 and B. Lewis and Phillip Cribb, Orchids of Vanuatu. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1989, B.A. Lewis and P.J. Cribb, Orchids of the Solomon Islands and Bougainville. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1991, Die Orchidee 45(2): 52, 54–55. 1994.

Calanthe monophylla Ridl.

Malaysia. Orchid

See J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 4: 70. 1909

(Magic, the smell from the burning leaves to scare away ghosts.)

Calanthe plantaginea Lindl. (Alismorchis lindleyana Kuntze; Alismorkis lindleyana (Lindl.) Kuntze; Calanthe plantaginea Griff., nom. illeg.)

India, Himalaya, China. Small erect terrestrial herb, white or pale lilac flowers, oblong capsule

See Numer. List [Wallich] n. 7346. 1832, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 250, 252. 1833, Notulae ad Plantas Asiaticas 3: 368. 1851, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 650. 1891 and Die Orchidee 45(2): 52, 54–55. 1994

(Root made into a paste and applied on wounds and cuts.)

in China: che qian xia ji lan

Calanthe tricarinata Lindl. (Alismorchis tricarinata Kuntze; Alismorkis tricarinata (Lindl.) Kuntze; Calanthe lamellata Hayata; Calanthe megalopha Franch.; Calanthe undulata Schltr.; Calanthe undulata J.J. Sm.; Paracalanthe lamellata (Hayata) Kudô; Paracalanthe lamellata Kudô; Paracalanthe megalophora Miyabe & Kudô; Paracalanthe tricarinata Kudô; Paracalanthe tricarinata (Lindl.) Kudô)

India.

See Numer. List [Wallich] n. 7339. 1832, The Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants 252. 1833, Nouvelles archives du muséum d’histoire naturelle, sér. 2, 10: 85. 1887, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 650. 1891 and Icones Bogorienses [Boerlage] 2: t. 112 B. 1903, Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 5(24): 110–111, pl. 84. 1912, Icones plantarum formosanarum nec non et contributiones ad floram formosanam. 4: 70, f. 33. 1914, Journal of the Society of Tropical Agriculture 2: 236–237. 1930, J. Fac. Agric., Sapporo xxvi. 386. 1932, Taxon 28: 406–408. 1979, Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 4: 9–62. 1981

(Root extract for typhoid and jaundice.)

in China: san leng xia ji lan

in India: garur panja

Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames (Alismorchis angraeciflora Kuntze; Alismorchis diploxiphion Kuntze; Alismorchis furcata Kuntze; Alismorchis gracillima Kuntze; Alismorchis veratrifolia Kuntze; Alismorkis angraeciflora (Rchb.f.) Kuntze; Alismorkis diploxiphion (Hook.f.) Kuntze; Alismorkis furcata (Bateman ex Lindl.) Kuntze; Alismorkis gracillima (Lindl.) Kuntze; Alismorkis veratrifolia (Willd.) Kuntze, nom. illeg.; Amblyglottis veratrifolia (Willd.) Blume; Amblyglottis veratrifolia Blume, nom. illeg.; Bletia quadrifida Herb. Ham. ex Hook.f.; Bletia quadrifida Hook.f.; Calanthe angraeciflora Rchb.f.; Calanthe australasica D.L. Jones & M.A. Clem.; Calanthe bracteosa Schltr.; Calanthe bracteosa Rchb.f.; Calanthe brevicolumna Hayata; Calanthe breviflos Ridl.; Calanthe catilligera Rchb.f.; Calanthe celebica Rolfe; Calanthe comosa Reichb.f.; Calanthe diploxiphion Hook.f.; Calanthe furcata Batem. ex Lindley; Calanthe furcata f. albolineata K. Nakaj.; Calanthe furcata f. albomarginata K. Nakaj.; Calanthe furcata f. brevicolumna (Hayata) M. Hiroe; Calanthe gracillima Lindl.; Calanthe nephroglossa Schltr.; Calanthe orthocentron Schltr.; Calanthe perrottetii A. Rich.; Calanthe proboscidea Rchb.f.; Calanthe pubescens Ridl.; Calanthe rubicallosa Masam.; Calanthe triplicata Ames; Calanthe triplicata f. albolineata (K. Nakaj.) Hatus.; Calanthe triplicata f. albolineata (Nakajima) Nakajima; Calanthe triplicata f. albomarginata (K. Nakaj.) K. Nakaj.; Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames fo. purpureoflora S.S. Ying, nom. inval.; Calanthe triplicata var. angraeciflora (Rchb.f.) N. Hallé; Calanthe triplicata var. gracillima (Lindl.) N. Hallé; Calanthe triplicata var. minahassae Schltr.; Calanthe veratrifolia (Willd.) R.Br. ex Ker Gawl.; Calanthe veratrifolia Ker Gawl., nom. illeg.; Calanthe veratrifolia (Willd.) R.Br.; Calanthe veratrifolia R.Br.; Calanthe veratrifolia var. australis Linden; Calanthe veratrifolia var. dupliciloba J.J. Sm.; Calanthe veratrifolia var. kennyi F.M. Bailey; Calanthe veratrifolia var. stenochila Rchb.f.; Calanthe veratrifolia var. timorensis J.J. Sm.; Limodorum ventricosum Steud.; Limodorum veratrifolium Willd., nom. illeg.; Orchis triplicata Willemet)

Japan, Trop. & Subtrop. Asia, India. Terrestrial, pale lilac flowers

See Usteri, Ann. Bot. 18: 52. 1796, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4: 122. 1805, Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië 8: 370. 1825, Edwards’s Botanical Register 24(Misc.): 28, no. 34. 1838, Bonplandia 5: 37. 1857, Linnaea 41: 75. 1876, Flora 65: 533. 1882, Fl. Brit. India 5: 849, 851. 1890, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 650. 1891, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1899, 129. 1899 and Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 326. 1907, J. Coll. Sc. Tokyo xxx. Art. 1, 328. 1911, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. lviii. 128. 1923, J. Bot. 63(Suppl.): 117. 1925, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 36: 110. 1934, J. Geobot. 17: 55, 81. 1969, Enum. Orchids Ryukyus 1: 49. 1971, Biol. Mag.Okinawa 10: 29. 1973, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 23(2): pl. 7. 1975, Fl. Nouv.-Caléd. 8: 230. 1977, Caryologia 33: 483–493. 1980, Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 4: 9–62. 1981, Coloured Ill. Indig. Orchids Taiwan 2: 127. 1990, Cell Chromosome Res. 17(1): 40–47. 1994, Col. Illustr. Orch. Fl. Taiwan 1: 204. 1996, Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 43(1): 41. 1998, Austral. Orchid Res. 5: 8. 2006

(Plant juice relieves gastro-intestinal problems. Roots poultice to cure swollen hands; roots chewed to cure diarrhea. Flower extract taken as a pain killer.)

in English: scrub lily

in Japan: tsuru-ran

in Thailand: ueang kao tog

in Vanuatu: natapak

Calathea G. Meyer Marantaceae

Greek kalathos ‘a basket’ and Latin calathus ‘a wicker basket, the cup of a flower, the calyx’, in allusion to the flower cluster of these plants or to one of the uses of the leaves or to the form of the stigma, see Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Mexico 21(2): 319–343. 1951, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(3): 207–221. 1952, Fl. Ecuador 32: 11–192. 1988.

Calathea latifolia (Willd. ex Link) Klotzsch (Allouya americana (Lam.) A. Chev.; Alpinia latifolia Willd. ex Link; Calathea allouga Steud.; Calathea allouia Lindl.; Calathea allouia (Aubl.) Lindl.; Calathea allouia var. violacea (Lindl.) Woodson; Calathea cylindrica (Roscoe) K. Schum.; Calathea grandiflora K. Schum.; Calathea macrocephala K. Schum.; Calathea macrosepala K. Schum.; Calathea violacea Lindl.; Curcuma americana Lam.; Maranta allouia Aubl.; Maranta niveiflora A. Dietr.; Maranta semperflorens Horan.; Phrynium allouia (Aubl.) Roscoe; Phrynium cylindricum Roscoe; Phrynium violaceum (Lindl.) Roscoe; Phyllodes allouia (Aubl.) Kuntze; Phyllodes platyphylla Kuntze, nom. illeg. superfl.; Stachyphrynium cylindricum K. Schum.; Stachyphrynium cylindricum (Roscoe) K. Schum.; Thalia latifolia (Willd. ex Link) Link ex Schult.)

Trop. America. Caulescent, shrub, in dense clumps, edible tuber-like storage organs, pseudostems with elongated leaves, simple leaf blades, long grooved petioles, well-developed ligule, irregular flowers yellowish green or white

See Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 3–4. 1775, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 2: 228. 1806, Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis ... 6–7. 1818, Jahrbücher der Gewächskunde 1(3): 22–23. 1820, Mantissa 1: 10. 1822, Appendix to the first ... A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony... . 11: t. 932. 1825, Edwards Bot. Reg. 12: t. 961 (t. 962). 1826 [Mar 1826], Monandrian Plants of the Order Scitamineae t. 37, 38, 40. 1828, Botanical Register; consisting of coloured ... 14: sub pl. 1210. 1829 [1828 publ. 1829], Reisen in Britisch-Guiana 3: 918. 1848, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 696. 1891 and Das Pflanzenreich IV. 48(Heft 11): 83–84. 1902, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 16: 974. 1936, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29(4): 332. 1942, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 71: 41. 1978

(A tincture of the leaf used for cystitis; leaves diuretic.)

in English: Guinea arrowroot, sweet corn root, sweet corn tuber

in Caribbean: faldita morada, leren

Calathodes Hook.f. & Thomson Ranunculaceae

Resembling a kalathos ‘a basket, a basket narrow at the base’, kalathoeides ‘basket-shaped, narrow at the base’, in allusion to the flowers, see Wang Wentsai, Wang Shu-hsiou & Hsiao Pei-ken. Ranunculaceae subfam. Helleboroideae and subfam. Thalictroideae. In: Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 27: 59–601. 1979, Wang Wen-tsai, Chang Meichen, Fang Ming-yuan, Ling Ping-ping, Ting Chihtsun, Wang Shu-hsiou & Liou Liang. Ranunculaceae subfam. Ranunculoideae. In: Wang Wen-tsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 28: 1–345. 1980.

Calathodes oxycarpa Sprague (Calathodes palmata J.D. Hooker & Thomson var. appendiculata Brühl)

China. Herb, simple or branched, white sepals, persistent style

See Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 1919(10): 403. 1919

(Whole plant used for treating rheumatism, improving blood circulation and as an agent for hair growth. Fracture-treating medicated liquor made up by using Chinese medicinal material: Cynanchum wallichii, Calathodes oxycarpa, Scindapsus officinalis, Torricellia angulata and also for rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injuries, rheumatic numbness, rheumatic arthralgia and myalgia.)

in China: ji zhua cao

Calceolaria L. Scrophulariaceae

Latin calceolus ‘a slipper’, referring to the flowers, slipper flowers; see C. Linnaeus, in Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar. 31: 286, t. VIII. Stockholm 1770.

Calceolaria stellariifolia Phil.

Chile.

See Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. Primera Sección — Zoolojía 71. 1891

(Leaves infusion to warm the body.)

in Chile: zapatilla

Caldesia Parlatore Alismataceae

After the Italian botanist Ludovico (Lodovico) Caldesi, 1822– 1884, politician, mycologist, naturalist, in 1866 member of the national parliament, author of “Flora faventinae tentamen.” in Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano. 1879–1880; see A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 460. 1848, Nuovi Generi e Nuove Specie di Piante Monocotiledoni 57. 1854, Filippo Parlatore (1816–1877), Flora Italiana. 3(2): 598. 1860 and Ethelyn Maria Tucker, Catalogue of the Library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917–1933, John H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 1: 299. 1965, T.W. Bossert, Biographical Dictionary of Botanists Represented in the Hunt Institute Portrait Collection. 63. 1972, A.R. Gentilini, ed., Bibliotheca botanica. Erbario e libri dal Cinquecento al Settecento del naturalista Lodovico Caldesi. Catalogo della Mostra. Faenza, Palazzo Milzetti 1985.

Caldesia reniformis (D. Don) Makino (Alisma calophyllum Wall.;

Alisma damasonium Willd.; Alisma dubium Willd.; Alisma parnassifolium L.; Alisma reniforme D. Don; Caldesia parnassifolia (Bassi ex L.) Parl.; Caldesia parnassifolia subsp. euparnassiifolia (L.) Asch. & Graebn.; Caldesia parnassifolia var. minor (L.) Bouché; Caldesia reniformis Makino; Echinodorus parnassifolius Engelm.)

Madagascar. Glabrous aquatic herbs, elliptic yellowish-brown achenes

See Systema Naturae, ed. 12 2: 230. 1767, Prodr. Fl. Nep. 22. 1825, Synopsis der Mitteleuropäischen Flora 1: 385. 1879, Fl. Brit. India 6: 560. 1893 and Das Pflanzenreich IV, 15: 16. 1903, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) xx. 34. 1906

(Leaves infusion astringent, diuretic, diaphoretic, vulnerary.)

Calea L. Asteraceae

From the Greek kalos ‘beautiful’, in allusion to the showy flowers; see C. Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. Editio Secunda 2: 1179. 1763, Der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neuesten Entdeckungen in der Gesammten Naturkunde 1(2): 140. 1807, Elenchus plantarum: quae in Horto Regio Botanico Matritensi colebantur anno mdcccxv. Cum novarum, aut minus cognitarum stirpium diagnosi, nonnullarumque descriptionibus contractis. Matriti: ex Typographia Regia, 1816, Genera et species plantarum [Lagasca] 31. Matriti: Typographia Regia, 1816, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12: 108–109. 1817, Linnaea 5: 158. 1830, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 5: 669–670, 672, 675. 1836, Sertum Orchidaceum t. 10. 1838, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 7(1): 293. 1838, Journal of Botany, being a second series of the Botanical Miscellany 2: 44. 1840, Linnaea 19: 716. 1847, London Journal of Botany 7: 411–412. 1848, Genera Plantarum 2(1): 390–391. 1873, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 32(1): 21. 1896 and University of California Publications in Botany 6(4): 75. 1914, Arquivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal 17: 19, f. a-c. 1962, Brittonia 20: 166–168. 1968, Rhodora 77: 171–195. 1975, Syst. Bot. 10: 245. 1985, Fl. Venez. Guayana 3: 177–393. 1997, Fl. Chiapas 5: 1–232. 1999, Ceiba 42(1): 1–71. 2001 [2002], Sida 21(4): 2023–2037. 2005.

Calea oliveri B.L. Rob. & Greenm. (Alloispermum liebmannii (Sch. Bip. ex Klatt) H. Rob.; Aschenbornia heteropoda S. Schauer; Calea acuminata Standl. & L.O. Williams; Calea acuminata var. xanthactis Standl. & L.O. Williams; Calea albida A. Gray; Calea dichotoma Standl.; Calea hypoleuca B.L. Rob. & Greenm.; Calea leptocephala S.F. Blake; Calea liebmannii Sch. Bip. ex Klatt; Calea luetzelburgii Suess.; Calea nelsonii Robins. & Greenman; Calea oliveri B.L. Rob. & Greenm. var. taeniotricha Steyerm.; Calea pringlei B.L. Rob.; Calea pringlei var. rubida Greenm.; Calea rugosa (DC.) Hemsl.; Calea salmaefolia (DC.) Hemsl.; Calea sororia S.F. Blake; Calea tejadae S.F. Blake; Calea ternifolia Kunth; Calea ternifolia Oliv.; Calea ternifolia var. calyculata (B.L. Rob.) Wussow, Urbatsch & G.A. Sullivan; Calea ternifolia var. hypoleuca (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) B.L. Turner; Calea ternifolia var. ternifolia; Calea zacatechichi Schltdl.; Calea zacatechichi var. calyculata B.L. Rob.; Calea zacatechichi var. laevigata Standl. & L.O. Williams; Calea zacatechichi var. macrophylla B.L. Rob. & Greenm.; Calea zacatechichi var. rugosa (DC.) B.L. Rob. & Greenm.; Calea zacatechichi var. xanthina Standl. & L.O. Williams; Calydermos rugosus DC.; Calydermos salmeifolius DC.)

South America, Mexico.

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (folio ed.) 4: 231. 1820[1818], Linnaea 9: 589–590. 1834[1835], Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 5: 670. 1836, Linnaea 19: 716. 1847, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 15: 38. 1880, Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 2(9): 206. 1881, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 2: 277, pl. 43B, f. 9–16. 1887, Leopoldina 23: 145. 1887, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 32(1): 24–26. 1896, Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 29(5): 106. 1899 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 22(8): 645–646. 1924, Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 18(4): 1438. 1938, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 51: 198. 1942, Ceiba 1(2): 92–94. 1950, Fieldiana, Botany 28: 628. 1953, Phytologia 38(5): 412. 1978, Syst. Bot. 10: 253, 255, 257. 1985, Phytologia 65(2): 140. 1988, Amer. J. Bot. 86(7): 1003–1013. 1999, Taxon 58(3): 999. 2009

(Hallucinogen, leaves in infusion for divination.)

in Mexico: thle-pela-kano

Calendula L. Asteraceae

From calendae or kalendae, arum, Latin for the Calends or the first day of each month, referring to the long flowering period; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 2: 921–922. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 393. 1754 and Inform. Bot. Ital. 6: 37–43. 1974, Israel J. Bot. 23: 169–201. 1974, Norweg. J. Bot. 22: 71–76. 1975, Nucleus 19: 8–12. 1976, Acta Fac. Rerum Nat. Univ. Comenianae, Bot. 26: 1–42., Bot. Not. 131: 391–404. 1978, Bocconea 3: 229–250. 1992, Willdenowia 23: 211–238. 1993, Biologia (Bratislava) 48: 441–445. 1993, Thaiszia 7: 75–88. 1997, Cytologia 64: 181– 196. 1999, Bocconea 11: 117–169. 1999, Amer. J. Bot. 86(7): 1003–1013. 1999.

Calendula arvensis L. (Calendula arvensis M. Bieb.; Calendula arvensis Boiss.)

Europe.

See Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 2: 1303–1304. 1763, Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 596. [Dec 1819 or early 1820], Boissier, Pierre Edmond (1810–1885), Voyage botanique dans le midi de l’Espagne pendant l’année 1837. Paris: Gide et cie, 1839–1845

(Antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, cholagogue, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, vulnerary, a remedy for skin problems, applied externally to bites, stings, sprains, wounds, sore eyes, varicose veins. Leaves diaphoretic; flowers antispasmodic, emmenagogue and stimulant.)

in English: field marigold

in Arabic: ‘ain el-baqar

Calendula officinalis L. (Calendula officinalis Hohen.)

Cosmopolitan. Aromatic, annual herb, erect, elongated toothed fleshy leaves, yellow orange flowers

See Species Plantarum 2: 921. 1753, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou (1833) 256. 1833 and Fl. Libya 107: 148. 1983

(Used in Unani and Sidha. Essential oil antibacterial. Flowers wound healing, emmenagogue, sedative, antihemorrhagic, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, styptic, febrifuge, antiprotozoal, a remedy for skin problems, applied externally to bites, stings, sprains, wounds, sore eyes, varicose veins, gastric and duodenal ulcers; flower infusion for jaundice. Mouthwash for toothache.)

in English: calendula, common marigold, garden marigold, hen and chickens, marigold, pot marigold, ruddles, Scotch marigold

in Arabic: djamir, djoumaira

in China: jin zhan ju, chin chan hua

in India: roja, sushi phul, thulvkka saamanthi, zendu, zergul

in Japan: tô-kin-sen-ka

in Tibetan: bod-gur-gum

Calla L. Araceae

Said to be a variant of Latin calsa, a plant name used by Plinius; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 2: 968. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 414. 1754. A. Bonavilla, Dizionario etimologico di tutti i vocaboli usati nelle scienze, arti e mestieri, che traggono origine dal greco. Milano 1819–1821 and Wilson, K.A. “The genera of the Arales in the southeastern United States.” J. Arnold Arbor. 41: 47–72. 1960, Kingsbury, J.M. Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., USA. 1964, Plowman, T. “Folk uses of New World aroids.” Econ. Bot. 23: 97–122. 1969, M. Cortelazzo & P. Zolli, Dizionario etimologico della lingua italiana. 1: 187. 1979, Airaksinen, M.M. et al. “Toxicity of plant material used as emergency food during famines in Finland.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18(3): 273–296. 1986. The whole plant, particularly the rhizome, is irritant and poisonous on ingestion, acrid and caustic. Calcium oxalate crystals occur, which can cause severe pain-irritation of the mouth and throat, vomiting, edema and difficulty of speaking, dysphagia, hoarseness, nausea; washing or heating the rhizome can inactivate the oxalates. Watery sap very irritant on contact.

Calla palustris L. (Calla brevis (Raf.) Á. Löve & D. Löve; Calla cordifolia Stokes; Calla generalis E.H.L. Krause; Calla ovatifolia Gilib.; Calla palustris f. aroiformis Asch. & Graebn.; Calla palustris f. gracilis Asch. & Graebn.; Calla palustris f. polyspathacea Vict. & J. Rousseau; Callaion bispatha (Raf.) Raf.; Callaion brevis (Raf.) Raf.; Callaion heterophylla (Raf.) Raf.; Callaion palustris (L.) Raf.; Dracunculus paludosus Montandon; Provenzalia bispatha Raf.; Provenzalia brevis Raf.; Provenzalia heterophyla Raf.; Provenzalia palustris (L.) Raf.)

Asia temperate, Europe, North America. Small herb, perennial, erect, emergent, semi-aquatic, long-stalked heart-shaped leaves, tiny yellow flowers on a spadix clasped by a white petal-like spathe, fruits a round cluster of red berries, famine food, flour can be made from the seeds and the ground rhizome used as flour for bread, pond edges, bogs, swamps

See Species Plantarum 2: 968. 1753, Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 414. 1754, Exerc. Phyt. ii. 452. 1792, Bot. Mat. Med. iv. 326. 1812, Am. Monthly Mag. Crit. Rev. 2: 267. 1818, New Fl. N. Am. 2: 90. 1836 [1837] and Deutschl. Fl. (Sturm), ed. 2 1: 180. 1906, Dudley, M.G. “Morphological and cytological studies of Calla palustris.” Bot. Gaz. 98: 556– 571. 1937, Contr. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montréal 36: 68. 1940, Bot. Not. 128(4): 505. 1975 (publ. 1976), Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Comenianae, Botanica 25: 1–18. 1976, Botaniceskjij Žurnal SSSR 70(7): 997–999. 1985, Botaniceskjij Žurnal SSSR 71: 1145–1147. 1986, Plant Systematics and Evolution 158: 97–106. 1988, Scripta Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Purkynianae Brunensis 19: 301–322. 1989, Regnum Veg. 127: 28. 1993, Can. Vet. J. 47(8): 787–789. 2006

(All parts poisonous, cause severe pain in the mouth if eaten, burning and swelling of lips, mouth, tongue, and throat, difficulty of speaking. Antirheumatic, for colds and influenza; as a poultice on swellings and snakebites; aerial stems in the treatment of sore legs.)

in English: bog arum, calla, calla lily, female water dragon, marsh calla, water arum, water dragon, wild calla, wild calla lily

Callaeum Small Malpighiaceae

Probably from the Greek kallos ‘beauty’ or kallaion ‘cock’s comb’, see Actes de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 1: 109. 1792 and Index Lectionum in Lyceo Regio Hosiano Brunsbergensi: Banisteria 12. 1901, North American Flora 25(2): 128. 1910, Arquivos do Serviço Florestal 2(1): 13. 1943, Fl. Neotrop. 30: 176. 1982, Syst. Bot. 11(2): 335–353. 1986.

Callaeum antifebrile (Griseb.) D.M. Johnson (Banisteria antifebrilis Griseb.; Cabi paraensis Ducke; Mascagnia psilophylla fo. peruviana Nied.; Mascagnia psilophylla (A. Juss.) Griseb. var. antifebrilis (Griseb.) Nied.)

Eastern Amazon, Brazil.

See Linnaea 22: 15. 1849 and Arbeiten aus dem Botanischen Institut des Königl. Lyceums Hosianum in Braunsberg 3: 28. 1908, Das Pflanzenreich 141(Heft 93): 121. 1928, Arquivos do Serviço Florestal 2, no. 1: 13–14, tab. 1. 1943, Boletím do Instituto de Química Agrícola (Rio de Janeiro) 34: 17–27. 1954, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 291(2): 201–212. 1975, Systematic Botany 11(2): 349. 1986

(Closely allied to Banisteriopsis, but apparently not employed as a hallucinogen.)

Callerya Endl. Fabaceae (Millettieae)

Callerya atropurpurea (Wall.) Schot (Adinobotrys atropurpurea (Wall.) Dunn; Adinobotrys atropurpureus (Wall.) Dunn; Millettia atropurpurea (Wall.) Benth.; Millettia atropurpurea Ridl.; Padbruggea atropurpurea (Wall.) Craib; Padbruggea pubescens Craib; Phaseolodes atropurpureum (Wall.) Kuntze; Pongamia atropurpurea Wall.; Whitfordiodendron atropurpurea (Wall.) Merr.; Whitfordiodendron atropurpureum (Wall.) Merr.; Whitfordiodendron atropurpureum Dunn; Whitfordiodendron pubescens (Craib) Burkill)

Cambodia, Indonesia, Malay Peninsula. Perennial non-climbing tree

See A Numerical List of Dried Specimens n. 5910. 1831, Plantae Junghuhnianae 2: 249. 1852, Flora van Nederlandsch Indië 1(1): 150. 1855, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 201. 1891 and Leafl. Philipp. Bot. ii. 689, 743. 1910, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1911(4): 194, 197. 1911, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1912, 364. 1912, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1927(2): 61. 1927, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. xix. 160. 1934, Dict. Econ. Prod. Mal. Penins. ii. 2256. 1935, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1935, 319. 1935, Blumea 39(1–2): 15. 1994

(Root used as fish poison.)

in Burma: danyinnie

in Malay: chicha, girah payah, merbong, tulang daeng

Callerya cinerea (Benth.) Schot (Millettia bockii Harms; Millettia cinerea sensu auct.; Millettia cinerea Benth.; Millettia cinerea var. yunnanensis Pamp.; Millettia congestiflora T.P. Chen; Millettia dielsiana Diels; Millettia dorwardii Collett & Hemsl.; Millettia dowardi Collett & Hemsl.; Millettia gentiliana H. Lev.; Millettia longipedunculata Z. Wei; Millettia obovata Gagnep.; Millettia oosperma Dunn; Millettia sericosema Hance; Millettia sphaerosperma Z. Wei; Pongamia cinerea Graham; Pongamia heterocarpa Baker; Pongamia oblonga Graham; Pongamia palustris Graham; Pongamia paniculata Graham)

India, Bhutan, Burma, China. Perennial climbing shrub, woody vine, purple-violet-green flowers

See Plantae Junghuhnianae 2: 249. 1852, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 20(237): 259. 1882, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 28(189–191): 40. 1890, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 201. 1891 and Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, new series 17(1): 25. 1910, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 41(280): 157. 1912, Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 2(12): 361. 1913, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 3(3): 362–363. 1955[1954], Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 23(4): 285–287, pl. 10, 11. 1985, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16(2): 305–334. 1992, Blumea 39(1–2): 17. 1994, Flora Yunnanica 10: 407. 2006, Legumes of China 453. 2007

(Stem anti-anemic, to enrich the blood and promote blood circulation.)

in China: hui mao ya dou teng, jixueteng, mi hua ya dou teng, qiu zi ya dou teng

Callerya megasperma (F. Muell.) Schot (Kraunhia megasperma (F. Muell.) Greene; Millettia megasperma (F. Muell.) Benth.; Phaseolodes megaspermum (F. Muell.) Kuntze; Wisteria megasperma F. Muell.)

New South Wales, Queensland. Perennial climbing shrub

See Medical Repository 352. 1808, Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae (Mueller) 1(1): 13. 1858 [Mar 1858], Flora Australiensis: a description ... 2: 211. 1864, Pittonia 2: 175. 1891, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 201. 1891, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 6(4): 679–681. 1891 and Blumea 39(1–2): 25. 1994

(Exudation of the cut vine is very astringent.)

in English: Australian wisteria, native wisteria

Callerya reticulata (Benth.) Schot (Millettia championii Benth.; Millettia cognata Hance; Millettia kiangsiensis Z. Wei; Millettia purpurea Yatabe; Millettia reticulata Benth.; Phaseolodes reticulatum (Benth.) Kuntze)

East Asia, China. Perennial non-climbing shrub, climber, deciduous

See Genera Plantarum Suppl. 3: 104. 1843, Plantae Junghuhnianae 2: 249. 1852, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 4: 74–75. 1852, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 18(213): 260. 1880, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 201. 1891, Tokyo Bot. Mag. vi. 379. t. 12. 1892 and J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 41: 123–243. 1912, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 23(4): 283–284, pl. 9. 1985, Blumea 39(1–2): 1–40. 1994, Flora Yunnanica 10: 404. 2006, Legumes of China 450. 2007

(Stem anti-anemic, to enrich the blood and promote blood circulation. Emmenagogue, antitumour, oxytoxic, stomachic, tonic, to treat menstrual problems. Roots and stem emmenagogue and stomachic, decoction for menstrual irregularities, vaginal discharge, backache, seminal emission, gonorrhea and stomachache. Insecticide.)

in China: ji xue teng, jiang xi ya dou teng, kun ming ji xue teng, wang mai ya dou teng

in Japan: murasaki-natsu-fuji

Calliandra Benth. Fabaceae (Ingeae, Leguminosae, Mimosaceae)

Greek kalli ‘beautiful’ and aner, andros ‘male, anther, stamen’; see George Bentham (1800–1884), Hooker’s Journal of Botany. 2: 138. 1840 and Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 35(3): 101–208. 1936, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 37(2): 184–314. 1950, Phytologia 48(1): 1–71. 1981, Arnaldoa 9(2): 43–110. 2002 [2003], Harvard Pap. Bot. 7(2): 381–398. 2003.

Calliandra haematocephala Hassk. (Anneslia haematocephala (Hassk.) Britton & P. Wilson; Calliandra boliviana Britton; Calliandra inaequilatera Rusby; Feuilleea haematocephala (Hassk.) Kuntze)

Tropical America. Perennial non-climbing tree, shrub, evergreen, rambling, spreading, compound leaves, legume linear-lanceolate, calyx white to pink, corolla pink with green lobes or white, powder-puff-like balls of conspicuous bright red to dark crimson stamens, explosively dehiscent flattened pod

See Retzia, sive, Observationes botanicae, quas de plantis horti botanici Bogoriensis 1: 216–219. 1855, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 16(12): 327. 1889, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 188. 1891, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 6(1): 28. 1896, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 63. 1898 and Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 6: 348. 1926, J. Arnold Arbor. 52 (1): 69–85. 1971, Geophytology 9: 175–183. 1979, Fitoterapia 64(6): 516–517. 1993, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 74(3): 110. 1998, Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine 3: 58–60. 1999, Natural product research 20(10): 927–934. 2006

(Antioxidant, antibacterial.)

in English: blood red tassel flower, powder puff bush, powderpuff tree, red powderpuff, stickpea

Calliandra surinamensis Benth. (Acacia fasciculata (Willd.) Poir.; Acacia magdalenae Bertero ex DC.; Acacia magdalenae DC.; Anneslia fasciculata (Willd.) Kleinhoonte; Calliandra angustidens Britton & Killip; Calliandra magdalenae (DC.) Benth.; Calliandra magdalenae Benth.; Calliandra magdalenae (Bertero ex DC.) Benth.; Calliandra tenuiflora Benth.; Feuilleea fasciculata Kuntze; Feuilleea fasciculata (Willd.) Kuntze; Feuilleea tenuiflora (Benth.) Kuntze; Inga fasciculata Willd.)

South America, Tanzania, Papua New Guinea. Perennial non-climbing tree, low branching, shrub or small tree with multiple trunks, many-branched, spreading, long arching branches, silky leaflets, showy fragrant bloom, big puffs of watermelon pink and white silky stamens, persistent dehiscent brown pods, rapid growth

See Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4(2): 1022. 1806, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 455. 1825, London Journal of Botany 3: 105. 1844, London Journal of Botany 5: 102. 1846, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 30(3): 547. 1875, Fl. Bras. 15(3): 416–417. 1876, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 185, 188–189. 1891 and North American Flora 23(1): 60. 1928, Flora of Suriname 2(2): 322. 1940

(Leaves used as an ingredient for a medicine against an eye sickness.)

in English: pink calliandra, pink powderpuff, pink tassel flower, powder puff flower, powderpuff, shaving brush, Surinam calliandra, Surinam powder puff, Surinamese stickpea

in Borneo: daun assam Jawa

Callianthemum C.A. Meyer Ranunculaceae

Greek kalli, kallos ‘beautiful, beauty’ and anthos ‘flower’, see Ledeb. Flora Altaica 2: 269, 336. 1830.

Callianthemum taipaicum W.T. Wang

China. Perennial herbs, rhizomatous, flowers bisexual, petals basally brown, sepals bluish purple

See Flora Tsinlingensis 1(2): 274, 604, f. 235. 1974

(Chinese herbal medicine.)

in China: tai bai mei hua cao

Callicarpa L. Lamiaceae (Labiatae, Verbenaceae)

From the Greek kalli ‘beautiful’ and karpos ‘fruit’; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 1: 111. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 127. 1754, Das Pflanzenreich 4(3a): 166. 1897 and Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 1(1): 273, 298. 1951, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(9/1–2): 167–236. 1970, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 65(1): 30, 65, 211. 1982, Chen, T.T., Chaw, S.M. & Yang, Y.P. “A revision of Callicarpa (Verbenaceae) of Taiwan.” Taiwania 43(4): 330–345. 1998, Current Bioactive Compounds 4(1): 15–32. 2008.

Callicarpa acuminata Kunth (Callicarpa acuminata Roxb., nom. illeg. hom.; Callicarpa minutiflora Rusby)

Mexico, Guatemala to Colombia. Shrub or small tree, corolla white, fragrant flowers in small branched axillary clusters, dark purple to black fruit

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 2: 252. 1817[1818], Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants 1: 408. 1820 and Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 7: 339. 1927

(Cold-water infusion of the crushed leaves for diarrhea, dysentery.)

Callicarpa americana L. (Burchardia americana (L.) Duhamel; Burchardia callicarpa Crantz; Callicarpa americana Blanco; Callicarpa americana Lour., nom. illeg.; Callicarpa americana f. lactea (F.J. Müll.) Rehder; Callicarpa americana var. alba Rehder; Callicarpa americana var. lactea F.J. Müll.; Callicarpa serrata Moench; Callicarpa viburnifolia Salisb.; Johnsonia americana (L.) Mill.)

North America, Cuba. Shrub, slender, small bluish lavender flowers in axillary clusters, purple violet fruits, fruit edible raw but insipid

See Species Plantarum 1: 111. 1753, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 53. 1796, Flora de Filipinas 517. 1837 and Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 39: 306. 1936, Bibl. Cult. Trees: 584. 1949

(Root to treat skin cancer, essential oils antialgal and phytotoxic. Fruit astringent, causes puckering of the mouth a few minutes after eating a little.)

in English: American beauty-berry, beauty-berry, French mulberry

Callicarpa arborea Roxb. (Aganon umbellata Raf.; Callicarpa arborea Wall., nom. illeg. hom.; Callicarpa arborea Miq. ex C.B. Clarke, nom. illeg.; Callicarpa magna Schauer; Callicarpa tectonaefolia Wall.; Callicarpa tectoniifolia Wall., nom. nud.; Callicarpa tomentosa var. magna (Schauer) Bakh.; Callicarpa villosissima Ridl.; Premna arborea Roth; Premna arborea (Roxb.) Roth; Premna arborea Farw.)

Himalaya, China, Bhutan, Cambodia, India. Tree, fast growing, densely tomentose, corky rough bark, twig broad and flat at the nodes, coriaceous leaves stellate-tomentose beneath, truncate calyx cup-shaped, pink purple corolla, stamens much longer than corolla, fruit purple-brown

See Hort. Bengal. 10. 1814, Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants, ed. Carey & Wallich, 1: 405–406. 1820, Nov. Pl. Sp. 287. 1821, Numer. List [Wallich] nn. 1826, 1827. 1829, Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, i. 390. 1832, Sylva Tellur. 161. 1838, Prodr. (DC.) 11: 641. 1847 and J. Fed. Malay States Mus.

10: 110. 1920, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, III, 3: 22. 1921, Pharmacologyonline 1: 1095–1103. 2009

(Used in Unani. Young shoots ground into a paste, mixed with water and drunk for gastric troubles; young tender shoots eaten for gastric problems. Bark aromatic, bitter, carminative, tonic; bark decoction applied to cutaneous diseases; bark chewed with betel leaves as substitute for betel nut; bark and roots decoction used in liver troubles; inner bark of the roots and stems eaten as masticatory along with betel nut; paste of bark or leaf applied on sting of scorpion. For wounds, sores, pound the leaves and poultice; leaves decoction for stomachache; decoction of leaves of Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. var. conglomerata (Roxb.) Corner together with those of Byttneria pilosa and Phyllanthus fraternus and bark of Callicarpa arborea taken for jaundice and liver complaints. Leaves and bark used for the treatment of rheumatism, cutaneous diseases, scorpion sting; ground leaves and bark applied on cuts to stop bleeding. Juice of fruit relieves fever. Fruit juice taken for ulcers of the tongue. Rhizome of Lygodium microphyllum mixed with root of Callicarpa arborea squeezed and the juice given for stomach troubles. Contact therapy, a piece of root tied on the loin of babies in unhealthy growth. Ceremonial, leaves used in prayers.)

in English: beauty berry

in China: mu zi zhu

in India: ab bhantal buti, arhi, arhi-araung, arni, balmal, bhantal buti sabz, bonmola, bormala, dieng lakhiot, ghiwala, gising, gunmola, hnahkiah, kachetong, kachettong, khet, khimbar, khoja, kojo, kumhar, mach kotta, mach peluka, maksi, mondol, moskhanchi, mukhuang, nkoang, subornni, yalu

Malayan names: ambong-ambong bukit, ambong puteh, kata kera, kata keran

in Nepal: bori, guren, maiphi, maaraa

Callicarpa bodinieri H. Léveillé (Callicarpa feddei H. Léveillé; Callicarpa seguinii H. Léveillé; Callicarpa tsiangii Moldenke)

China, Vietnam. Shrub, lilac flowers, violet fruits, often confused with Callicarpa giraldii

See Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 548. 1900, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 456. 1911, J. Arnold Arbor. 15: 323. 1934, Fl. Yunnan. 1: 406. 1977

(Astringent.)

in English: Bodinier beauty berry

in China: zhen zhu feng, zi zhu

Callicarpa candicans (Burm.f.) Hochr. (Callicarpa adenanthera R. Br.; Callicarpa bicolor Juss.; Callicarpa cana Gamble; Callicarpa cana Dalzell & Gibson, nom. illeg.; Callicarpa cana L.; Callicarpa cana Wall., nom. illeg.; Callicarpa cana var. sumatrana (Miq.) H.J. Lam; Callicarpa cana var. typica Bakh., nom. inval.; Callicarpa heynei Roth; Callicarpa macrocarpa Raeusch.; Callicarpa sinensis Steud.; Callicarpa sumatrana Miq.; Callicarpa tomentosa Lam., nom. illeg.; Urtica candicans N.L. Burman)

Southern China, SE Asia. An evergreen shrub or small tree, tomentose, glandular leaves very variable, calyx minutely 4-toothed glandular, corolla mauve or violet, stamens exserted, globose ovary glabrous glandular all over, drupe depressed globular almost succulent, fruits sometimes eaten raw

See Flora Indica ... nec non Prodromus Florae Capensis 197 (typ. err. 297). 1768, Mantissa Plantarum 2: 198. 1771, The Bombay Flora ... 200. 1861 and Candollea 5: 190. 1934, Kagoshima University Research Center for the Pacific Islands, Occasional Papers no. 34: 141–144. 2001

(Young leaves decoction drunk for abdominal troubles and amenorrhea. Leaves smoked to relieve asthma; used for poulticing wounds, applied as a plaster for gastralgia; leaves infusion emmenagogue. Leaves pounded and used as a fish poison. Shoots used in arrow poisons.)

in Cambodia: sroul kraham

in China: bai mao zi zhu

in India: verrilai-p-pattai

in Indonesia: apu-apu, meniran besar, meniran kebo, sesepo

in Japan: kuroshikibu

in Laos: dok pha nok

in Malaysia: tampang besi, tampang besi merah

in Philippines: anuyup, palis, tigau

in Vietnam: n[af]ng n[af]ng, pha t[oos]p, tr[uws]ng [ees]ch

Callicarpa caudata Maxim.

Philippines, Pacific. Evergreen shrub, stem and branches glandular, reddish-yellow glands, calyx glandular, corolla mauve, ovary glandular, glandular pink fruits, closely related to Callicarpa pilosissima Maxim.

See Bulletin de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St-Pétersbourg 31: 76. 1887

(Stem scraped and mixed with the rhizome of ginger and applied to large wounds. A decoction of fresh or dried leaves used as a cure for stomach troubles. Leaves applied to relieve earache.)

in Papua New Guinea: mamen

in Philippines: amgup, anayop, anayup, haraihai, haray-hai, kabatit

Callicarpa dichotoma (Loureiro) K. Koch (Callicarpa dichotoma (Lour.) Raeusch., nom. nud.; Callicarpa dichotoma Raeusch.; Callicarpa dichotoma f. albifructa Moldenke; Callicarpa dichotoma f. albifructus T. Yamaz.; Callicarpa gracilis Siebold & Zucc.; Callicarpa japonica var. angustifolia Sav.; Callicarpa japonica var. dichotoma (Lour.) Bakh.; Callicarpa koreana hort. Vilm.-Andr.; Callicarpa purpurea Juss.; Porphyra dichotoma Loureiro)

Japan, Vietnam. Perennial shrub, deciduous, many-branched, long slender arching branches, pinkish lavender berries

See Fl. Cochinch. 1: 70. 1790, Nomencl. Bot. [Raeusch.] ed. 3, 37. 1797, Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(3): 154. 1846, Dendrologie 2(1): 336. 1872 and Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, III, 3: 26. 1921, Phytologia 7: 429. 1961, Fl. Jap. (Iwatsuki et al., eds.) 3a: 267. 1993, Planta Medica 71(8): 778–780. 2005, Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 29(1): 71–74. 2006

(Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective activities, remarkable cognitive-enhancing activity, alleviating certain memory impairment observed in Alzheimer’s disease.)

in English: Chinese beauty-berry, Japanese beautyberry, purple beauty berry

in China: bai tang zi zhu

in Japan: ko-murasaki

Callicarpa erioclona Schauer (Callicarpa cana var. repanda Warb.; Callicarpa erioclona f. glabrescens Moldenke; Callicarpa erioclona f. rivularis (Merr.) Bakh.; Callicarpa erioclona var. repanda (Warb.) H.J. Lam; Callicarpa erioclona var. subalbida (Elmer) Bakh.; Callicarpa repanda (Warb.) K. Schum. & Warb.; Callicarpa rivularis Merr.; Callicarpa subalbida Elmer)

Vietnam. Edible berries

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 11: 643. 1847, Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 2: 144. 1897 and Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, III, 3: 19. 1921, Phytologia 8: 385. 1962, Pharmaceutical Biology (formerly International Journal of Pharmacognosy) 42(4–5): 292–300. 2004

(Antimicrobial. Leaves mixed with coconut oil, applied to wounds, itches. Leaves as a fish poison.)

in Philippines: alinau, malasambong, palis, sulingasau, tambalabasi, tigau

Callicarpa formosana Rolfe (Callicarpa aspera Handel-Mazzetti; Callicarpa integerrima Champion var. serrulata H.L. Li; Callicarpa ningpoensis Matsumura; Callicarpa rubella Lindley f. robusta P’ei)

China, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines. Shrub, stem and branches densely stellate and dendritic hairy, chartaceous leaves variable, flowers bisexual in axillary cymes, calyx 4-toothed glandular, corolla purplish pink outside and white to pinkish inside, ovary globose glandular, globose purple drupes

See J. Bot. 20: 358. 1882 and Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 25: 131. 1935, Chen, Z.S., Lai, J.S. & Kuo, Y.H. “Studies on the constituents of the stem of Callicarpa formosana Rolfe.” Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal 42(5): 397–402. 1990

(Leaves smoked for lung troubles, dyspnea. Crushed flower and leaf buds applied as a styptic to wounds. Root used as remedy for gonorrhea and as an emmenagogue, the whole plant to treat hepatitis. Fresh and crushed leaves used to stupefy fish, shrimp and eels. Insecticide.)

in English: Taiwan beauty berry

in China: du huong hua

in Philippines: anandhin, annoyop, anuyup, palis, talambasi, tigau, timbabasi, tuba, tubai-basi, tubang-dalag

in Vietnam: n[af]ng n[af]ng d[af]i loan

Callicarpa giraldii Hesse ex Rehder (Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii (Hesse ex Rehder) Rehder; Callicarpa mairei H. Léveillé)

China. Shrub, yellow glands

See Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2: 629. 1914, Pl. Wilson. 3: 368. 1916, J. Arnold Arbor. 15(4): 332. 1934, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 65(1): 209. 1982, Novon 1: 58. 1991, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 116(3): 508–517. 2008

(Pain-relieving, to treat rheumatic muscles and bones pains, traumatic injury, soft tissue injury, arthritis.)

in English: Girald beauty berry

in China: lao ya hu

Callicarpa kochiana Makino (Callicarpa longiloba Merrill; Callicarpa loureiri Hooker & Arnott ex Merrill)

China, Japan. Shrub, deciduous, branchlets and peduncles with extremely dense long branched hairs, opposite leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous, small bisexual flowers in axillary cymes, corolla purple outside and white inside, white globose drupes, ripe fruit eaten

See Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 28(331): 181–182. 1914, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 276. 1951, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 65(1): 31. 1982, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124(2): 197– 210. 2009

(Antioxidant.)

in English: white wild pear

in China: bai tang zi shu, pai t’ang tzu shu, pi pa ye zi zhu

Callicarpa longifolia Lam. (Callicarpa albida Blume; Callicarpa attenuata Wall. ex Walp.; Callicarpa attenuifolia Elmer; Callicarpa blumei Zoll. & Mor.; Callicarpa horsfieldii Turcz.; Callicarpa japonica var. rhombifolia H.J. Lam; Callicarpa lanceolaria Roxb. ex Hornem.; Callicarpa longifolia Hook., nom. illeg.; Callicarpa longifolia Li, nom. illeg.; Callicarpa longifolia var. areolata H.J. Lam; Callicarpa longifolia var. floccosa Schauer; Callicarpa longifolia var. horsfieldii (Turcz.) Moldenke; Callicarpa longifolia var. lanceolaria (Roxb. ex Hornem.) C.B. Clarke; Callicarpa longifolia var. subglabrata Schauer; Callicarpa oblongifolia Hassk.; Callicarpa rhynchophylla Miq.; Callicarpa roxburghiana Schult.)

India, SE Asia, Australia. An evergreen shrub or small tree, stem and branches densely stellate hairy, glandular leaves, calyx densely glandular, corolla rose white to purple, white or dark pink glandular fruit almost succulent, an extremely variable and polymorphic species

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1(2): 563. 1785, Fl. Brit. India 4: 570. 1885 and Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8: 2870. 1915, Verben. Malay. Archip.: 85, 90. 1919, Phytologia 7: 77. 1959, Woody Fl. Taiwan 821. 1963, Atkins, S. “Callicarpa japonica: Labiatae.” Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 16(2): 79–83. 1999

(Plant decoction as a postpartum remedy; young twigs decoction drunk for stomachache and diarrhea. Leaves decoction drunk in colic, diarrhea, after parturition and for fever; decoction gargled to treat toothache; leaves infusion drunk as a depurative after parturition. Leaves externally applied on wounds to an ulcerated mouth and to reduce fever, swellings and bruises; leaves juice for mouth infection in babies; leaf paste in coconut oil used locally for cuts, wounds and ulcers; leaves used for poulticing and for rubbing over the body in fever, and also applied to swellings; leaf paste of Callicarpa longifolia and Leea indica boiled in coconut oil and applied on severe cuts and wounds; pounded leaves an ingredient for a poultice to mature boils and ulcers. Roots infusion a remedy for syphilis and diarrhea; roots decoction drunk as a cure for fever, pneumonia, diarrhea and colic. Pounded leaves used to stupefy fish. Veterinary medicine, paste of stem bark applied on lesions of foot and mouth disease of cattle; leaf decoction given to pigs as antiemetic.)

in English: husked rice, long-leaf beauty berry, long-leaved callicarpa, white-berried Malayan lilac

in Borneo: sabar besi

in China: chang ye zi zhu, jian wei feng

in India: dhusre, dieng sohkailang, kin-vi-taong, kin-vi-ti, kin vitai, kinvitaong, rai

in Indonesia: dama besoi, katumpang, meniran sapi, meniran utan

in Malaysia: beti-beti, bute baa, karat besi, kuping besi, nasinasi, tampang besi, tampang besi puteh, tampoe besike, tampong besi, tulang besi

in Papua New Guinea: topapimanua, vuti mata

in Vietnam: t[uwr] ch[aa]u tr[aws]ng, t[uwr] ch[aa]u l[as] d[af]i

Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl (Callicarpa cana Gamble; Callicarpa dunniana H. Lév.; Callicarpa incana Roxb.; Callicarpa macrophylla var. griffithii C.B. Clarke; Callicarpa macrophylla var. kouytchensis H. Lév.; Callicarpa roxburghii Wall. ex Walp.; Callicarpa salviifolia Griff., nom. nud.; Callicarpa tomentosa K.D. Koenig ex Vahl, nom. illeg.)

Thailand, China.

See Symbolae Botanicae, ... 3: 13, pl. 53. 1794, Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants 1: 407–408. 1820, Fl. Brit. India 4: 568. 1885, Darjeeling List 60. 1896. and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 9(222–226): 456. 1911, Flore du Kouy-Tchéou 440. 1915

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Inner bark ground into a paste and applied on cuts and wounds as a hemostatic. Leaves antirheumatic, stomachic, warmed and applied. Fruit paste, or wood paste, used in the treatment of boils and blisters on the tongue. Fruits chewed to treat sores of the tongue and mouth. Seeds and roots stomachic; roots antirheumatic, stomachic.)

in English: big-leaf beauty berry

in China: da ye zi zhu

in India: anganaapriya, anganapriya, bhirmoli, bonmala, chimpompil, chinpompil, chokkala, cimpompil, dahiya, daia, daiya, daya, dayya, gandhaphali, gandhphali, gandhpriyangu, ghiwala, gnazhal, habb-ul-mihlb, huahkhar, kaantaa, kaantaahvaa, kanta, khap, mathara, mondol-panamana, nalal, nalalu, njaazhalpoovu, phalin, phalini, phool pirangu, priyaka, priyamgu, priyangu, priyangu beej, priyangu phool, priyangu puspha, priyanguka, priyangukaa, shyamaa, socu, syama, tong loti, vanita, vanitaa

in Nepal: dahigun, mala buru, tichangsa

in Tibet: ga ndha pri yam ku, gandha pri ya nku, gandha priya nku, pri-yam-ku, pri yan, pri-yan-ku

Callicarpa maingayi King & Gamble

Thailand. Tree, small trees, angled hairy twigs, leaves pale silvery hairy below, regular pale lilac flowers in cymes, red drupes

See Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1908: 106. 1908

(Bark used as a substitute for betel.)

in Malaysia: tampang besi

Callicarpa nudiflora Hook. & Arn. (Callicarpa acuminata Roxburgh, nom. illeg., non Kunth; Callicarpa acuminata var. angustifolia Metcalf; Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl var. sinensis C.B. Clarke; Callicarpa nudiflora Vahl; Callicarpa reevesii Wall., nom. nud.; Callicarpa reevesii Wallich ex Schauer; Callicarpa reevesii Wall. ex Walp.)

India, China, Pen. Malaysia. Shrubs or small trees

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 2: 252. 1817[1818], Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants 1: 408. 1820, The Botany of capt. Beechey’s Voyage; comprising an account of the Plants collected by Messrs. Lay and Collie ... during the voyage to the Pacific and Bering’s Strait, performed in H.M.S. Blossom ... 1825–1828. 206. London [1830-] 1841, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 125. 1845, Fl. Brit. India 4(12): 568. 1885 and Lingnan Sci. J. 11(3): 407. 1932, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 79(2): 205–211. 2002

(Disinfectant, antiseptic, dried leaves to treat suppurative skin infections and burns. Cytotoxic, antiviral activities against respiratory syncytial virus, RSV.)

in English: naked-flower beauty berry

in China: luo hua zi zhu

Callicarpa pedunculata R.Br. (Callicarpa cuspidata Roxb.; Callicarpa dentata Roth; Callicarpa pedunculata H.J. Lam & Bakh.; Callicarpa pedunculata var. typica H.J. Lam, nom. inval.; Callicarpa tiliifolia Teijsm. & Binn. ex C.B. Clarke, nom. inval.; Callicarpa viridis Domin)

Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea. An evergreen shrub or small tree, stem and branches densely tomentose, leaves glandular, densely glandular calyx minutely 4-toothed, corolla purple or mauve, stamens exserted, pale mauve or violet-purple glandular fruits

See Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 513. 1810, Fl. Brit. India 4: 569. 1885 and The Verbenaceae of the Malayan Archipelago 56. 1919, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 3: 24. 1921, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 554. 1928

(A roots decoction an ingredient of a poultice used to mature boils and ulcers. Leaves infusion, together with leaves of Ocimum basilicum L., drunk after parturition and as an emmenagogue. Roots an antidote for poisonous fish, crabs and toadstools.)

in Indonesia: memeniran, meniran, ringan-ringan

Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. (Callicarpa acuminatissima Teijsm. & Binn.; Callicarpa acuminatissima Liu & Tseng; Callicarpa affinis Elmer; Callicarpa clemensorum Moldenke; Callicarpa cumingiana Schauer; Callicarpa hexandra Teijsm. & Binn.; Callicarpa pentandra f. celebica Bakh.; Callicarpa pentandra f. dentata Bakh.; Callicarpa pentandra f. farinosa (Blume) Bakh.; Callicarpa pentandra f. furfuracea Bakh.; Callicarpa pentandra f. hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Bakh.; Callicarpa pentandra f. pentamera (H.J. Lam) Bakh.; Callicarpa pentandra var. cumingiana (Schauer) Bakh.; Callicarpa serrulata (Hallier f.) Govaerts; Callicarpa subglandulosa Elmer; Callicarpa subternata (Hallier f.) Govaerts; Geunsia acuminatissima (Teijsm. & Binn.) H.J. Lam; Geunsia anisophylla Hallier f.; Geunsia cumingiana (Schauer) Rolfe; Geunsia cumingiana var. dentata (Bakh.) Moldenke; Geunsia cumingiana var. pentamera H.J. Lam; Geunsia farinosa Blume; Geunsia farinosa f. serratula Moldenke; Geunsia farinosa var. callicarpoides H.J. Lam ex Moldenke; Geunsia furfuracea (Bakh.) Moldenke; Geunsia hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord.; Geunsia hexandra f. serrulata Moldenke; Geunsia hexandra var. macrophylla Moldenke; Geunsia hookeri Merr.; Geunsia paloensis var. celebica (Bakh.) Moldenke; Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.) Merr.; Geunsia pentandra var. albidella Moldenke; Geunsia serrulata Hallier f.; Geunsia serrulata f. anisophylla (Hallier f.) Moldenke; Geunsia subternata Hallier f.)

Thailand, Malesia. Small tree

See Fl. Ind. 1: 409. 1820, Fl. Ind. 1: 395. 1832, Prodr. (DC.) 11: 644. 1847, Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. xxv. (1863) 409. 1863 and Leafl. Philipp. Bot. iii. 864. 1910, Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. x. 55. 1957

(Used for vertigo; ground bark used for swellings.)

Malay name: membatu puteh

Callicarpa rubella Lindl.

Himalaya. Shrub, erect, inflorescence axillary, flowers pink, fruits purple-violet, tender shoots cooked as vegetable

See Bot. Reg. 11: t. 883. 1825

(Bark to treat tumors of the large intestine. Leaf extract applied on injuries to stop bleeding.)

in China: hong zi zhu

in India: dieng lakhangwet, dieng lakso miaw, jalang kwai, mondol, nin rasu, soh eitksar, wazanu jaba

Callicarpa tomentosa (L.) L. (Callicarpa arborea Miq. ex C.B. Clarke, nom. inval.; Callicarpa farinosa Roxb. ex C.B. Clarke, nom. inval.; Callicarpa lanata L., nom. illeg.; Callicarpa lobata C.B. Clarke; Callicarpa rheedei Kostel.; Callicarpa tomentosa Lam., nom. illeg.; Callicarpa tomentosa (L.) Murray; Callicarpa tomentosa Murray; Callicarpa tomentosa Hook. & Arn.; Callicarpa tomentosa Lam & Bakh.; Callicarpa tomentosa Willd., nom. illeg.; Callicarpa tomentosa K.D. Koenig ex Vahl, nom. illeg.; Callicarpa tomentosa var. lanata (L.) Bakh.; Callicarpa tomentosa var. longipetiolata (Merr.) Bakh.; Callicarpa tomentosa var. magna (Schauer) Bakh.; Callicarpa tomex Poir., nom. illeg.; Callicarpa villosa Vahl; Callicarpa wallichiana Walp.; Cornutia corymbosa Lam., nom. illeg.; Hedyotis arborescens Noronha, nom. inval.; Tomex tomentosa L.)

SE Asia, India. Small tree, fruits eaten raw

See Species Plantarum 1: 111. 1753, Systema Vegetabilium. Editio decima tertia 153. 1774, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1: 562. 1783, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 3: 13. 1794, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... 1: 158. 1809, The Botany of Captain Beechey’s Voyage 205. 1836, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 125. 1845, Fl. Brit. India 4: 566–567. 1885 and Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg ser. 3. 3(3): 20–22. 1921, J. Basic Microbiol. 45(3): 230–235. 2005

(Used in Ayurveda. Bark and root juice for high fever, stomachache and malaria; root juice of Hymenodictyon orixense mixed with the bark juice of Callicarpa tomentosa given for fever; root juice with root juice of Streblus asper for irregular menstruation and menorrhagia. Bark slightly bitter, masticatory, chewed when there are no betel leaves. Plant pounded, used to poultice sores. Religious and supernatural beliefs, related with sowing and harvesting ceremonies.)

in English: great woolly Malayan lilac

in Bangladesh: taramah

in India: aarathi soppu, aardir, aardri, ardri, arthigidu, arti, ayamsar, bastra, bodiga chettu, cheruthekku, dodda naathada gida, doddanaathada gida, ibanne, ibbani, ibbanne, insara, isvar, kaarivaati, karavati, katkomal, kattukkumil, mashandari, naikumbil, nallapompil, nallarappalu, picenkala, pichenkala, pichenkale, pondee, pondi, puru, rishipathri, ruchi katthi, ruchipatri, rucipatri, seembakkulthu, temperuvallam, teregam, thinperivelum, timperuvellam, tomdikharvamti, tondatti, tondi, tondi-teregam, tonditeragam, tonditterakam, tonti, tontitterakam, uennattekka, umathekka, umathekku, urnnatekka, vettilai-pattai, vettilaipattai, vettilaippattai, yarphu-changne, yibbani

in Malaya: derdap dapur, tumah dapur

Callichilia Stapf Apocynaceae

From the Greek kalli ‘beautiful’ and cheilos ‘a lip, margin’, see Fl. Trop. Africa [Oliver et al.] 4(1.1): 130–131. 1902, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. sér. 2, 27: 225. 1948, Helvetica Chimica Acta 50(7): 1939–1960. 1967, Helvetica Chimica Acta 53(4): 749–754. 1970, Helvetica Chimica Acta 60(8): 2830–2853. 1977, African Journal of Biomedical Research 5: 77–79. 2002.

Callichilia barteri (Hook. f.) Stapf (Callichilia barteri Stapf; Hedranthera barteri (Hook. f.) Pichon; Tabernaemontana barteri Hook. f.)

Tropical Africa, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon. Liana, erect shrub, white latex in all parts, showy and fragrant flowers, paired dull orange dehiscent juicy fleshy fruits

See Botanical Magazine 96: t. 5859. 1870 and Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 4(1.1): 133. 1902, Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 27: 225. 1948

(Leaves infusion as a laxative for children; leaves antioxidant, sedative, applied against tumours, swellings, wounds. An extract of the fruit is taken as a vermifuge, to prevent miscarriage and as a treatment against gonorrhea. Magic, ritual.)

Callichilia subsessilis (Benth.) Stapf (Callichilia subsessilis Stapf; Tabernaemontana subsessilis Benth.)

Tropical Africa. Herb, shrub, erect, sticky milky latex, paired dull orange fruits

See Niger Flora [W.J. Hooker]. 448. 1849 and Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 4(1.1): 132. 1902

(Leaves infusion as a laxative for children. Roots and stem bark anthelmintic, for venereal infections, swellings, tumours.)

Calligonum L. Polygonaceae

From the Greek kalli ‘beautiful’ and gony ‘joint, a knee’, see Species Plantarum 1: 530. 1753.

Calligonum azel Maire

Sahara, Tunisia. Shrub, many-branched, small white flowers

See Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 1932, xxiii. 211. 1932, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 11: 97. 1974

(Antifungal, for eczema, itch.)

in Sahara: annag

Calligonum comosum L’Hér. (Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum L’Hér.; Calligonum polygonoides subsp. comosum (L’Hér.) Soskov; Calligonum polygonoides subsp. comosus (Herit.) Soskov)

Egypt, North Africa. Tall woody shrub, perennial, psammophil, many-branched from the base, stiff branches, small tepals, conspicuous red anthers, fruit a single circular hairy carpel, fresh flowers eaten, camels eat the filaments and the roots

See Species Plantarum 1: 530. 1753, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 1: 180. 1791 and Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 12: 153. 1975, Fitoterapia 72(5): 487–491. 2001, Fitoterapia 75(2): 149–161. 2004, Asian J. Plant Sci. 5(4): 570–579. 2006, Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences (Z. Naturforsch. C) 62(9–10): 656–660. 2007

(Antifungal, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, cytotoxic and antioxidant, for stomach ailments; roots decoction for gum sores; for eczema, itch, young shoots and leaves powdered used externally as an ointment; stems and leaves chewed for curing toothache. Veterinary medicine, to treat scabies in dromedaries.)

in English: orta tree

in Arabic: abal, arach, aresu, âresû, arta, ârta, arta’a, awarach, âwarâs, larta, orta, orti, ouarach

in Sahara: warash

Calligonum leucocladum (Schrenk) Bunge (Calligonum alatiforme Pavlov; Calligonum alatiforme subsp. roseum Sosk.; Calligonum androssowii Litv.; Calligonum anfractuosum Bunge; Calligonum aralense Borszcz.; Calligonum batiola Litv.; Calligonum dubianskyi Litv.; Calligonum golbeckii Drobow; Calligonum gracile Litv.; Calligonum gypsaceum Drobow; Calligonum karakalpakense Drobow; Calligonum lanciculatum Pavlov; Calligonum leucocladiforme Drobow; Calligonum leucocladum Bunge; Calligonum lipskyi Litv.; Calligonum obtusum Litv.; Calligonum orthocarpum Drobow; Calligonum physopterum Pavlov; Calligonum plicatum Pavlov; Calligonum quadripterum Korov. ex Pavl.; Calligonum roseum Drobow; Calligonum turbineum Pavlov; Calligonum uzunachmatense Tkatsch.; Pterococcus aphyllus Kar. & Kir., not Pallas; Pterococcus leucocladus Schrenk; Pterococcus persicus Boiss. & Buhse)

China, Turkestan.

See Reise Russ. Reichs, ii. 738. 1773, Reise, App. 738. t. 5. 1776, Reise Russ. Reich. ii. App. 43. 1777, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou xv. (1842) 443. 1842, Flora 25(2, Beibl.): 41. 1842, Mélanges Biol. Bull. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 3: 211. 1845, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 7: 485. 1851, Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 12: 191. 1860 and Trav. Mus. Bot. Acad. Petersb. 1913, xi. 55. 1913, J. Nat. Prod. 67(6): 1044–1046. 2004, International Journal of Integrative Biology 5(3): 148. 2009

(Antioxidant, from the dried aerial parts. Plant poultice an antidote against poisonous harmful plants and heavy doses of opium.)

in China: dan zhi sha guai zao

Calligonum polygonoides L.

India. Evergreen xerophytic shrub, red roots, small succulent fruits, tender green phyllodes fodder for camels

See Species Plantarum 1: 530. 1753, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 1: 180. 1791 and Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 12: 153. 1975

(Used in Ayurveda. Plant decoction antifungal, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, a gargle for sore gums. Flower buds effective in treating sun stroke.)

in English: desert locust, orta tree

in India: phog, phoga, phogaro, phoglo, phogro, sphurjaka

Callilepis DC. Asteraceae

From the Greek kallos ‘beauty’, kalos, kalli ‘beautiful’ and lepis, lepidos ‘scale’.

Callilepis laureola DC. (Callilepis glabra DC.; Callilepis hispida DC.; Callilepis laureola var. glabra (DC.) Harv.; Callilepis laureola var. hispida (DC.) Harv.)

South Africa. Perennial herb, tufted, large woody tuberous rootstock, simple or branched from the base, ray florets pure white, dark purple disc-florets tubular

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 5: 671. 1836 and South African Med. J. 45(30): 832–833. 1971, South Afr. Med. J. 55(8): 290–292. 1979, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 18(10): 594–597. 1999, Clinical Biochemistry 35(1): 57–64. 2002, Clinical Biochemistry 35(3): 179–180. 2002, Clinical Biochemistry 35(6): 499. 2002, Human & Experimental Toxicology 21(12): 643–647. 2002, Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 581(1– 2): 35–42. 2005 (Tubers very poisonous, virulent poison, hepatotoxic, hypoglycemic, can cause acute fatal hepatocellular necrosis, hepatic and renal dysfunction, especially in children. Roots decoction antioxidant, vermifuge, used for tapeworms, snakebite, whooping cough, infertility; an infusion for coughs and as a purgative; crushed root paste applied directly to open wounds, burns. Macerated leaf an external disinfectant. Veterinary medicine, root paste to kill maggots in cattle. Magic, ritual, roots as protective charms placed under the pillow to stop bad dreams.)

in English: ox-eye daisy, pine thistle

in Southern Africa: amafuthomhlaba, ihlamvu, impila, imPila, mila, wildemargriet

Callilepis leptophylla Harv.

South Africa. Erect, slender herb, terminal flower-head usually solitary

See Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 22(6): 641–649. 2000

(Veterinary medicine, roots ground to a paste for killing maggots in cattle.)

in English: velvet sweetberry

in South Africa: bergbitterbossie, imphila, imphilane, impila

Callirhoe Nutt. Malvaceae

After Kallirhoe or Callirrhoe ‘fair flow, beautiful flowing’, one of the Oceanids, in the Greek mythology the daughter of the river god Achelous and wife of Alcmaeon, see Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2(1): 181–182. 1822.

Callirhoe involucrata (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray (Callirhoe involucrata A. Gray; Malva involucrata Torr. & A. Gray)

North America. Perennial herb

See A Flora of North America: containing ... 1(2): 226. 1838, Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Science, new series 4(1): 16, adnot. 1849

(Root decoction taken for colic, abdominal pain.)

in English: purple poppy mallow

Callirhoe involucrata (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray var. involucrata (Callirhoe involucrata (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray f. novomexicana (Baker f.) Waterf.; Callirhoe involucrata (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray var. novomexicana Baker f.)

North America. Perennial herb

See A Flora of North America: containing ... 1(2): 226. 1838, Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Science, new series 4(1): 16, adnot. 1849, J. Bot. 29: 49. 1891 and Field & Lab. 19: 111. 1951

(Analgesic root decoction taken for colic, abdominal pain.)

in English: purple poppy mallow, purple poppymallow

Callisia Loefling Commelinaceae

From the Greek kallos ‘beauty’, see Species Plantarum 1: 40–42. 1753, Iter Hispanicum 305. 1758, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 1: 62. 1762, Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, des plantes 8: 177. 1804 and Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 5: 147. 1923, Kew Bulletin 38(1): 131–133. 1983, Kew Bulletin 41(2): 407–412. 1986, Fl. Novo-Galiciana 13: 130– 201. 1993, Fl. Mesoamer. 6: 157–173. 1994, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 92: 386–409. 2003, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111(1): 63–81. 2007.

Callisia fragrans (Lindl.) Woodson (Rectanthera fragrans (Lindl.) O. Deg.; Spironema fragrans Lindl.; Spironema orthandrum Lindb.)

Mexico. Perennial herb, procumbent, creeping, white flowers

See Edwards’s Botanical Register 26(3): pl. 47, misc. 26. 1840, Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 10: 127, t. 4. 1871, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 3: 302. 1881 and Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 39: 70. 1903, Flora Hawaiensis 1: 62. 1932, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29(3): 154. 1942, Veterinary Dermatology 17(1): 70–80. 2007

(Stomachic, diseases of gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder, spleen, and also for pulmonary diseases, bronchial asthma, allergy, itch, wounds, burns, injuries and fractures, dermatitis, lichens, ulcers. Hypersensitivity to leaf extracts, contact dermatitis in dogs.)

in English: basketplant, gold whisker, golden tendril, inch plant

Callisia gracilis (Kunth) D.R. Hunt (Aneilema gracilis (Kunth) Steyerm., nom. illeg.; Aneilema gracilis f. bicolor (Kunth) Steyerm.; Commelina bicolor Poepp. ex Kunth; Phyodina gracilis (Kunth) Raf.; Tradescantia bicolor Kunth; Tradescantia debilis Kunth; Tradescantia diaphana Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f.; Tradescantia elegans Pritz.; Tradescantia gracilis Kunth; Tradescantia gracilis var. bicolor (Kunth) C.B. Clarke)

South America, Ecuador. Herb, sprawling, creeping, prostrate, white flowers

See Species Plantarum 1: 288. 1753, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 270. 1810, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 1: 261–262, t. 672. 1815[1816], Flora Telluriana 2: 16. 1836[1837], Enum. Pl. 4: 88–89. 1843, Iconum Botanicarum Index 1110. 1854, Monogr. Phan. 3: 298. 1881 and Fieldiana, Botany 28(1): 152. 1951, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 94(4): 531–535. 1999

(Antiherpetic. Used for warts. Leaf and flower infusion taken for high blood pressure, rheumatism, intestinal troubles.)

in Latin America: calcha, calso, crespinillo

Callisia repens (Jacq.) L. (Callisia repens var. ciliata Roem. & Schult.; Callisia repens var. mandoni (Hassk.) C.B. Clarke; Callisia repens var. mandonii (Hassk.) C.B. Clarke; Commelina hexandra var. mandonii Hassk.; Hapalanthus repens Jacq.; Spironema robbinsii C. Wright; Tradescantia callisia Sw.)

North and Tropical America. Herb, prostrate, epiphyte, leaning, procumbent, white flowers, inflorescences erect

See Enumeratio Systematica Plantarum 1, 12. 1760, Fl. Ind. Occid. 1: 603. 1797, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 1: 528. 1817, Flora Telluriana 4: 92. 1836[1838], Anales Acad. Ci. Méd. Habana 7: 609. 1870, Flora Cubana. Enumeratio ... 158. 1873, Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 3: 311. 1881 and FOC 24: 39. 2000

(Leaf infusion febrifuge, relaxant, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, taken for gangrene, gastritis, high blood pressure, internal infections, rheumatism.)

in English: Bolivian jew, creeping inchplant, turtle vine

in China: yang zhu cao

in Latin America: calcha, tripa de pollo, yerba de coyontura

Callitriche L. Callitrichaceae (Plantaginaceae)

Latin callithrix and Greek kallithrix for a plant used for coloring the hair, also called trichomanes (Plinius); Latin callitrichos and Greek kallitrichos for a plant commonly called adiantum or Capillus veneris, maidenhair (Plinius); Greek kalli ‘beautiful’ Greek thrix, trichos ‘hair’, referring to its appearance and branching, slender stems; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 2: 969. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 5. 1754 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(6): 171–172. 1949, Rhodora 53(632): 185–194. 1951, Fl. Canada 3: 547–1115. 1978, Taxon 53(1): 169–172. 2004.

Callitriche fehmedianii Majeed Kak & Javeid

India. Submerged, auricled leaves, male and female flowers covered by transparent white spongy bracts

See Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 79: 167. 1982

(Crushed plants applied as poultice over the cuts, burns and wounds.)

in China: xi nan shui ma chi

Callitriche palustris L. (Callitriche anceps subsp. subanceps Á. Löve & D. Löve; Callitriche androgyna L.; Callitriche elegans Petrov; Callitriche fallax Petrov; Callitriche minima (L.) Hoppe; Callitriche palustris var. minima L.; Callitriche palustris var. verna (L.) Fenley ex Jeps.; Callitriche subanceps Petrov; Callitriche verna L.; Callitriche verna subvar. minima (L.) Nyman; Callitriche verna var. minima (L.) Dumort.; Callitriche vernalis var. minima (L.) Lange)

Europe. Submerged or floating, translucent, globular fruits deep-grooved near the base

See Species Plantarum 2: 969. 1753, Flora Suecica, Editio Secunda Aucta et Emendata 2. 1755, Centuria I. Plantarum ... 31. 1775, Florula belgica, opera majoris prodromus, auctore ... 90. 1827, Conspectus florae europaeae: seu Enumeratio methodica plantarum phanerogamarum Europae indigenarum, indicatio distributionis geographicae singularum etc. 250. 1879 and A Flora of California 2(4): 435. 1936, Rhodora 96: 383–386. 1994

(Leaf poultice applied to sores, also to relieve the pain of urinary bladder.)

in English: swamp water starwort, water starwort

in China: shui ma chi

Callitriche stagnalis Scop. (Callitriche palustris subsp. stagnalis (Scop.) Schinz & Thell.; Callitriche stagnalis Scop. emend. Kutz)

Europe. Submerged herb, upper leaves in rosette, axillary sessile flowers, surrounded by 2 spongy bracts, food for insects and fishes

See Flora Carniolica, Editio Secunda 2: 251. 1772 and Die Flora der Schweiz ed. 2, 1: 322. 1905, Inform. Bot. Ital. 12: 113–116. 1980, Gött. Floriste Rundbriefe 20(2): 79–100. 1986, Rhodora 96: 383–386. 1994, Newslett. Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. (Oslo) 28: 16–18. 1997, Watsonia 21: 365–368. 1997

(Leaves applied as poultice on wounds.)

in English: common starwort, European water-starwort, water starwort

Callitropsis Oerst. Cupressaceae

See A Description of the Genus Pinus 2: 18. 1824, Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn 6: 32. 1864 and Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 45: 432. 1922, Regnum Veg. 100: 266. 1979, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34(2): 117–123. 1996.

Callitropsis lusitanica (Mill.) D.P. Little (Cupressus benthamii Endl.; Cupressus benthamii var. knightiana (Perry ex Gordon) Mast.; Cupressus benthamii var. lindleyi (Klotzsch ex Endl.) Mast.; Cupressus knightiana Perry ex Gordon; Cupressus lindleyi Klotzsch ex Endl.; Cupressus lusitanica Mill.; Cupressus lusitanica subsp. mexicana (Koch) Maire; Cupressus lusitanica var. benthamii (Endl.) Carrière; Cupressus lusitanica var. knightiana Rehder; Cupressus macnabiana var. nevadensis (Abrams) Abrams; Hesperocyparis lusitanica (Mill.) Bartel; Neocupressus lusitanica (Mill.) de Laub.)

Mexico, Guatemala. Evergreen, fast-growing, straight trunk, bark red-brown

See The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition no. 3. 1768 and Torreya 19(5): 92. 1919, Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States 1: 73. 1923, Agros (Lisbon) 28: 23. 1945, Kalmia 12: 19. 1982, Madroño 18(6): 164. 1966, Systematic Botany 31(3): 474. 2006, Novon 19(3): 304. 2009, Phytologia 91(1): 181. 2009

(Diuretic.)

in English: Mexican cypress, Portuguese cypress

in East Africa: mtarakwa (Chagga), muturakawa (Kikuyu), omobakora (Kisii)

Callitropsis nevadensis (Abrams) D.P. Little (Cupressus arizonica subsp. nevadensis (Abrams) A.E. Murray; Cupressus arizonica var. nevadensis (Abrams) Little; Cupressus lusitanica Mill.; Cupressus macnabiana var. nevadensis (Abrams) Abrams; Cupressus nevadensis Abrams)

North America.

See The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition no. 3. 1768 and Torreya 19(5): 92. 1919, Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States 1: 73. 1923, Agros (Lisbon) 28: 23. 1945, Kalmia 12: 19. 1982, Madroño 18(6): 164. 1966, Systematic Botany 31(3): 474. 2006, Novon 19(3): 304. 2009, Phytologia 91(1): 181. 2009

(Analgesic, for cold, cough.)

Calluna Salib. Ericaceae

Greek kallunein, kallyno ‘to sweep, adorn, cleanse’, the branches are used as brooms; see R.A. Salisbury, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Botany. 6: 317, in obs. 1802.

Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (Calluna vulgaris Salisb.; Erica vulgaris L.; Ericoides vulgaris (L.) Merino; Ericoides vulgaris (Salisb.) B.Merino)

Europe.

See Species Plantarum 1: 352. 1753, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 6: 317. 1802, Brit. Fl., ed 2 (Hull) 114. 1808 and Merino, Baltasar 1845–1917), Flora descriptiva é illustrada de Galicia. Tomo I-III. Santiago, Tipografía Galaica, 1905– 1909, Taxon 29: 725–726. 1980, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 39: 533–539. 1983, Acta Bot. Fenn. 130. 1985, Rerum Nat. Univ. Comenianae, Bot. 33: 69–72. 1986, Acta Biol. Cracov., Ser. Bot. 32: 175–177, 181. 1990, Lagascalia 24: 175–182. 2004, Pharmazie. 64(10): 656–659. 2009

(Antioxidant.)

in English: common heather, heather, Scotch heather, Scottish heather, white heather

Calocedrus Kurz Cupressaceae

From the Greek kallos ‘beauty’, kalos, kalli ‘beautiful’ and kedros ‘cedar’, see Species Plantarum 2: 1002. 1753, Handbuch zur Erkennung der nutzbarsten und am häufigsten vorkommenden Gewächse 3: 311. 1833, Synopsis Coniferarum 42. 1847, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 11: 196, t. 133. 1873 and Mitteilungen der Deutschen Dendrologischen Gesellschaft 16: 88. 1907[1908].

Calocedrus decurrens (Torrey) Florin (Heyderia decurrens (Torr.) K. Koch; Libocedrus decurrens Torrey; Thuja decurrens (Torr.) Voss)

North America. Perennial tree

See Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 6(2): 7–8, pl. 3. 1853, Dendrologie 2(2): 179. 1873 and Taxon 5: 192. 1956, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 18(4): 439–444. 1996, Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology 2(4): 228–236. 2002

(Deoxypodophyllotoxin as the active compound. Decoction of leaves taken for stomach troubles; leaves infusion steam inhaled for colds.)

in English: incense cedar

in Mexico: cedro incienso

Calochortus Pursh Liliaceae (Calochortaceae)

Greek kalos ‘beautiful’ and chortos ‘green herbage, grass’, alluding to the grass-like leaves. See Friedrich Traugott Pursh (1774–1820), Flora Americae Septentrionalis. 1: 240. London 1814 [Dec 1813–Jan 1814], Brit. Fl. Gard. 3: t. 273. 1828, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1868: 168. 1868 and Marion Ownbey, “A monograph of the genus Calochortus Pursh.” in Annals Missouri Botanical Garden. 27: 371–560. 1940, Leaflets of Western Botany 4(1): 1. 1944, Gerritsen, M.E. & Parsons, R. Calochortus: Mariposa Lilies & Their Relatives. Timber Press, Inc. Portland, U.S.A.. 2007.

Calochortus amabilis Purdy (Calochortus pulchellus Douglas ex Benth. var. amabilis (Purdy) Jeps.; Calochortus pulchellus var. amabilis Jeps.; Calochortus pulchellus var. maculosus S. Watson ex Purdy; Calochortus pulchellus var. maculosus S. Watson)

North America. Perennial herb, bulbs eaten

See Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, ser. 2, 1(5): 412. 1835, Zoe 1: 245. 1890 [Zoë] and Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., III, 2(4): 119, pl. 19, f. 1. 1901, A Flora of Western Middle California [Jepson] 113. 1901

(Tonic, stimulant, stomachic.)

in English: Diogenes’ lantern

Calochortus aureus S. Watson (Calochortus nuttallii var. aureus (S. Watson) Ownbey)

North America. Perennial herb, food

See Amer. Naturalist 7(5): 303. 1873 and Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 27(4): 493. 1940

(Bulb stimulant, tonic. Ceremonial, ritual.)

in English: golden mariposa lily

Calochortus gunnisonii S. Watson

North America. Perennial herb, food

See Botany [Fortieth Parallel]: 348. 1871

(Plant infusion or decoction taken for swellings, postpartum remedy. Ceremonial. Veterinary medicine.)

in English: Gunnison’s mariposa lily

Calochortus gunnisonii S. Watson var. gunnisonii (Calochortus gunnisonii var. immaculatus Cockerell; Calochortus gunnisonii var. kreglagii Regel; Calochortus gunnisonii var. krelagei Regel; Calochortus gunnisonii var. maculatus Cockerell; Calochortus gunnisonii var. purus Cockerell)

North America. Perennial herb, food

See Botany [Fortieth Parallel]: 348. 1871, Gartenflora 22: 213. 1873, Gartenflora 23: 129. 1874, W. Amer. Sci. 5: 17. 1888, West. Am. Sci. 6: 135. 1889

(Plant infusion taken for swellings. Ceremonial. Veterinary medicine.)

in English: Gunnison’s mariposa lily

Calochortus macrocarpus Douglas (Mariposa macrocarpa (Douglas) Hoover)

North America. Perennial herb, stout, straight, fan-like petals, narrow pointed sepals, food, forage

See Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7: 276. 1830 and Leafl. W. Bot. 4: 2. 1944

(Crushed bulbs made into a paste applied to the skin for skin diseases, poison ivy.)

in English: green-banded mariposa, sagebrush mariposa lily

Calochortus macrocarpus Douglas var. macrocarpus (Calochortus acuminatus Rydb.; Calochortus cyaneus A. Nelson; Calochortus douglasianus Schult.f.; Calochortus macrocarpus var. cyaneus (A. Nelson) J.F. Macbr.; Calochortus macrocarpus var. cyaneus J.F. Macbr.; Calochortus pavonaceus Fernald

North America. Perennial herb, food, forage

See Bijdr. Natuurk. Wetensch. 4: 127. 1829, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7: 276. 1830, Bot. Gaz. 19: 335. 1894, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 189. 1897 and Bot. Gaz. 53: 219. 1912, Contr. Gray Herb. 56: 14. 1918, Leafl. W. Bot. 4: 2. 1944

(Crushed bulbs made into a paste applied to the skin for skin diseases, poison ivy.)

in English: green-banded mariposa, sagebrush mariposa lily

Calochortus nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray (Calochortus luteus Nutt., nom. illeg.; Calochortus luteus Douglas ex Lindl.; Calochortus luteus Douglas ex Kunth; Calochortus nuttallii Torr.; Calochortus rhodothecus Clokey; Calochortus watsonii M.E. Jones)

North America. Perennial herb, stout straight erect stem, narrow linear leaves, bowl-shaped white flowers, broad rounded petals, pointed sepals, edible bulb

See Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 19: t. 1567. 1833, Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 4: 233. 1833–1850, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 53. 1834, An Expedition to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah 397. 1852 and Contr. W. Bot. 14: 26. 1912, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 37: 1. 1938

(Ceremonial, ritual, the flowers.)

in English: sago lily, sego-lily

Caloncoba Gilg Flacourtiaceae

From the Greek kalos ‘beautiful’ and the genus Oncoba, see Stirpes Novae aut Minus Cognitae 3: 59. 1786, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 255. 1824 and Blumea—Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography 53(1): 1–222. 2008.

Caloncoba brevipes (Stapf) Gilg (Oncoba brevipes Stapf)

West Tropical Africa. Tree, seeds eaten

See Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 37: 84. 1905, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 459. 1908, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia 19: 256. 1997

(Bark pain-killer, inner bark and leaves for headache. Seed oil for subcutaneous parasitic infection, skin diseases, crawcraw and scrofula.)

in Ivory Coast: butue, dolié, dule

in Liberia: kene kene, kênê kênê, klehn

in Sierra Leone: gene, kene, kenne, kenye

Caloncoba echinata (Oliv.) Gilg (Caloncoba echinata Gilg; Oncoba echinata Oliv.)

Tropical Africa. Shrub or small tree, perennial, erect, wood very hard, stiff wavy leaves, small white flowers with yellow center, yellow spiny ripe fruits, fruit pulp edible, seeds sweet and oily

See Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica cxiii, 103–104. 1775, Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 118–119. 1868 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 458, 464. 1908, Journal of Natural Products 65(12): 1764–1768. 2002

(Fruits and leaves for sores, skin eruptions and inflammation. Seed oil used for the treatment of leprosy, pustular eruptions, malaria and skin infections, toothache. Leafy twig tonic, laxatives, used for smallpox, chicken pox, measles. Seeds insecticide, arachnicide, pounded seeds against lice and mange.)

in English: elephant’s comb

in Cameroon: gorli

in Ghana: esono ankyi, gbogble, marhebomuane, obafufu, okyere, orbafufu, wanka

in Guinea: kuêuéui

in Ivory Coast: gbétélibé, katupo

in Liberia: dooh, flanchu

in Nigeria: gorli, kakandika, otiemme, udara-nwewe

in Sierra Leone: fen-kone, goli, gorli, kẻ-nanafira, komehumda, kulukenyo, kumin-kanya, kumin-kone, nikawumbi, nyanyando

in Paraguay: chamulgra

Caloncoba gilgiana (Sprague) Gilg (Oncoba gilgiana Sprague)

Sierra Leone. Shrub or small tree, straggling, thorny, arching branches, fragrant white flowers

See Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 5(12): 1164–1166. 1905, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40(3): 460–461. 1908

(Antidote to poison, purgative.)

in Ghana: asratoa, aweawu, efiohle, gbogble, kotowiri, nwoantia, okyere, sissiru

in Ivory Coast: kauanunguessé

in Nigeria: iroko-ojo

in Sierra Leone: gene, kenye, kokwi, singo

in Togo: efiohle

Caloncoba glauca (P. Beauv.) Gilg (Lindackeria dentata (Oliv.) Gilg; Oncoba glauca (P. Beauv.) Planch.; Ventenatia glauca P. Beauv.)

Nigeria. Small tree, edible orange-yellow spiny fruits, shining black seeds with a red aril

See Flore d’Oware 30. 1805, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 6: 296. 1847, Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 119. 1868 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 459, 465. 1908

(Hydrocyanic acid in the leaves, bark and roots. Seed oil used for the treatment of leprosy, yaws, pustular eruptions, venereal diseases, malaria and skin infections, toothache. Leafy twig tonic, laxatives, used for smallpox, chicken pox, measles; leaf sap pain killer. Seeds insecticide, rodenticide, arachnicide; leaf decoction to kill fleas. Bark root astringent; root decoction drunk and root ash rubbed on areas of edema. Magic, ritual, leaf sap to keep the spirits of the dead away.)

in Ghana: asratoa

in Ivory Coast: boua, dédébroguissé

in Nigeria: gorli, kakandika, kankan dika, kánkán dìká, ntuebi, oru kpakokwa, otiemme, otienme, otiosa, pomuseghe, udalā ènwè, udallaenwe, udara-nwewe

in Sierra Leone: bewo, boku, fulo, fulo-kpokpo, hengwa, maiyungbe, ngaingainge, sime, toya-hina, xaienyi

Caloncoba mannii (Oliv.) Gilg (Camptostylus mannii (Oliv.) Gilg; Oncoba mannii Oliv.)

Tropical Africa. Tree, white flowers, fruit eaten by monkeys

See Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 117. 1868 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 462. 1908, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 21: 398. 1925

(Bark decoction febrifuge, to dress sores. Powdered root sedative, astringent, made into snuff for head colds, nasopharyngeal affections and headache.)

in Central African Republic: mwangalé, mwangali

Caloncoba subtomentosa Gilg (Oncoba subtomentosa (Gilg) S. Hul & Breteler)

Tropical Africa. Small tree or shrub, white flowers

See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 463. 1908, Adansonia sér. 3, 19: 260. 1997

(Bark vermifuge.)

in Congo: n’sendesende, osendesende

Caloncoba welwitschii (Oliv.) Gilg (Oncoba welwitschii Oliv.)

Tropical Africa. Small tree, scented white flowers, prickly fruits, elephants eat leaves, monkeys and elephants eat fruit

See Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 117. 1868 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 462. 1908

(Seed oil used for the treatment of leprosy, skin infections. Leaves for dropsy, edema, swellings, gout; leaf sap pain killer. Leafy twig tonic, laxatives, used for smallpox, chicken pox, measles. Seeds insecticide, repellent, arachnicide. Hydrocyanic acid the in leaves, bark and roots. Dried powdered seeds poisonous.)

in Central African Republic: esoko, gbegolo, isoko

in Congo: nteela

in Gabon: ditouk di kari, niam ‘n ‘gom

in Tanzania: muwabo

Calophyllum L. Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)

From the Greek kalos ‘beautiful’ and phyllon ‘a leaf’; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 1: 513–514. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 229. 1754, An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany 74. 1836 and Fl. Bermuda 246. 1918, J. Arnold Arbor. 61: 117–699. 1980, Quimica Nova 29(3): 549–554. 2006, Chemistry & Biodiversity 6(3): 313– 327. 2009.

Calophyllum apetalum Willd. (Calophyllum decipiens Wight)

India. Tree, rusty tomentose, young branches quadrangular, sticky watery sap, white flowers in axillary panicle

See Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 5: 79. 1811 and Fl. Karnataka 1: 202. 1996, Fl. Madras 1: 76. 1997

(Used in Sidha. Gum used as an astringent.)

in India: arrupunna, attupunna, bobbe, bobbi, bobbi mara, boobi mara, calhonne, cheruponne, cherupunna, cherupunnayari, chiraponne, cirupunnai, erai, haraluponne, holi honne, holihonne, irai, iray, kal honne, kala honne, kalhonne, kalla honne, kallonne, kalponne, kalpoone, kalpoovu, kirihonne, lahan-undi, manja punna, manjapunna, punna, punnai, punnai vittu, punnakam, shri hone, shrihonne, valuzhavam

Calophyllum austroindicum Kosterm. ex P.F. Stevens (Calophyllum trapezifolium sensu Anders.)

India. Tree, clear latex, white flowers in axillary panicle

See J. Arnold Arbor. 61(2): 250. 1980, Phytochemistry 43(3): 681–685. 1996, Fl. Karnataka 1: 202. 1996, Fl. Madras 1: 76. 1997, Current Medicinal Chemistry 10(1): 1–12. 2003

(Antibacterial.)

in English: rhomb leaved poon

in India: cheru pinnai, kattupunna

Calophyllum biflorum M.R. Hend. & Wyatt-Sm.

Indonesia. Tree

See The Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 15: 349. 1956

(Crushed fresh bark as fish poison.)

in Indonesia: kayu betao

Calophyllum blancoi Planch. & Triana (Calophyllum changii N. Robson)

China, Philippines. Erect tree, long terminal bud, flowers creamy white, hairy panicles

See Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, série 4, 15: 272. 1861 and Austral. J. Bot. 22: 206–218. 1974, Flora of Taiwan 2: 621. 1976, Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 52(4): 402–405. 2004, Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 53(2): 244–247. 2005

(Antiviral, anti-coronavirus, anticarcinogenic, from the roots. Sap of the bark used locally as a cure for boils and wounds; for asthma, a cloth kept moist with the sap applied on the breasts.)

in China: lan yu hong hou ke

in Philippines: basangal, bitangol, bitanhol, bitaog-bakil, bitaol, bitaong, botol, hitaog, palo Maria, palo Maria del monte, palumut, pameklaten, pamitaogen, pamitaoyen, pamitaugen, pamitlatiin, tadak

Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Calophyllum antillanum Britton; Calophyllum brasiliense var. antillanum (Britton) Standl.; Calophyllum ellipticum Rusby; Calophyllum lucidum Benth.; Calophyllum piaroanum An. Castillo & C. Gil; Calophyllum rekoi Standl.)

Brazil.

See Species Plantarum 1: 514. 1753, Selectarum Stirpium Americanarum Historia ... 269. 1763, Flora Brasiliae Meridionalis (quarto ed.) 1: 247–248, t. 67. 1825, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 370. 1843 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 20(6): 192. 1919, Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 5(4): 584. 1924, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 7: 303. 1927, Tropical Woods 30: 7. 1932, Ernstia (2nd series) 1(1): 41, f. 1. 1991, Journal of Chemical Ecology 23(7): 1901–1911. 1997, J. Nat. Prod. 66(3): 368–371. 2003, Parasitology Research 101(3): 715– 722. 2007, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 59(5): 719–725. 2007

(Antifungal, antileishmanial, antiproliferative, cytotoxic and antitumour. Moist sawdust caused persistent dermatitis and folliculitis.)

in Tropical America: galba, guaranandi, jacareúba, jacareuba, landim, leche María, Maria, olandi, palo de Maria, palo de Santa Maria (references are to the mother of Christ), Santa Maria

Calophyllum calaba L. (Calophyllum antillanum Britton; Calophyllum calaba Griseb.; Calophyllum calaba Jacq., nom. illeg. hom.)

India. Tree, scented flowers, milky yellowish latex

See Species Plantarum 1: 514. 1753, Selectarum Stirpium Americanarum Historia ... 269. 1763, Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 8: 594. 1893 and Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 5(4): 584. 1924, Regnum Veg. 127: 28. 1993

(To treat skin diseases.)

in English: Santa Maria tree

in India: tsjerou-ponna

Calophyllum caledonicum Vieill. ex Planch. & Triana

New Caledonia.

See Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, série 4 15: 291. 1861 and J. Nat. Prod. 63(11): 1471–1474. 2000, Planta Medica 68(1): 41–44. 2002, Molecules 7(1): 38–50. 2002, Life Sciences 75(25): 3077–3085. 2004

(Antifungal, antimalarial, diuretic.)

Calophyllum dispar P.F. Stevens

Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo.

See J. Arnold Arbor. 61(3): 524. 1980, J. Nat. Prod. 64(5): 563–568. 2001, Phytochemistry 58(4): 571–575. 2001

(Cytotoxic.)

Calophyllum elatum Bedd.

India.

See The Flora Sylvatica for Southern India 1: t. 2. 1869

(Used in Sidha.)

in India: kattu punnai, kattuppinnai

Calophyllum gracilipes Merr.

Philippines.

See Philipp. J. Sci., C 5: 197. 1910

(Strongly cytotoxic, useful for the treatment of melanoma.)

Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Balsamaria inophyllum (L.) Loureiro; Calophyllum calaba Jacq.; Calophyllum inophyllum Sieber ex Presl; Calophyllum inophyllum Lam.; Calophyllum tacamahaca Willd.) (Greek is, inos ‘fiber, strength’ and phyllon ‘leaf’)

India. Shade tree, spreading crown, leaning, latex, leathery leaves, very fragrant white flowers in axillary racemes, white petals and yellow stamens, globose fruit coarsely wrinkled, bark contains tannin, common on beaches

See Species Plantarum 1: 513–514. 1753, Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 552. 1785, Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 464, 469–470. 1790, Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 5: 79. 1811, Isis, xxi. (1828) 274. 1828 and Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 67: 972. 1980

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Fruits, seeds and leaves poisonous. Sap irritates the skin and eyes, allergic contact dermatitis. Seed oil rubefacient, irritant, vermifuge, used for ringworm and rheumatism; pounded seeds tied to scrotum to reduce hydrocele. Resin from the mast-wood tree emetic and purgative. Stem bark for skin disorders. Decoction and powder of bark, leaves and flowers to treat eye disease. Leaves and bark rubefacient. Leaves for skin inflammation and infections, ulcers, wounds, scabies, sores; tender leaves juice as eye drops; leaves heated and applied to cuts and sores. Milky yellow latex from the leaves diluted with water and applied to irritated eyes; milky latex from tender twigs and midribs of leaves applied as eye drops; latex applied for killing lice; sap used as arrow poison. Fruits pesticide, against fungal infection. Flowers presented to God during worship. Fruits, seeds and leaves as fish poison.)

in English: Alexandrian laurel, beach calophyllum, beauty leaf, Borneo mahogany, domba oil, doomba tree, Indian laurel, laurelwood, mastwood, pinnay oil, sweet scented calophyllum, Tacamahac tree, tongan oil

in Comoros: mkorwa

in Madagascar: foraha, forara, vintagno

in China: hong hou ke

in India: arttakecam, betan, cayantakam, cayantakamaram, ceruppuna, cerupunna, cherupinna, cherupuna, cherupunna, cimmantacikam, culetam, culetamaram, curalam, cuvetputpakam, doomba, hona, honne, honne kaayi mara, honnu, hoo home, hoo honne, huhome, huhonne, in-yanng, intanng, kallu honne, kecaram, koove mara, kopikakitam, kopikakitamaram, koppika, koppikamaram, kukattal, kuruntutikam, kuruntutikamaram, la monk, lamonk, macarrapattiram, makapucurapi, makapucurpimaram, mara, matukatitam, matukatitamaram, murunkai, naameru, naameru mara, nagam, nagchampa, nakam, namaeru, namaeruak, nameru, nameyru mara, narruti, ooma mara, panchakaeshera, patalatturumam, patumakecaram, pillaicceti, pine, pinekai, pinmai, pinnai, pinnay unnay, pinnaykai, pitataru, pitatarumaram, polanga, ponna, ponna-chettu, ponna vithulu, ponnachettu, ponnakam, ponnakum, ponnavittulu, ponne, ponneda, ponnekayi, ponnu, poona, poonas, poone, pouna, pumag, pumagamu, puna, punas, punna, punnaagamu, punnacam, punnacamaram, punnaga, punnagah, punnagam, punnagamu, punnagavrikshaha, punnagum, punnai, punnaimaram, punnaivirai, punnakam, punnaman, punnappoovu, purusa akacciyam, purusam, purutaki, purutakimaram, purutam, srihonne, sudaabu mara, sultana-champa, sultanachampa, sultanah-champa, sultanchampa, sura honne, suraganne-mara, suragonne, surahonnae, surahonne, surangi, surhonne, surpan, surpunika, surpunka, taa, tamalai, tankakecaram, tevali, tevalimaram, tunga, tungakesara, uma, undag, undela, undi, ungam, vacanaikkenti, viranankalkustampokki, voma, vuma, wuma, wundi

in Japan: teriha-boku (= shiny-leaved tree), yarabu

Malayan names: bintangor bunga, bodek laut, paku achu, penaga laut, pudek

in Myanmar: hpang, pon-nyet

in Papua New Guinea: autawe, calapuline, kwakwamu, oroto, pudeu, vitau

in Philippines: bangkalan, bataraw, bitaog, bitaoi, bitok, bitong, butalao, butalaw, dagkaan, dagkalan, dangkalan, dingkalan, langkalan, palo Maria de la playa, pamitaogen, tambotambok, vutalau

in Vietnam: cay cong, mu u

in Guam: daog, kamani, palo Maria

in Pacific: feta’u, kamani, kamanu, tamono, tamanu

Calophyllum kunstleri King

Malaysia.

See Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 59(2): 174. 1890

(Plant decoction as a postpartum remedy.)

Malay name: panas belukar

Calophyllum lanigerum Miq.

Sarawak, Malaysia.

See Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 3: 498. 1861 (alt. Flora Indiae Batavae, ... Supplementum Primum. Prodromus Florae Sumatranae) and J. Med. Chem. 35: 2735–2743. 1992

(Potential anti-AIDS drugs.)

Calophyllum lanigerum Miq. var. austrocoriaceum (T.C. Whitmore) P.F. Stevens)

Southeast Asia.

See J. Arnold Arbor. 61(2): 358. 1980, J. Med. Chem. 35: 2735–2743. 1992

(Potential anti-AIDS drugs.)

Calophyllum lowei Planchon & Triana

Borneo.

See Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 15: 271. 1861

(Gum resin, heated with coconut milk, applied to relieve itching and other skin affections.)

Calophyllum membranaceum Gardner & Champion (Calophyllum spectabile Hooker & Arnott, not Willdenow)

China, Hong Kong. Shrub, petals white

See Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 1: 309. 1849

(Roots and leaves used for traumatic injuries or rheumatoid arthritis.)

in China: bao ye hong hou ke

Calophyllum moonii Wight

India, Sri Lanka. Tree

See Phytochemistry 46(7): 1293–1295. 1997, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 66(3): 339–342. 1999, Planta Medica 68(6): 541–543. 2002

(Antibacterial.)

Calophyllum palustre Ridley

Borneo.

See Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1938, 121. 1938

(Gum resin, heated with coconut milk, applied to relieve itching and other skin affections.)

Calophyllum pauciflorum A.C. Sm.

New Guinea.

See J. Arnold Arbor. xxii. 348. 1941, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 44(2): 441–443. 1996

(Antibacterial.)

Calophyllum polyanthum Wall. ex Choisy (Calophyllum elatum Bedd.; Calophyllum smilesianum Craib; Calophyllum smilesianum var. luteum Craib; Calophyllum thorelii Pierre; Calophyllum williamsianum Craib)

India, Thailand. Tree, watery latex, white fragrant flowers in panicles

See Descr. Guttif. Inde. 43. 1849 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1924(3): 85–87. 1924, J. Arnold Arbor. 61: 220. 1980, Fl. Karnataka 1: 203. 1996, Fl. Madras 1: 76. 1997, J. Nat. Prod. 67(9): 1598–1600. 2004, Pharmaceutical Biology 45(3): 255–258. 2007

(Anti-proliferative.)

in English: sirpoon tree

in China: dian nan hong hou ke

in India: katta pinnai, kattupunna, malampunna, pinnapai, poon, poonspar, punna, punnai, punnapine, salhonne, sirpoon, srikonnai, surhoni

in Myanmar: tharapi

Calophyllum soulattri Burm.f. (Calophyllum lancifolium Elmer; Calophyllum soualatti Burm.f.; Calophyllum soulattri Burm.f. ex F. Muell.; Calophyllum soulattrie Burm.f.; Calophyllum sulatri Eeden.; Calophyllum zschokkei Elmer)

Java, Celebes. Tree, bole brownish-yellow, inner bark reddish-brown with white sap, twigs powdery hairy

See Flora Indica ... nec non Prodromus Florae Capensis 121. 1768 and Leaflets of Philippine Botany 7: 2683, 2686. 1915, Fitoterapia 73(7/8): 741–743. 2002

(Antimicrobial, seed paste applied on eczema. Bark sap used as fish poison.)

in India: dakartalada

in Indonesia: kayu tuwé

in Myanmar: pan-taga, tharapi

Calophyllum tacamahaca Willd. (Calophyllum spectabile Willd.)

Indian Ocean, India, Mauritius. Trees, opposite leaves, white flowers in clusters, ovoid fruits

See Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 5: 79. 1811 [Der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neuesten Entdeckungen in der Gesammten Naturkunde.]

(Bark and gummy resin medicinal, for cutanous affections. Leaves and roots insecticide. Seed oil for leprosy.)

Calophyllum teysmannii Miq. (For the Dutch botanist Johannes Elias Teijsmann (Teysmann), 1809–1882, traveller, gardener and botanical explorer, plant collector, 1831– 1869, Curator of the Buitenzorg (Bogor) Botanic Gardens; see John H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 3: 365. 1965, Theodore W. Bossert, compil., Biographical Dictionary of Botanists Represented in the Hunt Institute Portrait Collection. 397. Boston, Mass. 1972, Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic Literature. 6: 201–204. 1986, R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993.)

Sumatra.

(Strongly cytotoxic, antibacterial, useful for the treatment of melanoma.)

Calophyllum teysmannii Miq. var. inophylloide (King) P.F. Stevens (Calophyllum inophylloide King; Calophyllum teysmannii Zoll. ex Planch. & Triana)

Sarawak, Malaysia, Sumatra.

See Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 3: 499. 1861, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 15: 275. 1861, DC. Monog. Phan. viii. (1893) 549. 1893, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. lix. (1896) ii. t. 88. 1896 and J. Arnold Arbor. 61(3): 436. 1980, Biorganic Med. Chem. Letter. 4: 1961–1964. 1994, Phytochemistry 53(8): 1021–1024. 2000

(Antibacterial. Latex significant anti-HIV activity.)

Calophyllum wightianum Wall. ex Planch. & Triana (Calophyllum decipiens Wight; Calophyllum wightianum Wall.)

India.

See Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, série 4, 15: 256. 1861

(Oil from the seeds to treat leprosy and other cutaneous affections.)

in India: cheruthekku

Calophyllum zeylanicum Kosterm.

Sri Lanka.

See Ceylon J. Sci., Biol. Sci., 12(1): 70. 1976, Journal of Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1: 1831–1835. 1981

(Antibacterial.)

Calopogonium Desv. Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae)

Greek kalos ‘beautiful’ and pogon ‘a beard’; see Nicaise Auguste Desvaux (1784–1856), in Annales des Sciences Naturelles. 9: 423. 1826 and Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 52: 1–78. 1939, Flora de Cuba 2: 224–367. 1951, Brittonia 7 (5): 389–414. 1952, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 51: 417–461. 1953, Cuscatlania 1 (2): 1–16. 1979, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 67(3): 523–818. 1980 [1981], Revta brasil. Bot. 8: 31–45. 1985, Fl. Lesser Antilles (Dicotyledoneae-Part 1) 4: 334–538. 1988.

Calopogonium caeruleum (Benth.) Sauvalle (Calopogonium caeruleum (Benth.) Hemsl.; Calopogonium caeruleum Hemsl.; Calopogonium caeruleum (Benth.) Britton; Calopogonium caeruleum (Benth.) C. Wright; Calopogonium caeruleum (Benth.) C. Wright ex Sauvalle; Calopogonium coeruleum (Benth.) Sauvalle; Calopogonium coeruleum var. glabrescens (Benth.) Malme; Calopogonium sericeum (Benth.) Chodat & Hassl.; Calopogonium sericeum (Benth.) Chodat & Hassl. var. villicalyx Chodat & Hassl.; Stenolobium caeruleum Benth.)

Colombia, Cuba. Perennial climbing shrub, herb, vine, corolla blue or purple, straight fruit appressed pubescent

See Commentationes de Leguminosarum Generibus 61. 1837, Anales de la Academia de Ciencias Medicas ... 5: 337. 1868[1869], Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 1(4): 301. 1880, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 16: 262. 1889 and Journal of Bacteriology 187(18): 6479–6487. 2005

(Vermifuge, antibacterial.)

in Thailand: thua sealulium

Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. (Calopogonium brachycarpum (Benth.) Benth. ex Hemsl.; Calopogonium brachycarpum Hemsl.; Calopogonium flavidum Brandegee; Calopogonium orthocarpum Urb.; Glycine javanica sensu Backer; Stenolobium brachycarpum Benth.)

Central and S. America. Perennial non-climbing herb, prostrate, vigorous, creeping, twining or trailing, flowers deep blue in short racemes, rapid growth, forage

See Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 9: 423. 1826 and Amer. J. Bot. 67: 595–602. 1980, Pharmaceutical Biology 26(4): 246–252. 1988

(A poultice of the leaves and stem applied to snakebites wounds. Leaves used as a cure for filariasis. Molluscicidal.)

in English: calopo, wild ground nut

in China: mao man dou

in Indonesia: kacang asu, kalopogonium

in Philippines: karaparapak sara naw, santing

in Thailand: thua-khalapo

in Tonga: fuekala

Calotropis R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (Apocynaceae)

From the Greek kalos ‘beautiful’ and tropis ‘ship, keel’, see Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society 1: 39 (preprint). 1810, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... The second edition 2: 78. 1811, Genera Plantarum 1272. 1840 and Nordic J. Bot. 11(3): 301–308. 1991, Ali, A.M. et al. “Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of some plants used in Malaysian indigenous medicine.” Pertanika 19(2–3): 129– 136. 1996, Stevens, W.D., C. Ulloa, A. Pool & O.M. Montiel, Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1–2666. 2001, Khadija Abbassi et al. “Biological effects of alkaloïds extracted from three plants of Moroccan arid areas on the desert locust.” Physiological Entomology 28(3): 232–236. 2003, International Journal of Food Science & Technology 42(2): 220–223. 2007

Calotropis gigantea (L.) W.T. Aiton (Asclepias gigantea L.; Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br.; Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.; Madorius giganteus (L.) Kuntze; Madorius giganteus Kuntze; Periploca cochinchinensis Lour.; Streptocaulon cochinchinense (Lour.) G. Don; Streptocaulon cochinchinense G. Don)

Nepal, India and Sri Lanka, Myanmar, China, Tanzania, Kenya. Tall shrub or small tree, stout, erect, suffrutescent, succulent, woody stem, milky sap, blue-gray purple or red-flowered, corona with 5 narrow fleshy scales, ovoid boat-shaped inflated recurved turgid follicles mostly in pairs, silky hairy seeds

See Species Plantarum 1: 211–212, 214–217. 1753, Flora Cochinchinensis 1: 167. 1790, Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society 1: 39. 1810, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... The second edition 2: 78. 1811, Systema Vegetabilium 6: 91. 1820, Contributions to the Botany of India 64. 1834, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 162. 1837, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 421. 1891, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 148. 1895 and Revised Handb. to the Flora of Ceylon 1(1): 35. 1973, Taxon 26: 257–274. 1977, Science and Culture 46: 28–29. 1980, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 75(3-VI): 233–234. 1988, Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo). 40(8): 2007–13. 1992, L.S. Patil et al. “Use of the milky sap from Calotropis gigantea as a proteolytic enzyme in blood group serology.” Transfusion 33(11): 963–963. 1993, Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo). 46(3): 528– 530. 1998, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 80(2–3): 147–153. 2002, Ethnobotany 16: 52–58. 2004, Toxicon. 46(1): 84–92. 2005, Phytother. Res. 19(5): 454–456. 2005, Nepal Med. Coll. J. 8(3): 156–161. 2006, J. Ethnopharmacol. 106(1): 142–145. 2006, J. Nat. Prod. 69(8): 1249–1251. 2006, Contraception. 75(4): 318–322. 2007, Fitoterapia 78(1): 40–42. 2007

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Caustic, can be violently irritant, in contact with the eye, the latex causes severe irritation; abortifacient, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, cytotoxic, procoagulant, anti-diarrheal, antidote for snakebites and scorpion stings. Latex dropped into teeth with caries, also to treat bronchial asthma, boils, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders; applied on wound caused by a thorn or a spine; for headache, apply the white milk to the skin over the side of the head where headache is; if the gum or twig introduced into vagina it will cause abortion; latex to kill wound maggots; milky latex given as antidote, antivenom for snakebite; milky latex applied in cases of dog, fox and monkey bites to prevent rabies. Bark for the treatment of neurodermatitis and syphilis; bark boiled and liquid used on children with skin rash; a mixture of stem bark and black pepper given orally in epilepsy; febrifuge for children, bark and that of Tectona boiled together. Roots insect repellent, astringent, antiseptic, also used in leprosy, dysentery, eczema, syphilis, elephantiasis, ulceration and cough; root paste applied on snakebite and scorpion sting; root paste given in cholera to check loose motion. Smoke of the burnt leaves inhaled to treat ulcerations of the nose; fresh leaves extract taken for malaria. Dried powdered pure white flowers with honey given in mental disorders, hysteria, madness. Sacred plant, used in religion and magico-religious beliefs; ingredient of Patra pooja in different religious pooja ceremonies, in Ganesh-pooja; leaves used in pooja; flowers offered to Lord Shiva and Hanuman, for Durga worship; plants with white flowers worshipped since it is believed that the knotted roots of the plant are abode of Lord Shiva and Ganesh. Fish poison. Veterinary medicine, leaves boiled and applied on boils; flowers for ephemeral fevers; ground roots fed for maggot wounds; leaves of Cassia italica with flower of Calotropis gigantea and fruit of Terminalia chebula pounded and given orally in constipation.)

in English: asclepiad tree, bowstring-hemp, crown flower, crown plant, giant Indian milkweed, giant milkweed, giant milky weed, gigantic swallow wort, madar, madar flower, milkweed, mudar

in East Africa: mpumbula

in China: niu jiao gua

in India: aak, aakdo, aank, aarka, ab shir madar, aditya, aekka, aekka maale, aekki gida, ag, aharbandhava, aharmani, aharpati, ahauna, ahgaram, ak, aka, akado, akan, akanak, akanda, akaona, akarai, akari, akahua, akda, akda cha jhada, akda nu jhada, akdachajhada, akdamu-jhada, akdo, ake, akh, akh ke phool, akom, akom aring, akon, akona, akond, akond mul, akondo, akra, akro, akuan, alacikacceti, alacikam, alagar, alakam, alal, alark, alarka, alarkah, alarpal, amarkkam, ancolam, angkot, ank, arak arak mara, arakh, arakha, arakho gatch, arakkam, arakkanceti, arakkaparani, ariccunam, ark, arka, arka-gida, arka vrikshaha, arkagatch, arkah (= sun), arkamu, arkavrikshaha, arkkam, arkku, arkopathra, aruccanam, aruccunam, aruccunanceti, aruchunam, arukkam, arukkan, arukku, arulagam, arulakam, aryama, ashur, asphotaka, atittiyam, attaticai, attaticam, attiaticaicceti, aush shar, aushar, badabadam, belerica, belericu, bhanu, bhaskara, bij-elosha, bikkortono, bili ekkada gida, buggejilor, buka, bukam, burg akh taza, byclospa, caikattilam, calaippota, campalam, cantamani, cantamanicceti, cantamappam, cantamayam, catakacuriyan, catakam, catalacceti, catalam, catam, catanapam, cataparikacceti, cataparikam, catapatalam, catapatam, catappan, cataputacceti, cataputam, cataputpam, cataputpi, cayitakam, ciraccatam, cirapiraneci, citaputpakam, civavallapam, cukalavi, cukapala, cukapalai, cukapalam, curam, curi, curiyanam, curiyanvintu, curiyapputu, cuvetakucumam, cuvetakucumoppi, dhavi rui, dholaakdo, diensam, dinesam, divakar, ekayitcakam, ekka, ekkai, ekkamale, ekke, ekkemale, ela wara, eri, ericu, erikalan, erikka, erikku, erukka, erukkalai, erukkam, erukkam ver, erukkampal, erukkan, erukkanceti, erukkila pacha, erukkin veru, erukku, eruku, ganarupa, gul madar, gule akh taza, gurt-akand, haridashva, hela wara, himarati, irumpunirricceti, irupunirri, itcika, jambhala, jilledu, jilledu-chettu, jilleru, jillidi, kadrati, kanaripam, kanatipam, kantali, karagh, karak, karccakkinam, kari aekkada gida, karnam, katiccavaytutaiccan, katiravan, katterumai, katterumaikkalli, kattila, kharak, kharjjughna, khark, khok, kirtanuphala, kokarunai, kokaruni, kotuki, kshiradala, kshirakandaka, kshiranga, kshiraparni, kutiketan, lal-akara, lal madar, lal-rui, lalak, lalakava, lalmadar, lalrui, lippacitacceti, lippacitam, madar, madar aak, makam, makkam, makkika, makkikacceti, malaipparutimaram, manakkovi, mandaara, mandaaramu, mandara, mandaramu, mandarasu, manotayam, mantaracu, mantaracucceti, mantaram, marttantacceti, marttantam, marttantan, marufu, mayo bin, mhatari, mir-dukathe, mirugusayi-dagam, mirugusayidagam, mirukacayitakam, mirukucayittakam, moto aak, moto akdo, muda, mudar, mudhar, mutitamaram, naccilaikkurikacceti, nalla jelledu, nallajilledu, natakinkanam, nattam, nattappalai, nattappila, nattappiraki, nattappirakicceti, nella-jilledu, nellajeleroo, nellajilledo, nilavukay, nilavukaycceti, nilledu, nohanoakdo, nubam, numsubamoli, numsubatong, numsungbatong, nupakacceti, nupakam, nupam, nuttam, orko, oschor, oshmor, oshor, pachajilledu, pacupataki, pacupatakicceti, pacupatasai, pacupatatai, pakavanati, palaikkaraviki, palati, palti, pamotayam, patladudha, phunder, pogojirol, prabhakara, pratapa, pratapasa, puchhi, pumikuruvakam, putanivaranicceti, raachajilledu, racajilledu, racha-jilledu, rachajilledu, rato-akdo, ratsajilledu, ravi, rhui, roghan gul akh, rui, rupika, ruvi, sadabadam, sadabudam, sadapushpa, sadapuspi, sadapyshpa, sadasuma, safed aak, safed aakdo, safed-ak, safedakra, safed akvan, safed datura, safed ok, safedak, saptashva, savita, sevverukku, shir madar, shitapushpaka, shiy-aak, shri madar, shukaphala, shweta arka, siyam, spalmai, sukaphala, sunu, suriyam, surya pattra, suryapattra, suryavgha, suvedagusuman, svaytaurkum, swet-akonda, swet-aurkum, tanalam, tanali, tanalicceti, tapana, tarani, tella-jilledu, tella jilledu, tellajilledoo, tellajilledu, tevanati, thellajilledu, tirkkaputpam, tirkkaputpi, titamai, tittai, tulapalam, tulaphala, tuntakkini, tutaiccavam, tutaiccavay, tutaiccuvacceti, udumbaram, ulurka, urkkovi, uruk, urukku, ushar, ushnarashmi, uste, utumparakacceti, utumparakam, utumparam, vacciram, vacciramuli, vantumuli, vara, vara gaha, varkkam, vasuka, vellaarike, vellaiyerukku, vellerikku, vellerukkam poo, vellerukku, vetanatam, vibhakara, vibhavasu, vicaram, viccai, viccananta, viccanta, viccaranti, viccaranticceti, vicittirakam, vikiram, vikorana, vikshira, vikuri, vikuricceti, viruntam, virutam, vittirakam, vivasvana, vivaswana, vungdamdawi, wara, yakkeda gida, yekka, yekkada, yekkadagida, yekkadagida, yekkadaguda, yekkamali, yekkamalle, yekke, yekkemale, yercum, yerica, yerika, yerikan, yerikkan, yerkum, yerrikku, yerriku, yerukku, yokada

in Indonesia: bidhuri, rubik, sidaguri

in Laos: dok hak, dok kap, kok may

Malayan names: berduri, kemengu, lembegah, merigu, rembega, remiga, remigu

in Myanmar: maioh, mayo, mayo-beng, mayo-bin, mayo-mayo-pin, mayo-pin, mayoe-gyi

in Nepal: aank, akanda, auk, madar, yak

in the Philippines: kapal-kapal, mudar

in Thailand: po thuean, paan thuean, rak

in Tibetan: a rga, a-rka, shri-khanda

in Vietnam: bong bong, b[oof]ng b[oof]ng, coc may, la hen, l[as] hen, nam ti ba, nam t[if] b[af]

Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (Apocynum syriacum S.G. Gmel.; Apocynum syriacum Garsault; Asclepias gigantea Willd.; Asclepias gigantea Jacq., nom. illeg.; Asclepias gigantea L.; Asclepias procera Aiton; Calotropis busseana K. Schum.; Calotropis gigantea var. procera (Aiton) P.T. Li; Calotropis hamiltonii Wight; Calotropis heterophylla Wall.; Calotropis inflexa Chiov.; Calotropis persica Gand.; Calotropis procera (Aiton) R. Br.; Calotropis procera [Dryand.]; Calotropis procera subsp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali; Calotropis syriaca (S.G. Gmel.) Woodson; Calotropis syriaca Woodson; Calotropis wallichii Wight; Madorius procerus Kuntze; Madorius procerus (Aiton) Kuntze)

India, Sudan, Egypt, Madagascar East Africa. Shrub or small tree, erect, compact, glaucous, soft woody stems many-branched at the base, covered with cottony tomentum, milky white sap, smooth coriaceous roundish leaves, white-flowered, corolla greenish-white outside, petals maroon-violet tipped inside, smooth turgid green recurved kidney-shaped follicles often in pairs, tufted seeds airborne, scented

See Sp. Pl. 1: 214. 1753, Fig. Pl. Med. 1: t. 114. 1764, Reise Russland (S.G. Gmel.) 2: 198, 257. 1774, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... (W. Aiton) 1: 305. 1789, Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 1(2): 1264. 1798, Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society 1: 39. 1810, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... (W.T. Aiton) The second edition 2: 78. 1811, Contributions to the Botany of India 53. 1834, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] n. 8217. 1847, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 421. 1891 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 33(2): 323. 1903, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 65: 59. 1918, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 148. 1930, Atti dell’Istituto Botanico dell’Università di Pavia, Ser. 4 7: 139. 1936 (Fl. Somala, III), Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 38(2): 289. 1980, H.M. Burkill, The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 219–222. 1985, International Nematology Network Newsletter 6(1): 8–10. 1989, Journal of South China Agricultural University 12(3): 39. 1991, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102(2): 256– 261. 2005, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102(3): 470–473. 2005, Mediators Inflamm. 2005(6): 360–365. 2005, World J. Gastroenterol. 12(16): 2517–2522. 2006, Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology 27(3): 143–149. 2007

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Poisonous; flowers, green seedpods and seeds should not be eaten. Stem and roots used for diarrhea and dysentery. Fresh flowers with jaggery are given as a remedy against rabid dog bites. Fresh foliage usually regarded as poisonous, and nectar from the flowers said to be poisonous too; for abortion, a stick introduced in vagina and kept for few minutes. Leaves and bark contain a caustic latex used as a blistering agent, can be violently irritant, immunological and allergenic responses against the latex, bullous eruption, intense inflammatory response of the skin and mucous membranes upon accidental exposure; milky latex used in scorpion sting, cold and cough, fever and asthma, as a rubefacient, to extract Guinea worms, to remove spines and prickles, for preparation of antimalarial paste eaten like a sweet dish. Root insect repellent, an infusion a remedy for coughs and snakebite; touch/contact therapy, root tied with a red thread on the affected part to relieve filariasis; roots decoction emetic and in the treatment of hookworm; dried ground roots mixed with milk and drunk for the treatment of gonorrhea and venereal diseases; root powder taken in menstrual disorders. In small doses, root bark, mild stimulant diaphoretic and expectorant, used in a soup to treat colic and as a stomachic. Burnt root made into an ointment for skin eruptions and ulcers. Leaves extract hepatoprotective, cardiotonic, antihyperglycemic, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, larvicidal, nematicidal, fungicidal, pesticide, anthelmintic, expectorant, stomachic, diaphoretic, emetic; warmed or fresh leaves bandaged in rheumatic pain; tuber of Gloriosa superba ground into paste applied as bandage with leaves of Calotropis procera for skin eruptions; leaves extract of Ricinus communis, Calotropis procera and Ocimum sanctum taken to cure jaundice. Bark and leaves used for the treatment of leprosy and asthma. Veterinary medicine, for cough in camels drink infusion of roots; paste of leaves of Pergularia extensa and Calotropis procera applied for muscular pains; warmed leaves applied on boils, swellings and swollen cheeks of cattle; roots kept in nostrils for epistaxis; flowers for ephemeral fevers; milky juice applied over the cut tail of buffalo. Sacred plant, spiritual, ceremonial, magic, ritual, emotional, used in religion and magico-religious beliefs, special powers in witchcraft; flowers offered to Lord Shiva and Hanuman; plants with white flowers worshipped since it is believed that the knotted roots of the plant are abode of Lord Shiva and Ganesh.)

in English: apple of Sodom, cotton leaf, Dead Sea apple, Dead Sea fruit, English cotton, French cotton, giant milk-weed, milkweed, mudar plant, Sodom apple, swallow wort

in Arabic: achur, ashkar, baranbakh, eshar, esshero, kerenka, koruga, korunka, krenka, ngeyi, ochar, ‘oshar, oshar, oshur, rhalga, torcha, tourza, turdja, turja, turjé, ushar

in China: bai hua niu jiao gua

in India: aak, aakdo, aakra, aakro, adityapushpika, ag, ak, akada phool, akado, akan, akand, akanda, akaro, akaua, akauvya, akda cha jhada, akda nu jhada, akdo, akh, akha, akhra, akond, akondo, akra, alarka, alarkah, angot, ankado, ankda, ankota, arakh, arakha, arka, arka vrikshaha, arkah, arkaparna, arkavrikshaha, asphota, aush shar, aushar, bhanu, bili aekka, bili aekkada gida, bili yekkada gida, bimbora, dirghpushpa, dudla, erikku, erra jilledu, erukka, erukkam, erukku, ganarupaka, jilledu, jilledu-chettu, kashthila, kempu akkadagida, kempu ekka, kharak, khark, kkarak, ksiraparna, madar, manar, mandaaramu, mandara, mandaramu, mayo bin, mhatari, mir-hu-chau, mudar, nallajilledu, nano akdo, palati akwan, pashkand, path akhwan, pratapa, rajarka, rakta arka, raktarka, ravi, rui, rupika, sadapushpa, sadapushpi, safed ak, safedak, shakar al lighal, shambhu, sharkarapushpa, shitakarka, shuklaphala, shveta, shvetarka, sishakanda, spalmak, spalwakka, spulmei, tapana, tulaphala, uruko, ushar, vara, vara gaha, vasuka, vedha, vellai erukkan, vellai erukku, vellerku, vellerukku, vikirana, vrittamallika, yakkeda gida, yerra jilledu

in Laos: dok hak, dok kap, kok may

Malayan names: lembega, rembega

in Nepal: aank

in Pakistan: ak, arrigh, karak, kark

in Tibet: a rga i rtsa ba, a rgai rtsa ba

in Vietnam: bong-bong, b[oof]ng b[oof]ng, bong qui, l[as] nh[or]

in East Africa: ararat, bohr, etethero, kihuta, mpamba mwitu, mpumbula, mufuthu, okwotpu; etetheru (Turkana), labechi (Samburu), muvuthu (Kamba)

in Gambia: bawane, faftan, kupampan

in Ghana: a-gbo-loba, owula kofi ba, polipoli, unablapong, wolaporhu, wolapugo, wutsoe-wutsoe

in Guinea: mpompomogolo, nguyo

in Ivory Coast: furo fogo, ganganpi, niapi djara, nopiada, togo fogo, tumo tigi

in Kenya: etesuro

in Mali: bamanbé, bandambi, bauane, bawane, komitigi, korunka, krunka, mpompomogolo, ngoyo, nguyo, nyeyi, pobu, pomponpogolo, tezera, tirza, tomitigi, toreha, torha, toucha, tourha, tourjé, turdja, turia, tursha

in Mauritania: achur, kerenka, korunka, taurja, tourjé, turdja, turja, turjé

in Niger: bamanbé, bandambi, bauane, eshar, esshero, kayio, koruga, kulunhun, lifini, ochar, oshar, rhalga, tezera, tirza, toreha, torha, toucha, tourha, tourjé, tumfafia, tursha

in Nigeria: babambi, bambambele, bambambi, bambami, bembambi, bomubomu, kayou, kupa, papawea, pwom pwomohi, tumfafiya, tumpaapahi, ushar

in Sahara: turge

in Senegal: achur, babadi, bamabi, bamanbé, bamanbi-bauwami, bandambi, bauane, bawam bawam, bawoam, bodafor, bombardeira, bomborderu, borderu, bupumba pumb, faftan, fafton, kerenka, korunka, kupapa, mbadafot, mbontal, paftan, tulumpa, turdja, turjé, ushar

in Sierra Leone: puu-vande

in Sudan: oshar

in Tanzania: mpamba mwitu

in Togo: inawokodu, kudjohe, tambutiji, tschofu, tshawou

in Upper Volta: diawara, furo fogo, ganganpi, hurègo, niapi djara, potu, putrempugu, putru pouga, puwo, tomfania, tomo n’déké, tumo tigi

Calpocalyx Harms Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Mimosaceae, Mimoseae, Mimosoideae)

From the Greek kalpis ‘an urn, jug, a drinking cup’ and kalyx ‘calyx’, see Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. II-IV [Engler & Prantl] 1: 191. 1897 and Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 4e série, section B, Adansonia 6(3): 297–311. 1984. Related to Xylia.

Calpocalyx aubrevillei Pellegr.

Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast. Perennial non-climbing tree, seeds edible after cooking, sometimes confused with Calpocalyx brevibracteatus

See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 80: 467. 1933

(Pounded seeds mixed with palm oil made into a paste applied to treat women’s breasts troubles.)

Calpocalyx brevibracteatus Harms

Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone to Cameroon. Perennial non-climbing tree, hollow branches, papery leaves, pinkish to orange flowers, inflorescence axillary or terminal, strongly flattened woody dehiscent pod, seeds edible after cooking

See Bull. Soc. Bot. France 58(Mém. 8d): 155. 1912 [1911 publ. 1912]

(Crushed bark applied to treat sores, a mouthwash; inner bark used as stomachic.)

in Ghana: kotoprepre, samanta, tre-tre

in Ivory Coast: pétépré

in Liberia: kpu-ah

Calpocalyx dinklagei Harms (Calpocalyx crawfordianus Mendes; Erythrophleum dinklagei Taub.; Xylia dinklagei (Taub.) Roberty; Xylia dinklagei (Harms) Roberty)

Nigeria, Cameroon. Perennial non-climbing tree, small tree, yellow-cream flowers, sometimes confused with Calpocalyx klainei Pierre ex Harms

See Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Nothern and Central Africa 235. 1826, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien [Engler & Prantl] 3(3): 386. 1894, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. [Engler & Prantl] I. 191. 1897 and Bull. Inst. Franç. Afrique Noire, sér. A 16: 347. 1954, Bol. Soc. Brot. sér. 2, 37: 163. 1963

(Powdered bark applied to wounds.)

in Gabon: mississe

Calpocalyx heitzii Pellegrin

Tropical Africa, Gabon. Perennial non-climbing tree, canopy tree, inflorescence an axillary pendent spike, dehiscent pods

See Bull. Soc. Bot. France 84: 643. 1938 [1937 publ. 1938]

(Antiseptic, for skin diseases, venereal diseases.)

in Cameroon: amia, bebamme, bon, endoa, motoudon, miama, ékang, minsi

in Central Africa: mississé

in Gabon: koumaouma, mbôngo, miama, moamba

Calpocalyx klainei Pierre ex Harms (Calpocalyx klainei Pierre; Calpocalyx klainei Harms)

Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. Perennial non-climbing tree

See Bull. Soc. Bot. France 58(Mém. 8d): 156. 1912 [1911 publ. 1912]

(Powdered bark used as an anodyne.)

in Cameroon: amia, bebamme, bon, endoa, miama, motoudon

in Central Africa: mississé

in Gabon: miama

Calpurnia E. Meyer Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Sophoreae)

The genus resembles Virgilia, after the Latin poet Publius Vergilius Maro (70–19 BC.), and therefore bears the name of a supposed imitator of him, Calpurnius; see Jean François Drège (1794–1881) and Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer (1791–1858), Commentariorum de plantis Africae australioris. 2. 1835 [1836, 1838] and A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 428–458. 1980, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 25(3): 1–264. 1981, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16(2): 305–334. 1992, Bothalia 29: 5–23. 1999, Phytotherapy Research 15: 62–69. 2001, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 112(1): 55–70, 152–161. 2007, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 121(2): 324–329. 2009.

Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth. subsp. aurea (Calpurnia aurea Baker; Calpurnia aurea (Lam.) Benth.; Calpurnia aurea Benth.; Calpurnia aurea subsp. sylvatica (Burch.) Brummitt; Calpurnia aurea var. major Baker f.; Calpurnia aurea var. major Oliv. & Baker ex Baker f.; Calpurnia lasiogyne E. Mey.; Calpurnia subdecandra Schweickerdt; Calpurnia subdecandra (L’Hér.) Schweick.; Calpurnia sylvatica E. Mey.; Calpurnia sylvatica (Burch.) E. Mey.; Podalyria aurea (Aiton) Willd.; Robinia subdecandra L’Hér.; Sophora aurea Aiton; Sophora sylvatica Burch.; Virgilia aurea (Aiton) Lam.; Virgilia aurea Lam.; Virgilia sylvatica DC.; Virgilia sylvatica (Burch.) DC.)

India, Mozambique. Perennial non-climbing tree, small tree or shrub, multi-stemmed, slender, evergreen, fast-growing, open crown, bright yellow flowers in hanging bunches, thin papery indehiscent pod

See Species Plantarum 1: 373–374. 1753, Species Plantarum 2: 722–723. 1753, Hort. Kew. (ed. 1) 2: 44. 1789, Stirpes Novae aut Minus Cognitae 157, pl. 75. 1791, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 2(1): 502. 1799, Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique... Botanique 2: 454, 470. 1819, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 98. 1825, Commentariorum de Plantis Africae Australioris 3. 1836, Commentationes de Leguminosarum Generibus 26. 1837, Ann. Wien. Mus. ii. (1840) 90. 1840, Flora of Tropical Africa [Oliver et al.] 2: 252–253. 1871 and Bothalia 3: 237. 1937, Kew Bulletin 19(3): 421. 1965, Kirkia 6: 123–132. 1967, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 83: 468–470. 1986, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100(1–2): 168–175. 2005

(Insecticide, molluscicidal, antiviral, antimicrobial, control of lice and to relieve itches, leaves, body wash; leaves to treat allergic rashes, diarrhea, stomach complaints, elephantiasis, headache, eye diseases, tapeworm, dysentery, scabies, syphilis, skin disorders and skin infections. Leaf sap to destroy maggots in wounds. Veterinary medicine, maggots in cattle sores and diarrhea.)

in English: calpurnia, Cape laburnum, common calpurnia, East African laburnum, mountain laburnum, Natal laburnum, wild laburnum

in Ethiopia: chekata, digita, hisawis

in Southern Africa: geelkeur, geelkeurboom, inDloli, inSiphane, inSiphane-enkhulu, inSiphane-enkulu, Kaapse geelkeur, muNguru, Natalse geelkeur, umBhaleni, umBethe, umDlole, umHlahlambedu, umKhiphampethu (= maggot-extractor), umLalandlovana, umSitshana

Calpurnia villosa Harv. (Calpurnia intrusa (W.T. Aiton) E. Mey.; Calpurnia intrusa (R. Br.) E. Mey.; Calpurnia intrusa var. glabrata Yakovlev; Virgilia intrusa R. Br.)

South Africa. Perennial non-climbing tree

See Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... The second edition 3: 4. 1811, Commentariorum de Plantis Africae Australioris 2. 1836, Flora Capensis 2: 268. 1862 and Bothalia 29(1): 17. 1999

(Veterinary medicine, maggots in cattle sores and diarrhea.)

Caltha L. Ranunculaceae

Caltha or calthum, the Latin name for a plant having strong-smelling yellow flowers; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 1: 558. 1753 and Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 244. 1754 and Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. C. 70: 500–510. 1967, Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. C. 71: 280–292. 1968, New Phytol. 70: 173–186. 1971, Acta Fac. Rerum Nat. Univ. Comenianae, Bot. 23: 1–23. 1974, Bot. Zhurn. 66(12): 1751– 1755. 1981, Chernevaja Tajga i Problema Reliktov. Tomsk. 47–51. 1989, Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. Newslett. (Zurich) 25: 8–10. 1995.

Caltha alba Cambess.

India, Kashmir.

See Species Plantarum 1: 558. 1753, The Flora of British India 40. 1855

(Whole plant made into a paste applied locally in rheumatism. Roots decoction for high fever. Leaves extract applied to the shoulders and neck for muscular pain. A source of ganja.)

in India: traker

Caltha leptosepala DC. (Caltha biflora DC.; Caltha biflora subsp. howellii (Huth) Abrams; Caltha biflora var. rotundifolia (Huth) C.L. Hitchc.; Caltha howellii (Huth) Greene; Caltha leptosepala var. rotundifolia Huth; Caltha leptosepala var. sulfurea C.L. Hitchc.)

North America. Herb, perennial, erect, fleshy, white bluish flowers, erect clusters of follicles

See Systema Vegetabilium 1: 310. 1817, Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 2(Sect. 4): 69. 1884, Pittonia 4: 79. 1899, Helios 9: 68. 1891 and Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States 2: 175. 1944, Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest 2: 335, 337. 1964, Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Series C: Biological and Medical Sciences 72(1): 26. 1969, Phytologia 51(6): 375. 1982

(Whole plant toxic, poisonous, strongly irritant; antispasmodic and expectorant, applied to wounds, warts.)

in English: mountain marsh-marigold, western marsh marigold, white marshmarigold

Caltha palustris L. (Caltha arctica R. Brown; Caltha asarifolia DC.; Caltha cornuta Schott, Nym. & Kotschy; Caltha laeta Schott, Nym. & Kotschy; Caltha palustris subsp. arctica (R. Brown) Hultén; Caltha palustris subsp. asarifolia (DC.) Hultén; Caltha palustris var. arctica (R. Brown) Huth; Caltha palustris var. asarifolia (DC.) Huth; Caltha palustris var. flabellifolia (Pursh) Torrey & A. Gray; Caltha palustris var. radicans (T.F. Forst.) A. Gray; Caltha polypetala Hochst. ex Lorent; Caltha radicans T.F. Forst.)

North America, India, China. Herb, perennial, erect or sprawling, sepals yellow or orange, red seeds

See Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 8: 324, t. 17. 1807, Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, ... 2: 390, pl. 17. 1814[1813], Systema Vegetabilium 1: 309. 1817, Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry’s Voyage 265. 1824, A Flora of North America: containing ... 1(1): 27. 1838, Wanderungen 339. 1845, Helios 9: 70–71. 1891, Synoptical Flora of North America 1(1[1]): 39. 1895 and Acta Universitatis Lundensis, n.s. 40(1): 712–713. 1944, Arkiv för Botanik, Andra Serien 7(1): 56. 1967[1968], Acta Fac. Rerum Nat. Univ. Comenianae, Bot. 23: 1–23. 1974, Botaniska Notiser 128(4): 510–511. 1975[1976], Bot. Zhurn. 66 (12): 1751–1755. 1981, Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. Newslett. (Zurich) 25: 8–9. 195, Bot. Žurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 83(10): 143– 147. 1998, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 40(1): 52–65. 2002, Bot. Žurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 87(11): 131–133. 2002, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 150: 267–289. 2006, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 152: 15–26. 206

(Whole plant toxic only if large quantities eaten, poisonous, acrid, strongly irritant, sap can irritate sensitive skin, raw root or leaves should not be eaten. Roots anodyne, acrid, antispasmodic, antirheumatic, diaphoretic, emetic, astringent, laxative, diuretic, expectorant, rubefacient, to treat colds, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, warts, sores, itching, constipation, headache, diarrhea, anemia. Magic, a protection against love charms. Veterinary medicine, powdered leaves used to keep maggots out of cattle wounds.)

in English: american cowslip, buttercup, colt’s foot, cow-flock, cowslip, ground ivy, king’s-cup, kingcup, kingcups, mare-blebs, mare-blobs, marsh-marigold, May blob, may-blob, meadow bright, meadow bouts, palsywort, water-blobs, water bouts, water dragon, yellow marsh marigold

in North America: populage des marais, soucis d’eau

in China: lu ti cao, ma ti ye

in India: baringun, mamiri, maniru, traker

Caltha palustris L. var. alba (Cambess.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Caltha alba Cambess.; Caltha alba Jacquem.)

India. Perennial herbs, rootstock thick, reniform cordate leaves

See Species Plantarum 1: 558. 1753, The Flora of British India 40. 1855

(Whole plant made into a paste applied locally in rheumatism. Roots decoction for high fever. Leaves extract applied to the shoulders and neck for muscular pain.)

in India: traker

Caltha palustris L. var. palustris (Caltha asarifolia DC.; Caltha natans Pall. ex Georgi var. asarifolia (DC.) Huth; Caltha natans Pall. var. asarifolia (DC.) Huth; Caltha palustris L. subsp. asarifolia (DC.) Hultén; Caltha palustris L. var. asarifolia (DC.) Rothr.; Caltha palustris L. var. flabellifolia (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray)

North America, India, China. Perennial herb, erect or sprawling, sepals yellow or orange

See Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 8: 324, t. 17. 1807, Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, ... 2: 390, pl. 17. 1814[1813], Systema Vegetabilium 1: 309. 1817, Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry’s Voyage 265. 1824, A Flora of North America: containing ... 1(1): 27. 1838, Wanderungen 339. 1845, Helios 9: 70–71. 1891, Synoptical Flora of North America 1(1[1]): 39. 1895 and Acta Universitatis Lundensis, n.s. 40(1): 712–713. 1944, Arkiv för Botanik, Andra Serien 7(1): 56. 1967[1968], Botaniska Notiser 128(4): 510–511. 1975[1976]

(Whole plant toxic, poisonous, acrid, strongly irritant, sap can irritate sensitive skin, raw root or leaves should not be eaten.)

in English: american cowslip, buttercup, colt’s foot, cow-flock, cowslip, ground ivy, king’s-cup, kingcup, kingcups, mare-blebs, mare-blobs, marsh-marigold, May blob, may-blob, meadow bright, meadow bouts, palsywort, water-blobs, water bouts, water dragon, yellow marsh marigold

in North America: populage des marais, soucis d’eau

Calvoa Hook. f. Melastomataceae

See Genera Plantarum [Bentham & Hooker f.] 1(3): 732, 755. 1867.

Calvoa orientalis Taub. (Calvoa sessiliflora Cogn. ex De Wild. & T. Durand; Calvoa sessiliflora Cogniaux ex De Wildeman; Calvoa sessiliflora De Wild. & Th. Dur.)

Tropical Africa. Herb or shrub, subshrub, succulent, pink-purple corolla

See Abh. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1894) 46. 1894, Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas C: 296. 1895, Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot. sér. 2, 1(1): 22. 1899 [1899–1900 publ Jul 1899] and Phytologia 47: 199–220. 1980

(Roots poison antidote, tonic, diuretic.)

Calycanthus L. Calycanthaceae

Greek kalyx ‘calyx’ and anthos ‘flower’, the same colour for calyx and petals, the receptacle is hollow; see C. Linnaeus, Systema Naturae. Ed. 10. 1053, 1066, 1371. 1754, Traité des Arbres et Arbustes 1: 113. 1755, Iter Hispanicum 313–314. 1758 and Wood, C.E., Jr. “The genera of the woody Ranales in the southeastern United States.” J. Arnold Arbor. 39: 296–346. 1958, Nicely, K.A. “A monographic study of the Calycanthaceae.” Castanea 30: 38–81. 1965. Calycanthine, an alkaloid similar to strychnine, toxic to humans and livestock.

Calycanthus floridus L. (Butneria florida (L.) Kearney; Buttneria florida (L.) Kearney)

North America. Deciduous shrub, aromatic flowers axillary, strap-like petals

See Systema Naturae ed. 10. 2: 1066. 1759, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 151. 1788, Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 305. 1803, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis ... 559. 1809, A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia 1(6): 576–577. 1821, Alsographia Americana. 7–8. Philadelphia 1838, Fl. N. Amer. 1(3): 475. 1840, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 5. 1891, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 21: 175. 1894 and Illustriertes Handbuch der Laubholzkunde 1(3): 344. 1905, The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture 2: 638. 1914, Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 4(4): 433–434. 1915, Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 1(2): 143. 1919, Regnum Veg. 127: 29. 1993

(Seeds poisonous, toxic only if large quantities eaten. Fruits poisonous to sheep. Bark emmenagogue, diuretic, eye medicine, for urinary complaints, urticaria; root strongly emetic; sap applied to children’s skin sores. Insect repellent.)

in English: Carolina-allspice, eastern sweetshrub, pineappleshrub, strawberryshrub, sweet bubby bush, sweetshrub

Calycanthus floridus L. var. glaucus (Willdenow) Torrey & A. Gray (Beurera ferax (Michx.) Kuntze; Beurera fertilis (Walter) Kuntze; Butneria fertilis (Walter) Kearney; Butneria fertilis var. ferax (Michx.) C.K. Schneid.; Butneria fertilis var. glauca (Willd.) C.K. Schneid.; Butneria nana (Loisel.) Small; Calycanthus ferax Michx.; Calycanthus fertilis Walter; Calycanthus fertilis var. ferax (Michx.) Rehder; Calycanthus fertilis var. glaucus (Willd.) Rehder; Calycanthus fertilis var. oblongifolius (Nutt.) Rehder; Calycanthus floridus var. inodorus (Elliott) Torr. & A. Gray; Calycanthus floridus var. laevigatus (Willdenow) Torrey & A. Gray; Calycanthus floridus var. oblongifolius (Nuttall) Boufford & Spongberg; Calycanthus glaucus Willdenow; Calycanthus glaucus var. oblongifolius Nutt.; Calycanthus inodorus Elliott; Calycanthus laevigatus Willd.; Calycanthus nanus Loisel.; Calycanthus nanus Small; Calycanthus nanus (Loisel.) Small; Calycanthus pennsylvanicus Loddiges ex Loudon; Calycanthus reticulatus Raf.; Calycanthus verrucosus Raf.)

North America. Deciduous shrub

See Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1066. 1759, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 151. 1788, Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 305. 1803, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis ... 559. 1809, A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia 1(6): 576–577. 1821, Alsographia Americana. 7–8. Philadelphia 1838, Fl. N. Amer. 1(3): 475. 1840, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 5. 1891, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 21: 175. 1894 and Illustriertes Handbuch der Laubholzkunde 1(3): 344. 1905, The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture 2: 638. 1914, Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 4(4): 433–434. 1915, Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 1(2): 143. 1919, Regnum Veg. 127: 29. 1993

(Fruits poisonous to sheep. Bark emmenagogue, diuretic, eye medicine, for urinary complaints, urticaria; root strongly emetic; sap applied to children’s skin sores. Insect repellent.)

in English: Carolina-allspice, eastern sweetshrub, pineapple-shrub, strawberry-shrub, sweetshrub

Calycanthus occidentalis Hooker & Arnott (Butneria occidentalis (Hooker & Arnott) Greene)

North America. Deciduous shrub, strtongly aromatic

See Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1066. 1759, The Botany of Captain Beechey’s Voyage ... 340, plate 84. 1839, Erythea 1(10): 207. 1893

(Bark expectorant, stomachic, for sore throats, catarrh, colds, chest colds, stomachache.)

in English: California allspice, California spicebush, California sweetshrub, spicebush, strawberry shrub, sweet-shrub, western sweetshrub

Calycobolus Willd. ex J.A. Schultes Convolvulaceae

Greek kalyx ‘calyx’ and bolis, bolos ‘casting, throwing away’, referring to the early deciduous corolla, see Genera Plantarum 132. 1789, Systema Vegetabilium 5: II, 4. 1819 and African Study Monographs 25(1): 1–27: March 2004.

Calycobolus africanus (G. Don) Heine (Breweria alternifolia (Planch.) Radlk.; Breweria codonanthus Baker ex Oliv.; Codonanthus africana G. Don; Codonanthus alternifolius Planch.; Prevostea africana (G. Don) Benth.; Prevostea nigerica Rendle)

Gabon, Cameroon. Liane, woody vine, climbing, white corolla, calyx green and purple

See Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 487. 1810, Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 4: 497. 1825, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 166. 1838, Niger Flora 469, t. 46. 1849, Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Bremen 7: 1883. 1883, Index Kew. 1(1): 337. 1893, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum t. 2276. 1894 and British Museum, Natural History. Catalogue of the Plants Collected by Mr. & Mrs. P. A. Talbot in the Oban District South Nigeria ... 72. 1913, Kew Bulletin 15: 388. 1963, Burma Journal Life Sciences 1: 31. 1968, Phytologia 17: 134. 1968

(Aphrodisiac, febrifuge.)

Calycophyllum DC. Rubiaceae

From the Greek kalyx ‘calyx’ and phyllon ‘a leaf’, referring to the calyx teeth, see Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 4: 367. 1830 and N. Amer. Fl. 32: 113. 1921, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(6/1): 3–261. 1936, Novon 2(4): 438–442. 1992, Fl. Ecuador 50: 1–112. 1994, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 82(3): 421–422. 1995, Arnaldoa 9(2): 43–110. 2002 [2003].

Calycophyllum megistocaulum (K. Krause) C.M. Taylor (Calycophyllum acreanum Ducke; Remijia megistocaula K. Krause; Remijia megistocaula K. Krause; Semaphyllanthe megistocaula (K. Krause) L. Andersson)

South America. Tree, erect, reddish smooth bark, outer bark peeling in papery sheets, aromatic white flowers, on alluvial soils, in marshy soils

See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 319. 1908, Arquivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal 2: 70. 1935, Flora of Ecuador 50: 1–112. 1994

(Bark antidiabetic, contraceptive, antiparasitic, stimulant, antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, astringent, insecticidal and wound-healing. Toasted and powered bark used against mycosis, for wounds, apply directly to wound until it heals.)

in South America: capirona, capirona de monte, dabayube, guayaboche, mamalu, oyuhue, uwachaunim, uyugue, uyuhue

Calycophyllum obovatum (Ducke) Ducke (Calycophyllum obovatum Ducke; Semaphyllanthe obovata (Ducke) L. Andersson; Warszewiczia obovata Ducke)

Colombia, Guyana. Tree, smooth, leaves glossy, inflorescence with enlarged bract or sepal reddish

See Flora 36: 716. 1853, Monatsberichte der Koniglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1853: 497. 1853 and Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 11: 475. 1932, Tropical Woods 49: 2. 1937

(Bark antifungal, anticandidal, astringent, insecticidal, contraceptive, emollient, wound healer, vulnerary, for burns, cuts, wrinkles, diabetes, fungal infections, skin parasites, malaria and wounds.)

in Venezuela: guayabón

Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook.f. ex K. Schum. (Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) K. Schum.; Calycophyllum spruceanum f. brasiliensis K. Schum.; Calycophyllum spruceanum f. peruvianum K. Schum.; Eukylista spruceana Benth.)

Ecuador, Brazil. Tree, smooth bark, reddish gray outer bark peeling in papery sheets, small white flowers very fragrant, the tree shedding its bark annually

See Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 5: 230. 1853, Flora Brasiliensis 6(6): 191–192. 1889 and Phytochemistry 64(2): 549–553. 2003

(Bark antibacterial, antitrypanosomal, contraceptive, antiaging, antifungal, antioxidant, astringent, parasiticide, insecticidal and wound-healing; bark decoction to treat diabetes, malaria, bleeding cuts, diarrhea, eye infections, infected wounds, wrinkles and scars; a poultice topically in treating cuts, wounds and burns. Magic, ritual, ceremonial, bark used as an admixture in the Ayahuasca rituals.)

in English: firewood tree, naked tree

in South America: ashi, asho, capirona, capirona de bajo, capirona negra, chiquitano, cojeshe, corusicao, escorregamacaco, guarayo, guayaboche, guayabochi, haxo, huiso asho, huiso asho nahui, mulateiro, mulateiro-da-várzea, nahua, oquiyurrubis, palo amarillo, palo mulato, pau-marfim, pau mulato, pau-mulato-da-várzea, uhuachaunin, urayepiru

Calylophus Spach Onagraceae

From the Greek kalyx ‘calyx’ and lophos ‘a crest, back of the neck, ridge, tuft’, see Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux. Phanérogames 4: 349–350. 1835, A Flora of North America: containing ... 1(3): 501. 1840, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 96[III,7]: 217. 1893, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 5(16): 236. 1894 and Systematic Botany Monographs 83: 147–148. 2007.

Calylophus hartwegii (Benth.) P.H. Raven (Galpinsia hartwegii (Benth.) Britton; Oenothera hartwegii Benth.; Salpingia hartwegii (Benth.) Raim.)

North America. Perennial subshrub, herb

See Plantas Hartwegianas imprimis Mexicanas 5–6. 1839, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 96[III,7]: 217. 1893, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 5(16): 236. 1894 and Brittonia 16(3): 286. 1964

(Hemostat, for internal bleeding.)

in English: Hartweg’s sundrops

Calylophus hartwegii (Benth.) P.H. Raven subsp. fendleri (A. Gray) Towner & P.H. Raven (Galpinsia hartwegii var. fendleri (A. Gray) Small; Oenothera fendleri A. Gray; Oenothera hartwegii subsp. fendleri (A. Gray) W.L. Wagner & Hoch; Oenothera hartwegii Benth. var. fendleri (A. Gray) A. Gray)

North America. Perennial subshrub, herb

See Plantas Hartwegianas imprimis Mexicanas 5–6. 1839, Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Science, new series 4(1): 45–46. 1849, Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 5(6): 58. 1853, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 96[III,7]: 217. 1893, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 5(16): 236. 1894, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 23(5): 186. 1896 and Brittonia 16(3): 286. 1964, Madroño 20(5): 243. 1970, Systematic Botany Monographs 83: 212. 2007

(Hemostat, for internal bleeding.)

in English: Hartweg’s sundrops

Calypso Salisb. Orchidaceae

In honor of the nymph Calypso or Kalypso, daughter of Atlas and Queen of Ogygia, where Odysseus was shipwrecked, referring to the rarity or to the habitat of this orchid.

Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes (Calypso borealis Salisb.; Calypso borealis (Sw.) Salisb., nom. superfl.; Calypso bulbosa fo. occidentalis Holz.; Calypso bulbosa subsp. occidentalis (Holz.) Calder & Roy L. Taylor; Calypso bulbosa var. occidentalis (Holz.) B. Boivin; Calypso occidentalis A. Heller; Calypsodium boreale (Sw.) Link, nom. superfl.; Cymbidium boreale Sw., nom. superfl.; Cypripedium bulbosum L.; Cytherea borealis (Sw.) Salisb., nom. superfl.; Cytherea bulbosa (L.) House; Limodorum boreale (Sw.) Sw., nom. superfl.; Norna borealis (Sw.) Wahlenb., nom. superfl.; Orchidium arcticum Sw., nom. inval.; Orchidium boreale (Sw.) Sw., nom. superfl.)

Subarctic & Temp. northern Hemisphere. Perennial herb, erect, tuber geophyte, single sweet-scented nodding magenta flower, bulb eaten raw or cooked

See Species Plantarum 2: 951. 1753, Catalogue of Vermont Plants 1: 28, 200. 1842, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3: 251. 1895, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 193. 1898 and Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 32(7): 382. 1905, Canadian Journal of Botany 43(11): 1393. 1965, Le Naturaliste Canadien 94: 522. 1967, Taxon 30: 845–851. 1981

(Antispasmodic, anticonvulsive. Magic, charm.)

in English: fairy slipper, fairyslipper orchid

Calyptranthes Sw. Myrtaceae

Greek kalyptra ‘veil, lid’ and anthos ‘a flower’, referring to the operculum of the flowers, lid-like dehiscence of the calyx; see Olof Peter Swartz (1760–1818), Nova genera et species plantarum seu Prodromus. 5, 79. Stockholm, Uppsala & Åbo 1788.

Calyptranthes zuzygium (L.) Sw. (Calyptranthes chytraculia var. zuzygium (L.) O. Berg; Calyptranthes zuzygium Blanco; Chytraculia chytraculia var. zuzygium (L.) Sudw.; Chytraculia zuzygium (L.) Kuntze; Myrtus zuzygium L.)

Tropical America, West Indies. Tree or shrub, petals absent, 1–2 seeded red purple-black fruits

See Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1056. 1759, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 79. 1788, Linnaea 27(1): 28. 1854[1855], Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 238. 1891, Division of Forestry: Bulletin [U.S. Department of Agriculture] 14: 305. 1897 and Brenesia 41–42: 73–80. 1994

(For skin diseases, stomachic, astringent.)

in English: myrtle-of-the-river

Calystegia R. Br. Convolvulaceae

Greek kalyx ‘calyx’ and stege, stegos ‘covering, cover’, referring to the large bracteoles; see Robert Brown (1773– 1858), Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae. 483. 1810 and Candollea 14: 11–60. 1952, Lilloa 29: 87–348. 1959, Syst. Bot. 4: 72–102. 1979, Kew Bulletin 35: 327–334. 1980.

Calystegia affinis Endl. (Convolvulus affinis (Endl.) Maiden; Ipomoea denticulata Choisy) (the epithet means allied to, and refers to a close relationship with Calystegia marginata R. Br.)

Norfolk Island. Creeper, twining

See Prodromus Florae Norfolkicae 51. 1833 and Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 28(4): 711. 1903 (publ. 1904)

(For treating chickenpox.)

in Samoa: lautafifi

Calystegia longipes (S. Watson) Brummitt (Convolvulus linearilobus Eastw.; Convolvulus longipes S. Watson)

North America. Perennial vine, herb

See American Naturalist 7(5): 302. 1873 and Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 4, 20(5): 152. 1931, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 52(2): 214. 1965, Sida 14(3): 443–457. 1991

(Roots decoction taken for gonorrhea.)

in English: Paiute false bindweed

Calystegia occidentalis (A. Gray) Brummitt subsp. fulcrata (A. Gray) Brummitt (Calystegia fulcrata (A. Gray) Brummitt; Convolvulus fulcratus (A. Gray) Greene; Convolvulus luteolus A. Gray var. fulcratus A. Gray; Convolvulus luteolus (Jacq.) Spreng. var. fulcratus A. Gray)

North America. Perennial vine, herb

See Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 11: 90. 1876, Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences 1: 208. 1885 and Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 52(2): 214–215. 1965, Kew Bulletin 29(3): 502. 1974

(Aphrodisiac.)

in English: chaparral false bindweed

Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br. (Calystegia sepium R.Br.; Calystegia sepium var. maritima (Gouan) Choisy; Calystegia sepium var. sepium; Convolvulus sepium L.; Volvulus sepium (L.) Junger; Volvulus sepium Junger; Volvulus sepium Medik.)

Cosmopolitan. Perennial vine, climber, creeping, twining, trailing, flexible, fleshy creeping rhizome, white funnel-shaped flowers, globose capsule, noxious weed, see also Convolvulus sepium

See Species Plantarum 1: 153. 1753, Philos. Bot. (Medikus) 2: 42. 1791, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 483. 1810, Prodr. (DC.) 9: 433. 1845, Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 41(4): 133–134. 1891 and Phytochemistry 58(6): 883–889. 2001

(Root demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge, strongly purgative, potentially dangerous.)

in English: bear bind, bindweed, bracted bindweed, devil’s guts, devil’s vine, great bindweed, greater bindweed, hedge bindweed, hedge false bindweed, hedge glory bind, hedge-lily, hedge morning-glory, hedgebell, large bindweed, lily-bind, milk convolvulus, old man’s cap, Rutland beauty, wild morning-glory

Maori names: pohue, pohuhe

in China: hsuan hua, ou xuan hua

in South Americva: campanillas de lomas

Calystegia soldanella (L.) R.Br. (Calystegia reniformis R.Br.; Calystegia soldanella (L.) Roem. & Schult.; Calystegia soldanella (L.) Choisy; Calystegia soldanelloides Makino; Convolvulus asarifolius Salisb.; Convolvulus maritimus Lam.; Convolvulus reniformis Cat.; Convolvulus reniformis Poir.; Convolvulus reniformis (R.Br.) Poir.; Convolvulus reniformis (R.Br.) Spreng.; Convolvulus reniformis Roxb.; Convolvulus soldanellus L.)

SE Asia, China. Found growing on sandy seashores

See Species Plantarum 1: 159. 1753, Flore Françoise 2: 265. 1778, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 125. 1796, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 483–484, 486. 1810, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 14. 1814, Systema Vegetabilium ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 184, 251. 1819, Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall., ii. 67, 1824, Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, i. 481. 1832 and Taxon 30: 695–696. 1981, Watsonia 19: 169–171. 1993, J. Pl. Biol. 39: 15–22. 1996

in English: sea bindweed

in China: shen ye da wan hua

in Japan: hama-hiru-gao

(The juice which oozes from the stalks and root hardens into a type of resin and is used as a purge.)

Camassia Lindley Asparagaceae (Anthericaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Liliaceae)

From the North American Indian plant names lakamas, camass or kamass or kamas (Camassia esculenta), an edible bulb eaten raw or cooked; see Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 2(4): 265. 1818, Edwards’s Botanical Register 18: pl. 1486. 1832, Flora Telluriana 2: 25 and 3: 53 1837 [1836 publ. Jan–Mar 1837], Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum [Kunth] 4: 681. 1843 and [compiled by John Gill], Gill’s Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. 54. Portland, Oregon 1933, Gould, F.W. “A systematic treatment of the genus Camassia Lindl.” Amer. Midl. Naturalist 28: 712–742. 1942, Ranker, T.A. and A.F. Schnabel. “Allozymic and morphological evidence for a progenitor-derivative species pair in Camassia (Liliaceae).” Syst. Bot. 11: 433–445. 1986, Kew Bull. 46: 307–316. 1991.

Camassia cusickii S. Watson (Quamasia cusickii (S. Watson) Coville; Quamasia cusickii Coville)

North America.

See Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 22(2): 479. 1887, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 11(13): 64. 1897 and Phytochemistry. 30(11): 3721–3727. 1991, Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 79(11): 953–958. 2001 [Two steroidal saponins from Camassia cusickii induce L1210 cell death through the apoptotic mechanism.]

(Steroidal saponins.)

Camassia leichtlinii (Baker) S. Watson (Camassia esculenta Lindl. var. leichtlinii Baker; Camassia esculenta Lindl. var. leichtlinii (Baker) Baker; Camassia leichtlinii subsp. typica Gould, nom. inval.; Chlorogalum leichtlinii Baker; Quamasia leichtlinii Coville; Quamasia leichtlinii (Baker) Coville)

North America, British Columbia. Perennial herb, food plant, bulbs can be cooked and eaten

See Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1486. 1832, The Gardeners’ Chronicle, new series 1: 689. 1874, Bot. Mag. 103: t. 6287. 1877, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 20: 376. 1885, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 11(13): 63. 1897 and Leaflets of Botanical Observation and Criticism 1: 91. 1904, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 28(3): 722. 1942, Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo). 49(6): 726–731. 2001 [Steroidal glycosides from the bulbs of Camassia leichtlinii and their cytotoxic activities.], Anticancer Res. 21(2A): 959–964. 2001 [Cytotoxic activity of saponins from Camassia leichtlinii against human oral tumor cell lines.]

(Steroidal glycosides from the bulbs.)

in English: large camas

Camassia quamash (Pursh) Greene (Anthericum quamash (Pursh) Steud.; Camassia esculenta Lindl.; Camassia esculenta (Ker Gawl.) B.L. Rob.; Camassia esculenta (Nutt.) B.L. Rob.; Camassia quamash (Pursh) Greene subsp. teapeae (H. St. John) H. St. John; Phalangium quamash Pursh; Quamasia quamash (Pursh) Coville; Quamasia quamash Coville)

North America. Herb, perennial, slender, food plant, bulbs can be cooked and eaten, highly variable morphologically

See Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 1: 226–227. 1814 [Dec 1813], Nomencl. Bot. 1: 54. 1821, Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1486. 1832, Man. Bot. San Francisco 313. 1894, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 11(13): 64. 1897, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 26: 547. 1899 and Rhodora 10(110): 31. 1908, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 29: 81. 1916, Mol. Ecol. 18(18): 3918–3928. 2009

(Roots infusion or decoction taken to induce labor; plant infusion taken for vaginal bleeding.)

in North America: blue camas lily, camas, camash, camass, camosh, common camas, common camus lily, quamash, small camas, small camas lily

Camellia L. Theaceae

For the Jesuit missionary Georg Joseph (Georgius Josephus) Kamel (Camellus, Camel, Camelli), 1661–1706, born at Brno in Moravia, pharmacist, traveller and plant collector, author of Herbarium aliarumque stirpium in insula Luzone Philippinarum primaria nascenticum syllabus, in John Ray, Historiae plantarum tomus tertius, App. 1–96. London 1704. See Species Plantarum 2: 698. 1753, Jonas C. Dryander, Catalogus bibliothecae historico-naturalis Josephi Banks. London 1796–1800, Essai sur les Propriétés Médicales des Plantes, ed. 2 978. 1816, L. Colla, Camelliografia ossia tentativo di una nuova disposizione naturale delle varietà della camellia del Giappone e loro descrizione. Torino 1843, Ambroise Colette Alexandre Verschaffelt (1825– 1886), Nouvelle iconographie des Camellias. Gand [Gent] 1848–1860, The Flora of British India 1: 292. 1874 and Mededeeling van het Proefstation Oost-Java 40: 69. 1916, C. Battisti & G. Alessio, Dizionario etimologico italiano. Firenze 1950–1957, Sealy, Joseph Robert (1907–2000), A revision of the genus Camellia London: Royal Horticultural Society, 1958, J.H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 2: 268. 1965, L. Polgar, Bibliography of the History of the Society of Jesus. Rome 1967, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1979(3): 69–71. 1979, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1981(1): 89, 91, 93, 96. 1981, Chang, Hung Ta, A Taxonomy of the Genus Camellia. [Guangzhou]: editorial staff of the Journal of Sun Yatsen University, 1981, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1982(3): 72. 1982, Chang Hung Ta & Bruce Bartholomew, Camellias. Portland, Oregon 1984, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1984(2): 77. 1984, Andrew MacHugh, “Two hundred years of Camellias.” Hortus. 24: 26–33. 1992, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 16(4): 343. 1994, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 35(1): 79. 1996, Chang Hung-ta & Ren Shan-xiang. Theaceae (Theoideae). In: Chang Hung-ta, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(3): 1–270. 1998, Ling Laikuan. Theaceae (Ternstroemioideae). In: Liang Lai-kuan, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 50(1): 1–207. 1998, Nordic J. Bot. 28(3): 281. 2010.

Camellia drupifera Lour. (Camellia gauchowensis Hung T. Chang; Camellia oleifera Wall.; Camellia vietnamensis T.C. Huang ex Hu; Drupifera oleosa Raf.; Thea drupifera (Lour.) Pierre)

China. Shrub or tree, solitary axillary white fragrant flowers

See Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 411. 1790 and Bull. Sunyatsen Univ. Nat. Sci. 1961(4): 58. 1961, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 10(2): 138, pl. 28. 1965

(Antioxidant, emollient.)

in China: yue nan you cha

Camellia kissii Wall. (Camellia keina Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don; Camellia kissii var. kissii; Camellia lutescens Dyer; Camellia mastersii Griff.; Camellia symplocifolia Griff.; Thea bachmaensis Gagnep.; Thea brachystemon Gagnep.; Thea sasanqua (Thunb.) Cels var. kissii (Wall.) Pierre; Theopsis euonymifolia Hu)

SE Asia, China. Evergreen shrub, usually solitary axillary white fragrant flowers, globose-pyriform capsule

See Asiatic Researches 13: 429. 1820, Pl. As. Rar. 3: t. 256. 1832, Flore Forestière de la Cochinchine 2: sub pl. 115–116. 1887 and Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 10: 124. 1942, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 10(2): 140–141. 1965

(Leaf juice applied to skin burns, cuts, injuries, wounds; leaves chewed to remove bad smell from the mouth. Oil from the seeds antioxidant, emollient, used to improve the overall texture of nails, hair, scalp and skin.)

in English: wild tea

in China: luo ban you cha

in India: dieng trynembhoi, lallai, thing pui

in Nepal: ban chiya, chiya pate, chiyapate, gulaure, hingua, hinguwa, kasing, syosing, tepsing

Camellia oleifera Abel (Camellia drupifera fo. biflora (Hayata) S.S. Ying; Camellia oleifera Wall.; Camellia oleifera var. monosperma Hung T. Chang; Camellia oleosa (Lour.) Y.C. Wu; Thea biflora Hayata; Thea oleifera (Abel) Rehder & E.H. Wilson; Thea podogyna H. Lév.; Thea sasanqua (Thunb.) Cels var. loureiroi Pierre)

East Asia, China. Evergreen shrub or tree

See Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China 174, 363. 1818 and Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 30(1): 44–45. 1911, Plantae Wilsonianae 2(2): 393–394. 1915, Sert. Yunnan. 2. 1916, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni 31(1): 75–76. 1992

(Anthelmintic, for ringworm.)

in English: tea-oil plant

in China: cha zi xin, shan ch’a, you cha

Camellia pitardii Cohen-Stuart (Thea pitardii (Cohen-Stuart) Rehder; Thea pitardii Rehder)

China.

See [Stuart, Combertus Pieter Cohen] Mededeelingen van het Proefstation voor Thee. Buitenzorg, Dutch E. Indies [= Bogor, Indonesia] xl. 68. 1916, Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 5(4): 238. 1924, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 35(2): 107– 116. 1997, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 20(3): 321–328. 1998, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 21(1): 51–56. 1999

(Buddha flower.)

in China: cha hua, xi nan shan cha

Camellia reticulata Lindl. (Camellia albescens Hung T. Chang; Camellia albosericea Hung T. Chang; Camellia albovillosa Hu ex Hung T. Chang; Camellia bailinshanica Hung T. Chang et al.; Camellia bambusifolia Hung T. Chang, H.S. Liu & Y.Z. Zhang; Camellia borealiyunnanica Hung T. Chang; Camellia brevicolumna Hung T. Chang, H.S. Liu & Y.Z. Zhang; Camellia brevigyna Hung T. Chang; Camellia brevipetiolata Hung T. Chang; Camellia chunii (Hung T. Chang) Hung T. Chang; Camellia chunii var. pentaphylax Hung T. Chang; Camellia heterophylla Hu; Camellia jinshajiangica Hung T. Chang; Camellia kangdianica Hung T. Chang et al.; Camellia kweichowensis Hung T. Chang; Camellia oligophlebia Hung T. Chang; Camellia paucipetala Hung T. Chang; Camellia pentapetala Hung T. Chang; Camellia pentaphylacoides Hung T. Chang; Camellia pentaphylax Hung T. Chang; Camellia pitardii var. yunnanica Sealy; Camellia reticulata Benth.; Camellia reticulata fo. albescens (Hung T. Chang) T.L. Ming; Camellia reticulata fo. simplex Sealy; Camellia stichoclada Hung T. Chang; Camellia subliberopetala Hung T. Chang; Camellia xichangensis Hung T. Chang; Camellia xylocarpa (Hu) Hung T. Chang; Desmitus reticulata (Lindl.) Raf.; Thea reticulata (Lindl.) Pierre; Yunnanea xylocarpa Hu)

China.

See Botanical Register; consisting of coloured ... 13: t. 1078. 1827, Sylva Telluriana 139. 1838, Flora Hongkongensis 31. 1861, Flore Forestière de la Cochinchine 2(fasc. 8): sub pl. 119. 1887 and Leaflets of Philippine Botany 8: 2838–2839. 1915, Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology: 8: 37. 1938, Kew Bulletin 4(2): 219–220. 1949, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 5(4): 282–283, pl. 55. 1956, Biotropica 9: 86–94. 1977, Chang, Hung Ta, A taxonomy of the genus Camellia, [Guangzhou]: editorial staff of the Journal of Sun Yatsen University, 1981, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni 1984(2): 76. 1984, Guihaia 5(4): 357, f. 1985, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni 28(3): 50–52, 54–57. 1989, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni 30(1): 78–79. 1991, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 15: 167–172. 1993, Amer. Camellia Yearb. 1994: 53–59. 1994, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 16(3): 255–262. 1994, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 35(2): 107–116. 1997, Flora Yunnanica 8: 308. 1997, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 20(2): 141. 1998, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 49(3): 65. 1998

(Buddha flower.)

in China: cha hua, dian shan cha

in Japan: tô-tsuba-ki

Camellia sasanqua Thunb. (Camellia bohea (Koidz.) Makino & Nemoto; Camellia sasanqua Sims; Camellia sasanqua Blanco; Thea miyagii Koidz.; Thea sasanqua (Thunb.) Cels; Thea tegmentosa (Koidz.) Makino & Nemoto)

East Asia, Japan. Evergreen shrub or small tree

See Nova Acta Soc. Sc. Upsal. iv. 39. 1783, Flora Japonica, ... 273, t. 30. 1784, Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (J.A. Murray). 632. 1784, Botanical Magazine t. 2080. 1819, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 530. 1837

(Expectorant, demulcent.)

in English: camellia, sasanqua, sasanqua camellia

in China: ch’a mei hua

in Japan: sa-zan-ka (= mountain tea flower), sazanka

in Tanzania: chai, mjohoo

Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Camellia bohea (L.) Sweet; Camellia thea Link; Thea bohea L.; Thea sinensis L.; Thea sinensis L. var. bohea (L.) C. Koch; Thea sinensis L. var. viridis (L.) Pierre)

China, India. Perennial shrub

See Species Plantarum 1: 515. 1753, Flora Cochinchinensis 1: 339. 1790, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 2: 73. 1822 C.S. Rafinesque, Medical Flora 2: 267. 1830, Sylva Tellur. 139. 1838, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 10: 195. 1887 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(7/1): 24–36. 1961, Biotropica 9: 86–94. 1977, Wild Fl. Hong Kong 61. 1977, Taxonomy of the genus Camellia 122. 1981, Cytologia 46: 767–772. 1981, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1981(1): 98. 1981, Acta Agric. Univ. Zhejiang. 16(1): 88–93. 1990, Bot. J. South China 1: 28–34. 1992, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 30(6): 498–507. 1992, Guihaia 12(4): 340–344. 1992, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 32(4): 308–315. 1994, J. SouthW. Agric. Univ. 16(2): 111–119. 1994, Guihaia 19(3): 233–235. 1999

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Astringent, cardiotonic, diuretic, stimulant, antioxidant, for diarrhea, dysentery. Bitter leaf juice taken for abortion, also applied as hemostatic to cuts and injuries; poultice of leaves applied locally to stop bleeding; leaves infusion for common cold, conjunctivitis.)

in English: Chinese tea, tea, tea plant

in Japan: cha, cha-no-ki, Shina-cha, Taiwan-cha

in China: cha, cha ye, ming, yeh ch’a

in India: caha, cay, cha, cha soppu, chaha, chaha soppu, chai, chai siyah, chaipati, chay, chha, chiya, karupputteyilai, nallateyaku, pachaitteyilai, saatong, singo, syamaparni, teyaaku, teyila, teyilai, teyla, thayilai, thesoppu, theyaku, theyale, theyilai, thingpui, tiyaku

in Nepal: chad, chah, chay, chhapa, chhyo, chiya, hoshadawaku, mukuwa

Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze var. sinensis (Camellia arborescens Hung T. Chang & F.L. Yu; Camellia bohea (L.) Sweet; Camellia bohea L.; Camellia longlingensis F.C. Zhang, G.B. Chen & M.D. Tang; Camellia oleosa (Lour.) Rehder; Camellia sinensis fo. formosensis Kitam.; Camellia sinensis fo. macrophylla (Siebold) Kitam.; Camellia sinensis fo. parvifolia (Miq.) Sealy; Camellia sinensis var. waldenae (S.Y. Hu) Hung T. Chang; Camellia sinensis var. waldeniae (S.Y. Hu) Hung T. Chang; Camellia thea Link; Camellia theifera Griff.; Camellia waldenae S.Y. Hu; Camellia waldeniae S.Y. Hu; Thea bohea L.; Thea cantoniensis Lour.; Thea chinensis Sims; Thea cochinchinensis Lour.; Thea grandifolia Salisb., not Hayata; Thea olearia Lour. ex Gomes; Thea oleosa Lour.; Thea parvifolia Salisb.; Thea sinensis L.; Thea sinensis var. bohea (L.) C. Koch; Thea sinensis var. macrophylla Siebold; Thea sinensis var. parvifolia Miq.; Thea sinensis var. viridis (L.) Pierre; Thea viridis L.; Theaphylla cantonensis (Lour.) Raf.; Theaphylla cantoniensis Raf.)

Asia, SW China, NE India. Evergreen, multi-stemmed shrub or tree, strong taproot and many lateral roots, branchlets finely pubescent at apex, leaves alternate with short petiole, fragrant white flowers, sepals persistent, fruit a woody subglobose capsule

See Species Plantarum 1: 515. 1753, Flora Cochinchinensis 1: 339. 1790, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 2: 73. 1822 C.S. Rafinesque, Medical Flora 2: 267. 1830, Sylva Tellur. 139. 1838, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada x. (1887) 195 in obs. 1887 and Wild Fl. Hong Kong 61. 1977, Taxonomy of the genus Camellia 122. 1981, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1981(1): 98. 1981, Regnum Veg. 127: 93. 1993

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Astringent, cardiotonic, diuretic, stimulant, antioxidant, for diarrhea, dysentery. Bitter leaf juice taken for abortion, also applied as hemostatic to cuts and injuries; poultice of leaves applied to stop bleeding.)

in English: Chinese tea, tea, tea plant

in Burma (Myanmar): leppet

in Cambodia: taè

in China: cha (yuan bian zhong), cha ye, ming, yeh ch’a

in India: caha, cay, cha, cha soppu, chaha, chaha soppu, chai, chai siyah, chaipati, chay, chiya, nallateyaku, saatong, singo, syamaparni, teyaaku, teyilai, teyla, thayilai, thingpui, tiyaku

in Indonesia and Malaysia: teh

in Japan: cha, cha-no-ki, Shina-cha, Taiwan-cha

in Nepal: chad, chah, chay, chhapa, chhyo, chiya, hoshadawaku, mukuwa

in Philippines: tsa

in Thailand: cha, miang

in Tibet: rdo-rta

in Vietnam: ch[ef], tr[af]

Cameraria L. Apocynaceae

Cameraria latifolia L. (Cameraria belizensis Standl.; Cameraria havanensis (Müll.Arg.) Benth. & Hook.f.; Cameraria latifolia var. ovata A. DC.; Cameraria ovalis Urb.; Cameraria retusa Griseb.; Neriandra havanensis Müll. Arg.; Skytanthus havanensis (Müll.Arg.) Miers)

Tropical America. Tree, deciduous, monoecious, white latex, short stout trunk, stout branches, small dark green leaves, white flowers in terminal few flowered corymbose cymes

See Species Plantarum 1: 210. 1753, Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum 98. 1759, Definitiones Generum Plantarum 56. 1760, Linnaea 30: 401. 1860, Flora of the British West Indian Islands 410. 1861, Apocyn. S. Amer.: 110. 1878 and Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 39(1): 5–6. 1912, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 219. 1925, Tropical Woods 7: 8. 1926, Fieldiana, Botany 24(8/4): 334–407. 1969, Regnum Veg. 127: 29. 1993, Systematic Biology 51(3): 389–409. 2002

(Poisonous, blistering milky juice, irritant and toxic, burning and severe inflammation of the skin from contact with the sap.)

in English: bastard manchineel, savanna poison wood, savanna white poison wood, white poison wood

in China: ya dan hua

in Central America: bois lait, bwa lèt, chechém de caballo, chechén, chechén de caballo, maboa, laitier

Camissonia Link Onagraceae

For the French-born German poet, Ludolf Karl Adelbert von Chamisso (Louis-Charles Adélaïde Chamisseau de Boncourt), 1781–1838, naturalist, botanist, traveller and explorer, plant collector, a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, companion to Diederich F.L. von Schlechtendal (1794–1866), from 1801 to 1806 served in Prussian army, 1810 to Paris with Alexandr von Humboldt, from 1812 to 1815 studied at the University of Berlin, accompanied Otto Eustafevich von Kotzebue (Kotsebu) (1787–1846) on his expedition round the world (1815–1818, on board the ship Riurik or Rurik), from 1833 Curator of the Royal Botanical Gardens of Berlin, creator of Peter Schlemihl, or the Man without a Shadow. See Jahrbücher der Gewächskunde 1(1): 186. 1818, Otto von Kotzebue, Entdeckungs-Reise in die SüdSee und nach der Berings-Strasse zur Erforschung einer nordöstlichen Durchfahrt. Unternommen in ... 1815–1818 ... aud dem Schiffe Rurick. Weimar 1821, Louis Joseph Yorik Choris (1795–1828), Voyage pittoresque autour du Monde. Accompagné de descriptions par M. le baron Cuvier, et M. A. de Chamisso. Paris 1822, Adelbert von Chamisso’s Werke. [Bd. 5 and 6 edited after the author’s death by Julius Eduard Hitzig.] Leipzig 1836–1839, A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. 371–373. Paris 1845, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 96[III,7]: 216. 1893 and A Manual of the Flowering Plants of California ... 680. 1925, [A. von Chamisso], Correspondance d’Adalbert de Chamisso. [Edited by René Riegel.] Paris 1934, Günther Schmid, Chamisso als Naturforscher. Eine Bibliographie. Leipzig 1942, John H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 1: 330. 1965, T.W. Bossert, Biographical Dictionary of Botanists Represented in the Hunt Institute Portrait Collection. 70. 1972, Dorothea Rudnick, in D.S.B. 15: 81–83. 1981.

Camissonia multijuga (S. Watson) P.H. Raven (Chylismia multijuga (S. Watson) Small; Oenothera brevipes A. Gray var. multijuga (S. Watson) Jeps.; Oenothera multijuga S. Watson; Oenothera multijuga S. Watson var. parviflora (S. Watson) Munz; Oenothera multijuga S. Watson var. typica Munz)

North America. Annual or biennial herb

See A Flora of North America: containing ... 1(3): 507. 1840, American Naturalist 7(5): 300. 1873, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 23(5): 193. 1896 and A Manual of the Flowering Plants of California ... 687. 1925, Brittonia 16(3): 281. 1964

(Medicinal value.)

in English: froststem suncup

Camissonia ovata (Nutt.) P.H. Raven (Camissonia ovata (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven; Oenothera ovata Nutt.; Oenothera ovata Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray; Taraxia ovata (Nutt.) Small)

North America. Perennial herb

See A Flora of North America: containing ... 1(3): 507. 1840, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 23(5): 185. 1896 and Brittonia 16(3): 283. 1964

(Medicinal value.)

in English: goldeneggs

Camissonia tanacetifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven (Oenothera tanacetifolia Torr. & A. Gray; Taraxia tanacetifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) Piper)

North America. Perennial herb

See Reports of explorations and surveys : to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, made under the direction of the Secretary of War 2(1): 121, pl. 4. 1857 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 11: 405. 1906, Brittonia 16(3): 283. 1964

(For skin diseases, boils, ulcers.)

in English: tansyleaf evening primrose

Camissonia tanacetifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven subsp. tanacetifolia (Camissonia tanacetifolia subsp. quadriperforata P.H. Raven; Oenothera tanacetifolia Torr. & A. Gray)

North America. Perennial herb

(For skin diseases, boils, sores, ulcers.)

See Reports of explorations and surveys : to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, made under the direction of the Secretary of War 2(1): 121, pl. 4. 1857 and Brittonia 16(3): 283. 1964, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 37(5): 248–249, f. 24. 1969

in English: tansyleaf evening primrose

Campanula L. Campanulaceae

The diminutive of the Latin word campana ‘a bell’, referring to the corolla shape; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 163. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 77. 1754, Genera Plantarum 163. 1789 and Rhodora 65: 329. 1963, Lammers, Thomas G. Prodromus Monographiae Campanuloidearum. 1994.

Campanula americana L. (Campanula acuminata Michx.; Campanula americana Mill.; Campanula americana Hort. ex Steud.; Campanula americana f. albiflora M.L. Grant; Campanula americana f. tubuliflora Fernald; Campanula americana var. illinoensis (Fresen.) Farw.; Campanula americana var. subulata A. DC.; Campanula asteroides Lam.; Campanula declinata Moench; Campanula illinoensis Fresen.; Campanula nitida Aiton; Campanula obliqua Jacq.; Campanula planiflora Lam.; Campanula subulata P. Beauv. ex A. DC.; Campanulastrum americanum Small; Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small; Phyteuma americanum Hill; Specularia americana (L.) Morgan ex J. James)

North America. Erect, herbaceous, hollow, slightly winged, milky sap, thick roots, corolla blue-purple, axillary flowers in upper portion of stems, flowers subtended by 3 foliaceous bracts, stigma purple slightly curved at apex

See Species Plantarum 1: 164. 1753, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. n. 13. 1768, Tabl. Encyc. 2: 55. 1796, Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 108. 1803, Monographie des Campanulées 314, 344. 1830, Index Seminum Hort. Bot. Francofurt. [unpaged]. 1836, Nomencl. Bot. [Steudel], ed. 2. 1: 266. 1840, Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 7: 74. 1884 and Flora of the Southeastern United States 1141, 1338. 1903, Report of the Michigan academy of science, arts and letters 20: 191. 1918, Rhodora 44(528): 458. 1942, Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 60: 148. 1953

(For pulmonary ailments, cough, tuberculosis.)

in English: American bellflower, tall bellflower

Campanula aparinoides Pursh (Campanula aparinoides var. erinoides (Michx.) Alph.Wood; Campanula aparinoides var. erinoides Alph.Wood; Campanula aparinoides var. grandiflora Holz.; Campanula aparinoides var. multiflora A. DC.; Campanula aparinoides var. rosea Coleman; Campanula aparinoides var. uliginosa (Rydb.) Gleason; Campanula erinoides Michx.; Campanula erinoides Muhl., nom. illeg.; Campanula uliginosa Rydb.)

North America. Perennial herb, tangling, weak, short hooking bristles, pale blue to white flowers solitary nodding long-stalked funnel-shaped

See Cat. Pl. Amer. Sept.: 22. 1813, Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, ... 1: 159. 1814[1813], Monogr. Campan.: 290. 1830, Class-book Bot. (ed. 1861). 479. 1861, Kent Sci. Inst. Misc. Publ. 2: 24. 1874, Bull. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 9: 566. 1896 and Manual of the Flora of the northern States and Canada 885. 1901, Phytologia 4: 25. 1952

(Emetic, pectoral. Stem decoction taken to induce childbirth.)

in English: bedstraw flower, eastern marsh bellflower, marsh bellflower, marsh harebell, small vine

Campanula divaricata Michx. (Campanula divaricata f. alba Fosberg; Campanula flexuosa Michx.)

North America. Perennial herb, erect, slender, very numerous drooping flowers in compound panicles, corolla light blue, style long exserted

See Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 109. 1803, Castanea 20: 60. 1955

(Antidiarrheal, root infusion.)

in English: Appalachian bellflower, small bonny, small bonny bellflower, southern bellflower, southern bluebell, southern harebell

Campanula isophylla Moretti (Campanula floribunda Viv.; Campanula isophylla f. alba Voss; Campanula mayi auct.)

Italy.

See Giorn. Fis. II. vii. 44, 98. 1824, Gard. Chron., III, 26: 96, 126. 1899

(Dermatitis, skin eruptions due to local irritants.)

Campanula latifolia L. (Campanula eriocarpa M. Bieb.; Campanula latifolia var. canescens Trautv.; Campanula latifolia var. eriocarpa (M. Bieb.) Fisch. ex A. DC.; Campanula latifolia var. intermedia Trautv.; Campanula latifolia var. leiocarpa Trautv.; Campanula latifolia var. macrantha Fisch. ex Sims; Campanula macrantha (Fisch. ex Sims) Hook.; Campanula macrantha var. polyantha Hook.; Drymocodon latifolium (L.) Fourr.; Trachelioides latifolia (L.) Opiz)

Europe, Himalaya. Perennial herb, clump-forming, light blue flower

See Species Plantarum 1: 165. 1753, Flora TauricoCaucasica 1: 149. 1808, Monographie des Campanulées 265. 1830, Bot. Mag. 61: t. 3347. 1834, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 111. 1869

(Flowers emetic.)

in English: bellflower, giant bellflower, great bellflower, large campanula, wide-leaved bellflower

Campanula medium L. (Campanula bourdiniana Gand.; Campanula florida Salisb.; Campanula grandiflora Lam., nom. illeg.; Campanula grandiflorum Lam.; Campanula medium Lapeyr.; Campanula medium f. alba Voss; Campanula medium f. caesia Voss; Campanula medium f. calycantha Voss; Campanula medium f. coerulea Voss; Campanula medium f. rosea Voss; Campanula medium f. striata Voss; Campanula medium var. bourdiniana (Gand.) Nyman; Campanula medium var. calycanthema Nicholls; Campanula meyeriana Rupr.; Campanula saxifraga M. Bieb. subsp. meyerana (Rupr.) Ogan.; Marianthemum medium (L.) Schur; Medium grandiflorum Spach; Medium grandiflorum (Lam.) Fourr.; Rapuntia medium (L.) Chevall.; Sykoraea hortensis Opiz; Talanelis medium (L.) Raf.)

Europe, Belgium. Evergreen herb

See Species Plantarum 1: 167. 1753, Flore Française. Troisième Édition 3: 706. 1805, Flora Taurico-Caucasica 1: 155. 1808, Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 9: 553. 1840, Bull. Acad. Petersb. 11: 207. 1867, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, sér. 2 17: 111. 1869 and Bot. Zurn. 78 (3): 148. 1993

(Dermatitis, contact sensitivity, skin eruptions due to local irritants. For throat problems.)

in English: Canterbury bells

Campanula pallida Wall. (Campanula colorata Wall.; Campanula colorata var. moorcroftiana A. DC.; Campanula colorata var. ramulosa (Wall.) Hook. f. & Thomsen; Campanula colorata var. tibetica Hook. f. & Thomson; Campanula himalayensis Klotzsch; Campanula hoffmeisteri Klotzsch; Campanula microcarpa C.Y. Wu; Campanula nepetifolia Levl. & Van; Campanula pallida var. tibetica (Hook. f. & Thomson) Hara; Campanula ramulosa Wall.; Prismatocarpus nitidus L’Hér. var. ovatus Adamson; Prismatocarpus pauciflorus Adamson)

India, Himalaya.

See Asiatic Researches 13: 375. 1820, Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants ed. Carey & Wall. 2: 100–102. 1824, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] n. 1286. 1829, Monographie des Campanulées 293. 1830, Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society 2: 23. 1858, Bot. Ergebn. Reise Waldemar 73–74. 1862 and Journal of South African Botany 17: 120, 126. 1951, Taxon 25: 631–649. 1976

(Stem decoction taken by women to induce childbirth.)

Campanula parryi A. Gray (Campanula langsdorffiana A. Gray, nom. illeg.; Campanula parryi var. idahoensis McVaugh; Campanula parryi var. parryi; Campanula planiflora Engelm., nom. illeg.; Campanula rentonae Senior; Campanula rentoniae Senior)

North America. Perennial, single purple erect flower

See Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 580. 1785, Enum. Pl. [Willdenow] 1: 210. 1809, Amer. J. Sci. Arts, II, 34: 254. 1862, Synoptical Flora of North America 2(1): 395. 1878, Bot. Gaz. 7: 5. 1882, Syn. Fl. N. Amer., ed. 2. 2(1, Suppl.): 395. 1886 and Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 69: 241. 1942, American Midland Naturalist 29(3): 768–778. 1943, Rhodora 51: 302. 1949

(Root antiphlogistic, applied to bruises, skin ailments. Plant taken for women’s problems; dried plant to treat sores.)

in English: blue flower, harebell, Idaho bellflower, Parry’s bellflower

Campanula rapunculoides L. (Campanula cordifolia K. Koch; Campanula crenata Link; Campanula infundibuliformis Sims; Campanula lunariaefolia Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.; Campanula morifolia Salisb., nom. superfl.; Campanula neglecta Besser; Campanula racemosa var. laxiflora Vuk, nom. illeg.; Campanula rapunculiformis St.-Lag., nom. superfl.; Campanula rapunculoides Pall. ex Steudel; Campanula rapunculoides fo. cordifolia (K. Koch) Albov; Campanula rapunculoides subsp. cordifolia (K. Koch) Damboldt; Campanula rapunculoides var. cordata K. Koch; Campanula rapunculoides var. glabrata Trautv.; Campanula rapunculoides var. macrophylla A. DC.; Campanula rapunculoides var. trachelioides (M. Bieb.) A. DC.; Campanula rapunculus L.; Campanula rapunculus subvar. verruculosa (Hoffmanns. & Link) Maire; Campanula rhomboidalis Gorter; Campanula rhomboidea Falk; Campanula rigida Gilib.; Campanula rigida Stokes, nom. superfl.; Campanula trachelioides M. Bieb.; Campanula ucranica Schult.; Cenekia rapunculoides (L.) Opiz; Drymocodon rapunculoides (L.) Fourr.; Rapunculus redivivus E.H.L. Krause)

Europe. Perennial

See Species Plantarum 1: 164–165. 1753, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 126. 1796, Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 333. 1812, Cat. Hort. Cremen. 28. 1816, Systema Vegetabilium 5: 92. 1819, Monographie des Campanulées 268–269. 1830, Nomencl. Bot. [Steudel], ed. 2. 1: 270. 1840, Linnaea 19: 29. 1845, Linnaea 23: 641. 1850, Linnaea 26: 332. 1854, Annales de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon, sér. 2, 17: 111. 1869, Linnaea 38: 712. 1874, Étude Fl., éd. 8 [A. Cariot] 2: 547. 1889 and Deutschl. Fl., ed. 2, 12: 255. 1904, Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 35(1): 45. 1976, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 60: 155. 1987, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 48(2): 61–76. 1995

(Antiinflammatory, to treat inflammatory diseases and/or wounds, also a cure for hydrophobia.)

in English: creeping bellflower, German rampion

Campanula rapunculus L. (Campanula coarctata Gilib.; Campanula esculenta Salisb., nom. superfl.; Campanula hyrcania Wettst.; Campanula lambertiana A. DC.; Campanula patula var. rapunculus (L.) Kuntze; Campanula racemosa var. paniculiformis Vuk., nom. superfl.; Campanula rapuncula St.-Lag.; Campanula rapunculus O.F. Muell.; Campanula rapunculus fo. cymoso-spicata Willk.; Campanula rapunculus fo. racemoso-paniculata Willk.; Campanula rapunculus subsp. lambertiana (A. DC.) Rech. f.; Campanula rapunculus subsp. verruculosa (Hoffmanns. & Link) Pinto da Silva; Campanula rapunculus subvar. hirsutissima Maire; Campanula rapunculus subvar. sanctae Quézel; Campanula rapunculus subvar. verruculosa (Hoffmanns. & Link) Maire; Campanula rapunculus var. brachyloba Rech. f.; Campanula rapunculus var. grandiflora Font Quer; Campanula rapunculus var. hirsutissima Faure; Campanula rapunculus var. hirta Ten.; Campanula rapunculus var. lambertiana (A. DC.) Boiss.; Campanula rapunculus var. spiciformis Boiss.; Campanula rapunculus var. strigulosa Batt.; Campanula rapunculus var. verruculosa (Hoffmanns. & Link) Vatke; Campanula verruculosa Hoffmanns. & Link; Neocodon lambertianus (A. DC.) Kolak. & Serdyuk.; Neocodon rapunculus (L.) Kolak. & Serdyuk.; Rapunculus verus Fourr.)

Argentina, Europe. Perennial herb, erect, stiff, variable leaves, flowers reddish purplish, leaf rosettes and fleshy roots eaten

See Species Plantarum 1: 164–165. 1753, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 126. 1796, Monographie des Campanulées 327. 1830, Linnaea 26: 332. 1854, Linnaea 38: 712. 1874, Flora Orientalis 3: 895, 940. 1875, Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 121. 1880, Denkschr. Acad. Wien l. 69. 1885 and Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis. Beiheft 56: 40. 1953, Fl. Iran 13: 34. 1965, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 60: 155. 1987

(Astringent, antiseptic, antiinflammatory, alterative, lactagogue, vulnerary, for warts.)

in English: rampion, rampion bellflower

Campanula rotundifolia L. (Campanula alaskana (A. Gray) W. Wight ex J.P. Anderson; Campanula allophylla Raf. ex A. DC.; Campanula angustifolia Lam.; Campanula antirrhina Schleich.; Campanula arcuata var. subrhomboidalis Schur; Campanula asturica Podlech; Campanula balcanica f. racemosa (Krašan) Hruby; Campanula bielzii Schur; Campanula bocconei Vill.; Campanula caballeroi Sennen & Losa; Campanula carnica var. racemosa Krašan; Campanula cespitosa var. bocconei (Vill.) Steud.; Campanula chinganensis A.I. Baranov; Campanula cinerea Hegetschw., nom. illeg.; Campanula confertifolia (Reut.) Witasek; Campanula decloetiana Ortmann; Campanula delicatula Sennen & Losa, nom. illeg.; Campanula diversifolia Dumort., nom. superfl.; Campanula dubia A. DC.; Campanula filiformis Gilib.; Campanula gieseckiana Vest ex Schult.; Campanula gieseckiana subsp. groenlandica (Berlin) Böcher; Campanula gieseckiana var. arctica (Lange) Böcher; Campanula grammosepala Vuk., nom. illeg.; Campanula grammosepala var. cardiophylla Vuk.; Campanula grammosepala var. lobophylla Vuk., nom. superfl.; Campanula grammosepala var. spathiphylla Vuk.; Campanula groenlandica Berl.; Campanula heterodoxa Bong., nom. illeg.; Campanula heterodoxa Vest ex Schult.; Campanula heterophylla Gray, nom. superfl.; Campanula hostii Baumg.; Campanula hostii var. uniflora A. DC.; Campanula inconcessa Schott, Nyman & Kotschy; Campanula intercedens Witasek; Campanula lanceolata Schur, nom. illeg.; Campanula lanceolata Lapeyr.; Campanula lancifolia Schur, nom. illeg.; Campanula langsdorffiana (A. DC.) Fisch. ex Trautv. & C.A. Mey.; Campanula latisepala Hultén; Campanula legionensis Pau; Campanula linifolia Schrank, nom. illeg.; Campanula linifolia f. langsdorffiana (A. DC.) Voss; Campanula linifolia var. heterodoxa (Vest ex Schult.) Ledeb.; Campanula linifolia var. langsdorffiana A. DC.; Campanula linifolia var. major Timb.-Lagr.; Campanula linifolia var. tenuifolia Timb.-Lagr.; Campanula lobata Schloss. & Vuk.; Campanula lostrittii Ten.; Campanula macdougalii Rydb.; Campanula marchesettii var. calisii (Murr) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.; Campanula minor Lam.; Campanula minuta Savi; Campanula paenina Reut. ex Tissière; Campanula pennica Reut. ex Payot; Campanula pennina Reut.; Campanula petiolata A. DC.; Campanula pinifolia Uechtr. ex Pancic; Campanula poenina Reut. ex Tissière; Campanula pseudovaldensis Schur; Campanula pubescens Rchb. ex Nyman, nom. illeg.; Campanula pusilla f. lobata (Schloss. & Vuk.) Vuk.; Campanula racemosa (Krašan) Witasek, nom. illeg.; Campanula reboudiana Gren. & Godr.; Campanula rhomboidalis var. lanceolata (Lapeyr.) Loidel.; Campanula rotunda Gilib.; Campanula rotundifolia All. ex Steud.; Campanula rotundifolia Boiss.; Campanula rotundifolia Ledeb.; Campanula rotundifolia Pall. ex A. DC.; Campanula rotundifolia race bocconei (Vill.) Rouy; Campanula rotundifolia subf. brachyantha Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia subf. bracteata Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia subf. grandiflora Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia subf. ovalifolia Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia subf. parviflora Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia subf. perfoliosa Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia subf. reflexa Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia f. albiflora (G. Don) House, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia f. albiflora Sugaw. ex H. Hara, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia f. borhidiana Soó; Campanula rotundifolia f. calvescens Witasek ex Vacc.; Campanula rotundifolia fo. cleistocodona Lakela; Campanula rotundifolia f. conferta Soó; Campanula rotundifolia f. elata Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. frondosa Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. glabrescens Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. graminifolia Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. hirta Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia f. hirta (Mert. & W.D.J. Koch) Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. hrubyana Soó; Campanula rotundifolia f. laevis Guin.; Campanula rotundifolia f. latifrons Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia fo. linifolia Farw.; Campanula rotundifolia f. luxurians Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. micranthoides Soó; Campanula rotundifolia f. nejceffii Hayek; Campanula rotundifolia f. normalis Hruby, nom. inval.; Campanula rotundifolia f. ovalifolia Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia f. ovata (Peterm.) Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. scabriuscula (Mert. & W.D.J. Koch) Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. serpentini Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. silvicola Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. soldanelliflora Voss; Campanula rotundifolia f. subcongesta Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia f. subhirta Soó; Campanula rotundifolia f. subracemosa Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. subverruculosa Guin.; Campanula rotundifolia f. tenerrima Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia f. umbrosa Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. confertifolia (Reut.) Witasek ex Vacc.; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. eurotundifolia Vacc., nom. inval.; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. euxina (Velen.) Hayek; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. groenlandica (Berlin) A. Löve & D. Löve; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. heterodoxa (Vest ex Schult.) Tacik; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. intercedens (Witasek) À. Löve & D. Löve; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. legionensis (Pau) M. Laínz; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. linifolia Lapeyr.; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. montana P.D. Sell, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. paenina (Reut. ex Tissière) Witasek ex Vacc.; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. pedemontana Witasek ex Vacc.; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. pennina (Reut.) Witasek ex Vacc.; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. polymorpha (Witasek) Tacik; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. racemosa (Krašan) Hayek; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. solstitialis (A. Kern.) Hayek; Campanula rotundifolia subsp. sudetica Soó; Campanula rotundifolia subvar. pinifolia (Uechtr. ex Pancic) Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia subvar. tenuissima Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia var. alaskana A. Gray; Campanula rotundifolia var. albiflora G. Don; Campanula rotundifolia var. alpicola Hayek; Campanula rotundifolia var. alpina Tuck.; Campanula rotundifolia var. altitatrica Tacik; Campanula rotundifolia var. angustifolia (Lam.) Vacc.; Campanula rotundifolia var. angustissima Schur; Campanula rotundifolia var. arctica Lange; Campanula rotundifolia var. bielziana Schur; Campanula rotundifolia var. bocconei (Vill.) Lapeyr.; Campanula rotundifolia var. bulgarica Nejceff; Campanula rotundifolia var. calisii Murr; Campanula rotundifolia var. confertifolia Reut.; Campanula rotundifolia var. decloetiana (Ortmann) Nyman; Campanula rotundifolia var. delitschiana Kuntze; Campanula rotundifolia var. dentata Coleman; Campanula rotundifolia var. euxina Velen.; Campanula rotundifolia var. flexuosa C. Vicioso; Campanula rotundifolia var. glabra Lapeyr.; Campanula rotundifolia var. heterodoxa (Vest ex Schult.) Kurtz; Campanula rotundifolia var. hirta Mert. & W.D.J. Koch; Campanula rotundifolia var. hostii (Baumg.) Nyman; Campanula rotundifolia var. imbricata A. DC., nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia var. intercedens Farw.; Campanula rotundifolia var. intercedens (Witasek) Farw.; Campanula rotundifolia var. lancifolia Mert. & W.D.J. Koch; Campanula rotundifolia var. laxiflora Beck; Campanula rotundifolia var. legionensis (Pau) Lacaita; Campanula rotundifolia var. lineariifolia (Dumort.) Hayek; Campanula rotundifolia var. major (Timb.-Lagr.) Rouy, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia var. major A. DC., nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia var. minor Witasek ex Vacc.; Campanula rotundifolia var. montana Syme, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia var. ovata Peterm.; Campanula rotundifolia var. papillifera Savul.; Campanula rotundifolia var. papillosa Beyer; Campanula rotundifolia var. parviflora Lange, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia var. parviflora Lej.; Campanula rotundifolia var. pennina (Reut.) Nyman; Campanula rotundifolia var. petiolata (A. DC.) J.K. Henry; Campanula rotundifolia var. pubescens Gaudin; Campanula rotundifolia var. pygmaea Wulff, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia var. pygmaea Hruby, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia var. reflexa Syr.; Campanula rotundifolia var. saxatilis Hruby; Campanula rotundifolia var. scabriuscula Mert. & W.D.J. Koch; Campanula rotundifolia var. scopulicola Lamotte; Campanula rotundifolia var. soldanelliflora (Voss) L.H. Bailey; Campanula rotundifolia var. solstitialis (A. Kern.) Beck; Campanula rotundifolia var. stenophylla Rouy, nom. illeg.; Campanula rotundifolia var. stricta Schumach.; Campanula rotundifolia var. tenuifolia (Hoffm.) Opiz; Campanula rotundifolia var. velutina DC.; Campanula rotundifolia var. verlotii Rouy; Campanula rotundifolia var. vulgaris Neilr.; Campanula sacajaweana M. Peck; Campanula scheuchzeri var. heterodoxa (Vest ex Schult.) A. Gray; Campanula scheuchzeri var. inconcessa (Schott, Nyman & Kotschy) Nyman; Campanula solstitialis A. Kern.; Campanula tenuifolia Hoffm.; Campanula tenuifolia Mart.; Campanula tracheliifolia Losa ex Sennen; Campanula urbionensis Rivas Mart. & G. Navarro; Campanula variifolia Salisb., nom. superfl.; Campanula wiedmannii Podlech; Depierrea campanuloides Schltdl.; Rapunculus esculentus Steud., nom. inval.)

North America, Europe. Perennial herb, taprooted, erect, round basal leaves, deep purplish blue nodding flowers in racemes, sepals spreading, deer resistant

See Species Plantarum 1: 164–165. 1753, Prodr. (DC.) 7(2): 484. 1839 and Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 157–158, 165, 169–171, 174–175. 1930, Magyar Bot. Lapok 33: 128, 130, 241. 1934, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 12: 365–366. 1966, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 8: 213. 1970, Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 17: 231, 233. 1971, Fl. Great Britain & Ireland 4: 530. 2006

(Antifungal, anti-depressant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antiviral, sedative, disinfectant. Root chewed for heart and lung problems, an infusion used as ear drops. Magic, ceremonial, associated with fairies and witches, the juice was an element in some of the witches ‘flying ointments’, rubbed on the body of those bothered by witches.)

in English: aul man’s bells, bellflower, blaewort, blaver, blue blavers, bluebell, bluebell of Scotland, cuckoo’s hood, cuckoo’s thimbles, dead man’s bells, dead men’s bells, devil’s bells, fairies’ thimbles, harebell, lady’s thimble, milk-ort, thimbles, old man’s bells, Scotch bellflower, Scottish blue-bell, witch bells, witch’s thimbles

Campanula uniflora L. (Campanula uniflora Georgi; Campanula uniflora Gorter; Campanula uniflora Honck.; Campanula uniflora Schult.; Campanula uniflora Vill.)

Northern hemisphere, North America. Perennial herb, taprooted, erect or decumbent, small blue solitary flowers slightly nodding at anthesis, narrow sepals and five fused bell-shaped campanulate petals

See Species Plantarum 1: 163. 1753, Prosp. Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 22. 1779 and Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 2(1/2, Anniversary Proceedings): 59–108. 1915

(Ceremonial, ritual.)

in English: alpine bluebell, arctic bellflower

Campanumoea Blume Campanulaceae

Resembling a campana ‘a bell’, Greek homoios, homios ‘resembling, similar’, see Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 13: 726. 1826 [24 Jan 1826], Notul. iv. 277. 1854.

Campanumoea javanica Blume subsp. javanica (Campanula javanica (Blume) D. Dietr.; Campanumoea cordata Maxim.; Campanumoea cordata Miq.; Campanumoea javanica Blume; Campanumoea labordei H. Lév.; Codonopsis cordata Hassk.; Codonopsis cordifolia Kom.; Codonopsis javanica (Blume) Hook.f. & Thomson; Codonopsis javanica Hook.f. & Thomson; Codonopsis javanica (Blume) Hook.f.)

Himalaya, Japan. Perennial climber, herbaceous vine, flowers light yellowish-green

See Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants 2: 103. 1824, Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië (13): 727. 1826, Syn. Pl. 1: 759. 1839, Ill. Himal. Pl.: t. 16 B. 1855, Natuurwetenschappilijk Tijdschrift 10: 9. 1856, Flora van Nederlandsch Indië 2: 566. 1857, Bulletin de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 12: 68. 1868 and Bulletin de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts de la Sarthe 39: 323. 1904

(Roots diuretic, expectorant, lactogenic, stomachic, used for anemia, jaundice, dyspepsia, diarrhea, nephritis, hemorrhoids, edema and diseases of the lymphatic system.)

Campnosperma Thwaites Anacardiaceae

Greek kamptos ‘curved’, kampto ‘to bend, to turn’, and sperma ‘seed’, see Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 6: 65. 1854 and Adansonia, Sér. 3 20(2): 285– 293. 1998 [A revision of Campnosperma (Anacardiaceae) in Madagascar.], Economic Botany 57(3): 354–364. 2003.

Campnosperma auriculatum (Bl.) Hook. f. (Buchanania auriculata Bl.; Buchanania oxyrhachis Miq.; Campnosperma auriculata Hook.f.; Campnosperma auriculatum var. wallichii (King) Ridl.; Campnosperma griffithii (non Marchand) Hook.f.; Campnosperma oxyrhachis Engl.; Campnosperma wallichii King)

India, Indonesia. Trees, flat-topped crown, inner bark reddish, spiral arrangements of the leaves, unisexual flowers, reddish-purple drupe

See Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 2: 41. 1876

(Wood sap may cause dermatitis, sap from the wood can be harmful to people. Antiplasmodial, leishmanicidal and antitrypanosomal.)

in English: terentang-oil

in Borneo: hamtangen, manlanga, tapau

in Indonesia: madang rimuëng

in Malaysia: serantang, serentang, telatang, telatang pelanuk, terentang, terentang daun besar

Campnosperma brevipetiolatum Volkens (Campnosperma brevipetiolata Volk.)

Indonesia, Pacific.

See Botanische Jahrbucher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 31: 466. 1902, J. Arnold Arbor. 22: 535. 1941, Flora Malesiana, Series 1, 530, Fig. 59. 1978

(Oil, mixed with soot, an application to the body in order to give protection from lice and fleas. Antiplasmodial, leishmanicidal and antitrypanosomal.)

in English: tigaso-oil

Campnosperma coriaceum (Jack) Hallier f. ex Steenis (Buchanania macrophylla Bl.; Buchanania racemiflora Miq.; Campnosperma griffithii Marchand; Campnosperma macrophylla (Blume) Hook f.; Coelopyrum coriaceum Jack)

See Malayan Miscellanies 2(7): 65. 1822 and Fl. Males. Bull. 1(3): 74. 1948

(The wood sap of this tree may cause dermatitis. Antiplasmodial, leishmanicidal and antitrypanosomal.)

in Borneo: terentang paya, terenteng

in Malaysia: ambacang rawang, cedrol, hotong otan, huasum, kaauwe, kelinting, melumut, meranti daun lebar, nangprong, oreywood, paul lebu, sangtrang, serentang, terentang, terentang malung, terentang simpoh, tumus, terentang kelintang

Campnosperma macrophylla Hook. f. (Campnosperma macrophylla (Blume) Hook f.)

SE Asia.

See Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 2: 41. 1876

(The wood sap of this tree may cause dermatitis.)

in Malaysia: serantang, serentang, telatang, telatang, terentang

Campnosperma minus Corner

SE Asia, Malaysia.

See Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 10: 255. 1939

(The wood sap of this tree may cause dermatitis.)

Common name: terentang jantang

Campnosperma panamense Standl. (Campnosperma panamensis Standl.)

South America. Tree, erect, straight, watery latex, stilt roots, greenish cream flowers

See Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 2(2): 111–112. 1920, Flora of Ecuador 30: 9–50. 1987, Ceiba 23(2): 85–92. 1979, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 78(2–3): 193–200. 2001, Fitoterapia 75(7–8): 764–767. 2004, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 4, 57(7): 247–355. 2006

(The plant showed good or very good antiprotozoal activity in vitro, antimalarial and leishmanicidal.)

in English: orey wood

in South America: auree, aures, hoary, laulu, miskitia, nusmas, orey, ori, ori-gria, orin, sajo, vaquerá

Campomanesia Ruíz & Pav. Myrtaceae

For the Spanish diplomatist Pedro Rodríguez Campománes y Sorrida, 1723–1803, jurist, studied political economy, member of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, Director of the Royal Academy of History at Madrid, among his works are Dissertaciones historicas del orden y cavalleria de los Templarios. Madrid 1747, Itinerario de las Carreras de Posta de dentro y fuera del Reyno. Madrid 1761, Tratado de la Regalia de Amortizacion. Marid 1765 and Tratado de la Regalia de España. ... Lo publica del manuscrito original ... Don V. Salvà. Paris 1830; see Florae Peruvianae, et Chilensis Prodromus 72. 1794, Systema Vegetabilium Florae Peruvianae et Chilensis 128. 1798, G.C. Wittstein, Etymologisch-botanisches Handwörterbuch. 150. 1852, Linnaea 27(2–3): 348–349. 1854[1856], Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(7): 73. 1893, Enumeratio Myrtacearum Brasiliensium 8. 1893 and Fl. Suriname 3: 56–158. 1951, Fl. Guayane Française 3: 138–167. 1953, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(4/2): 569–818. 1958, Loefgrenia 26: 18, 22, 26, 28, 35. 1967, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 18(2): 55–286. 1969, Fl. Anal. Fitogeográfica Estado São Paulo 3: 548–610. 1970, Fl. Il. Catarin. 1(MIRT): 573–730. 1977, Brittonia 36(3): 241–243. 1984, Fl. Neotrop. 45: 1–178. 1986, Loefgrenia 99: 4–5. 1990, Fitoterapia 66: 373–374. 1995.

Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg (Campomanesia adamantium Blume; Campomanesia adamantium var. nana (D. Legrand) Mattos; Campomanesia caerulea O. Berg; Campomanesia caerulescens O. Berg; Campomanesia cambessedeana O. Berg; Campomanesia cambessedeana var. nana D. Legrand; Campomanesia cambessedeana var. pyriformis Mattos; Campomanesia campestris (Cambess.) D. Legrand, nom. illeg.; Campomanesia desertorum O. Berg; Campomanesia glabra O. Berg, nom. illeg.; Campomanesia glareophila Barb. Rodr. ex Chodat & Hassl., nom. nud.; Campomanesia lancifolia Barb. Rodr. ex Chodat & Hassl., nom. nud.; Campomanesia microcarpa O. Berg; Campomanesia obscura O. Berg; Campomanesia paraguayensis Barb. Rodr. ex Chodat & Hassl., nom. nud.; Campomanesia resinosa Barb. Rodr.; Campomanesia vaccinioides O. Berg; Psidium adamantium Cambess.; Psidium campestre Cambess.)

Brazil. Tree, edible fruit, essential oil

See Flora Brasiliae Meridionalis (quarto ed.) 2: 289, 292. 1832, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 319. 1840, Linnaea 27(4): 434. 1854[1856], Flora Brasiliensis 14(1): 440, 450–451, 455, 457. 1857, Flora Brasiliensis 14(1): 612. 1859 and Myrtaceae du Paraguay 20, t. 26. 1903, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 7: 800. 1907, Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 15(3): 273. 1958, Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 10: 8, fig. 2E. 1962, Loefgrenia 32: 1. 1969, Loefgrenia 116: 3. 2001

(Astringent, antioxidant, depurative, antirheumatic, anti-tuberculosis, reducer of blood cholesterol, leaves infusion to treat diarrhea and bladder diseases. Roots to treat diabetes.)

in South America: guabiroba, guabiroba-amarela, guabirobaverde, guabiroba-vermelha, guavira

Campomanesia aromatica (Aubl.) Griseb. (Abbevillea martiana O. Berg, nom. illeg. superfl.; Burchardia aromatica (Aubl.) Raf.; Campomanesia beaurepairiana Kiaersk.; Campomanesia ciliata O. Berg; Campomanesia coaetanea O. Berg; Campomanesia glazioviana Kiaersk.; Campomanesia sparsiflora (DC.) J.F. Macbr.; Campomanesia synchrona O. Berg; Campomanesia tenuifolia (DC.) O. Berg; Campomanesia tenuifolia (Mart. ex DC.) O. Berg; Eugenia desvauxiana O. Berg; Eugenia sparsiflora DC.; Myrtus fascicularis DC.; Myrtus psidioides Desv.; Myrtus psidioides Desv. ex Ham.; Psidium aromaticum Aubl.; Psidium tenuifolium Mart. ex DC.; Psidium tenuifolium DC.)

South America, Trinidad. Shrub, edible fruit

See Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 485. 1775, Prodromus Plantarum Indiae Occidentalis 44. 1825, Sylva Tellur. 106. 1828, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 3: 236, 240, 263, 268. 1828, Linnaea 27: 198, 432. 1856, Flora Brasiliensis 14(1): 435, 444, 453. 1857, Flora Brasiliensis 14(1): 610. 1859, Flora of the British West Indian Islands 242. 1860, Enum. Myrt. Bras.: 15–16. 1893, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 91. 1898 and Candollea 5: 394. 1934

(Leaves for vaginal steam bath.)

in English: guava strawberry, guavaberry

in South America: andoya, guayabita arrayana, guayabita de arrayan

Campomanesia lineatifolia Ruiz & Pav. (Campomanesia cornifolia Kunth; Campomanesia rivularis (Mart. ex DC.) Nied.; Campomanesia rivularis (DC.) Nied.; Psidium lineatifolium (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; Psidium rivulare Mart. ex DC.; Psidium rivulare DC.)

South America. Small tree or shrub, aromatic, yellow skinned edible fruit

See Systema Vegetabilium Florae Peruvianae et Chilensis 128. 1798, Synopsis Plantarum 2: 27. 1806, Nov. Gen. Sp. 6: 150. 1823, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 3: 233. 1828, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(7): 73. 1893 and Phytochemistry 66(14): 1736–1740. 2005

(Antimicrobial.)

in South America: arani ma’nya, chamba, champa, gabiroba, guabiraba, guabiroba, guayaba de leche, masika ma’nya, michinche, palillo, palillo caspi

Campomanesia phaea (O. Berg) Landrum (Abbevillea phaea O. Berg; Campomanesia phaea (O. Berg) Mattos; Campomanesia phaea var. lauroana (Mattos) Mattos; Paivaea langsdorffii O. Berg; Paivaea langsdorffii var. lauroana Mattos; Paivaea phaea (O. Berg) Mattos; Paivaea phaea var. lauroana (Mattos) Mattos)

Brazil. Small tree, white flowers, edible fruit

See Fl. Bras. (Martius) 14(1): 435. 1857, Fl. Bras. 14(1): 614. 1859 and Brittonia 36(3): 241. 1984, Loefgrenia 90: 4. 1989, Loefgrenia 94: 8. 1989, Loefgrenia 99: 6. 1990, Loefgrenia 110: 1. 1997

(Bark astringent, antioxidant.)

in Brazil: cambuci

Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg (Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart.) O. Berg; Eugenia xanthocarpa Mart.)

Brazil. Tree, green-yellow skinned fruit, essential oil

See Species Plantarum 1: 470–471. 1753, Flora Peruvianae, et Chilensis Prodromus 72. 1794, Syst. Nat. Med. Veg. Bras. 31, 62. 1843, Flora Brasiliensis 14(1): 451. 1857 and Fl. Neotrop. 45: 66–70. 1986, Phytotherapy Research 17(3): 269–273. 2003, J. Ethnopharmacol. 93(2–3): 385–389. 2004, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 94(1): 55–57. 2004

(Astringent, antidiarrheal, mutagenic, for ulcer and hypercholesterolemia treatment. Leaves infusion taken for parasitosis, stomachache and diarrhea; an infusion of Campomanesia xanthocarpa leaves and the herb Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. (Lythraceae) (sete-sangrias) used for weight control, to treat obesity, high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.)

in South America: gabiroba, gabirobeira, guabirá, guabiroba, guabiroba do campo, guabiroba-do-mato, guabirobeira (= yb-mbe-yrob = árvores de casca amarga = trees with bitter bark; see Luíz Caldas Tibiriçá, Dicionário Tupi-Português. Traço Editora, Liberdade 1984), guabirobeira do mato, guariba, guariroba, guavira, guavira pyta, guaviroveira, guayabito, guayabo de leche, guayubirá

Campsiandra Benth. Fabaceae (Caesalpiniaceae, Caesalpinieae, Leguminosae)

From the Greek kampsis ‘bending, a bend’ and aner, andros ‘male, anther, stamen, man’, see Journal of Botany, being a second series of the Botanical Miscellany (Hooker) 2(10): 93–94. 1840, Fl. Brasiliensis (Martius) 15(2): 1–254, t. 1–66. 1870 and Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(3/1): 1–506. 1943, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 8(2): 103– 119. 1953, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 10(4): 65–87. 1961, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 15(1): 112–128. 1966, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584. 2007.

Campsiandra angustifolia Spruce ex Benth. (Campsiandra angustifolia Benth.)

Tropical America. Perennial non-climbing tree, small white pinkish fragrant flowers with red stamens, large bean pod

See Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) 15(2): 55. 1870

(Febrifuge, vulnerary, antirheumatic, antiarthritic, anti-ulcer, astringent, for malarial fever, arthritis and rheumatism, sores and ulcers, wounds, diarrhea.)

in English: authentic huacapurana, chigo-flour

in South America: acapu de igapo, acapu do igapo, acapurana, amanagwe, apikara, caacapoc, chigo, comanda assu, cumandá, gapo, huacapu-rana, huacapurana, pampa-huacapu-rana, pampa huacapurana, pimakaru’ywa

Campsiandra comosa Benth. var. laurifolia (Benth.) R.S. Cowan (Campsiandra comosa Benth.; Campsiandra implexicaulis Stergios; Campsiandra laurifolia Benth.; Campsiandra rosea Poepp.; Campsiandra rosea Poepp. & Endl.)

South America, Brazil. Perennial non-climbing tree, small tree or shrub, white corolla

See Journal of Botany, being a second series of the Botanical Miscellany 2(10): 94. 1840, Nova Genera ac Species Plantarum (Poeppig & Endlicher) 3: 62. 1845 and Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 8(2): 112. 1953, Novon 6(4): 437, 439–441, 448–450, f. 1A, 2. 1996

(Bark infusion antimalarial, vulnerary, tonic, astringent, antirheumatic, postpartum tonic, treating fever, sores and ulcers, wounds, dysentery, malaria, dysentery, arthrosis.)

in South America: acapu de igapo, acapurana, amanagwe, caacapoc, chiga, chigo, comanda assu, cumandá, gapo, huacapu-rana, huacapurana, pampa-huacapu-rana, pampa huacapurana

Campsiandra guayanensis Stergios

Venezuela. Perennial non-climbing tree

See Novon 6(4): 447–448. 1996, Journal of Natural Products 69(2): 240–246. 2006

(Febrifuge, vulnerary, antirheumatic, anti-ulcer, astringent, for malarial fever, arthritis and rheumatism, diarrhea.)

Campsis Lour. Bignoniaceae

Greek kampsis ‘bending, a bend’, kampe ‘bending, bend, flexure, something bend’, kampsos ‘crooked, bent’, referring to the stamens; see J. de Loureiro, Flora cochinchinensis. 358, 377. 1790.

Campsis grandiflora (Thunberg) Schumann (Bignonia chinensis Lamarck; Bignonia grandiflora Thunberg; Campsis adrepens Loureiro; Campsis chinensis (Lam.) Voss; Tecoma chinensis (Lam.) K. Koch; Tecoma grandiflora Loisel.; Tecoma grandiflora (Thunb.) Loisel.)

China, Japan. Woody vine, creeping, scandent, deciduous, few aerial roots, large orange-red trumpet shaped flowers grouped in terminal clusters, flattened pods, winged seeds

See Flora Japonica, ... 253. 1784, Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 358, 377–378. 1790, Dendrologie 2(1): 307. 1872, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4(3b): 230. 1894 and Jin, Jing Ling et al. “Anti-platelet pentacyclic triterpenoids from leaves of Campsis grandiflora.” Archives of Pharmacal Research 27(4): 376–380. 2004, Arch. Pharm. Res. 28: 550–556. 2005, Planta Med. 71: 578–580. 2005, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences 3(1): 274–278. 2005, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 103(2): 223–228. 2006

(Used in Ayurveda. Pollen considered harmful to humans. Flowers antioxidative, antiinflammatory, carminative, depurative, diuretic, abortifacient, tonic and febrifuge, emmenagogue, used for women’s complaints, diabetes, acne, inflammation related to skin disorders, acute skin inflammation; flowers decoction for menstrual disorders, rheumatoid pains, traumatic injuries, difficult urination, itching. Flowers, leaves and roots used to promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis in diseases caused by blood stagnation; flowers and leaves antidiabetic; leaves with pesticidal, larvicidal and insecticidal activities.)

in English: Chinese trumpet creeper, Chinese trumpet flower, Chinese trumpet vine, Indian trumpet creeper, trumpet creeper, trumpet vine

in China: ling hsiao, ling hsiao hua, ling tiao, ling xiao, ling xiao hua, tzu wei

in India: delaun, rohitakalata

in Japan: nôzen-kazura

in Nepal: ghata puspa lata

Campsis radicans (L.) Bureau (Bignonia radicans L.; Campsis radicans (L.) Seem.; Gelseminum radicans (L.) Kuntze; Gelseminum radicans Kuntze; Tecoma radicans (L.) Juss.)

North America. Woody vine, tubular orange-yellow to red flowers in clusters, elongated slender capsule with many winged seeds

See Species Plantarum 2: 624–625. 1753, Genera Plantarum 139. 1789, Monographie des Bignoniacées. 2e these 2(Atlas): 16. 1864, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 5: 372. 1867, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 479. 1891

(Leaves and flowers poisonous, low toxicity if eaten; skin irritation with redness and swelling.)

in English: cow-itch, trumpet creeper, trumpet honeysuckle, trumpet vine

Camptosema Hook. & Arn. Fabaceae (Phaseoleae)

Greek kamptos ‘curved’ and sema ‘standard, a sign, mark’, see Botanical Miscellany 3: 200. 1833 and Darwiniana 4(2– 3): 323–331. 1942, Darwiniana 16(1–2): 175–218. 1970.

Camptosema paraguariense (Chodat & Hassl.) Hassl. var. parviflorum Hassl. (Camptosema paraguariense Hassl. var. parviflorum Hassl.)

South America. Shrub

See Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 4(9): 900. 1904, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 16: 228. 1919, Economic Botany 31(3): 302–306. 1977

(A contraceptive, the decoction of leaves, branches and roots.)

Camptotheca Decne. Cornaceae (Nyssaceae)

Greek kamptos ‘curved, bent’ and theke ‘a case’, see Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 20: 157. 1873.

Camptotheca acuminata Decne. (Camptotheca acuminata var. rotundifolia B.M. Yang & L.D. Duan; Camptotheca acuminata var. tenuifolia W.P. Fang & Soong; Camptotheca yunnanensis Dode)

China.

See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 55: 651, f. c. 1908, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 13(2): 86, pl. 14, f. 3. 1975, Nat. Sci. J. Hunan Norm. Univ. 11(1): 63–63. 1988, Ethnobotany 11: 85–91. 1999, Phytochemistry 65(20): 2735– 2749, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 8(4): 196–202. 2007, BMC Plant Biology 10: 69. 2010

(A major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin, two semi-synthetic derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, are currently prescribed as anticancer drugs.)

in English: China’s tree of joy

Campylandra Baker Asparagaceae (Convallariaceae, Liliaceae)

From the Greek kampylos ‘curved’ and aner, andros ‘male, anther’, see Flora Telluriana 4: 15. 1836[1838], J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14: 582, t. 20. 1875.

Campylandra aurantiaca Baker (Rohdea aurantiaca (Baker) N. Tanaka; Rohdea aurantiaca (Baker) Yamashita & M.N. Tamura; Tilcusta nepalensis Raf.; Tupistra aurantiaca (Baker) Wall. ex Hook.f.)

India, Himalaya. Erect herb

See Fl. Tellur. 4: 15. 1838, Journ. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14: 582. 1875, Fl. Brit. India 6: 325. 1892 and Novon 13(3): 331. 2003, Journal of Plant Research. Botanical Society of Japan. Tokyo 117(5): 369. 2004

(Flowers cooked as vegetable and eaten as a postpartum remedy and blood purifier, to cure general body pain, diabetes. Roots febrifuge.)

in India: nakima, thullo nakima

Campylospermum Tieghem Ochnaceae

Greek kampylos ‘curved’ and sperma ‘seed’, see Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 397, pl. 152. 1775, Genera Plantarum 291. 1789, Annales du muséum national d’histoire naturelle 17: 415. 1811 and J. Bot. (Morot) 16: 35, 202. 1902, Taxon 16: 421. 1967, Candollea 23: 177–228. 1968.

Campylospermum flavum Farron (Campylospermum flavum (Schumach.) Farron; Gomphia flava Schumach.; Gomphia flava Schumach. & Thonn.; Monelasmum flavum Tiegh.; Ouratea flava Hutch. & Dalziel ex Stapf; Ouratea flava (Schumach. & Thonn.) Hutch. & Dalziel ex Stapf; Ouratea laurentii De Wild.)

Nigeria, Gabon. Treelet or shrub, coriaceous leaves, yellow flowers

See Beskrivelse af Guineeiske planter 216–217. 1827, Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Naturvidensk. Math. Afh. 3: 236– 237. 1828 and Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 7, Suppl. Bot.: B57. 1920, Botanical Magazine 149: t. 9023. 1924, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État Bruxelles 35: 397. 1965

(Leaves laxative, stomachic. Leaves and roots for snakebite.)

in Nigeria: akpagha

Campylospermum squamosum (A. DC.) Farron (Gomphia squamosa A. DC.; Ochna squamosa Kuntze; Ouratea squamosa Engl.; Ouratea squamosa (A. DC.) Engl.)

Gambia, Nigeria. Straggling shrub or small tree, bright yellow flowers solitary or in bunches, fruit composed of 5 drupelets

See Annales du muséum national d’histoire naturelle 17: 418. 1811, Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) 12(2): 318. 1876, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 106. 1891 and Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État Bruxelles 35: 402. 1965

(Bark or pounded leaves used in poultices to relieve bodypain.)

Campylotropis Bunge Fabaceae (Desmodieae, Leguminosae)

From the Greek kampylos ‘curved, bent’ and tropis, tropidos ‘a keel, the keel of a vessel’, referring to the shape of the flowers, to the curved keel of the flowers, see Pl. Monghol.-Chin. 6. 1835 and Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78(2): 338–358. 1991.

Campylotropis bonatiana (Pampanini) Schindler (Campylotropis bonatiana Schindler; Campylotropis franchetiana Lingelsheim & Borza; Campylotropis trigonoclada (Franchet) Schindler var. bonatiana (Pampanini) Iokawa & H. Ohashi; Lespedeza bonatiana Pampanini)

China.

See Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 70–71, pl. 39–40. 1803 and Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, new series 17(1): 19–21, f. 6. 1910, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11(296– 300): 429. 1912, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 13(370–372): 387. 1914, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 30(4): 346–348. 1992

(Whole plant used for treating strokes, influenza, nephritis and skin diseases. Ointment.)

in China: ma niao teng

Campylotropis delavayi (Franchet) Schindler (Campylotropis delavayi Schindler; Lespedeza atrokermesina Forrest; Lespedeza atrokermesina W.W. Sm.; Lespedeza delavayi Franch.)

China. Shrub, purple corolla

See Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 70–71, pl. 39–40. 1803, Pl. Monghol.-Chin. 6. 1835, Rev. Hort. 225, f. 70. 1890, Plantae Delavayanae 165. 1890 and Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11(296–300): 426. 1912, Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 10(46): 44. 1917

(Root febrifuge.)

in China: xi nan hang zi shao

Campylotropis hirtella (Franch.) Schindl. (Campylotropis hirtella Schindler; Lespedeza hirtella Franch.; Lespedeza mairei Pamp.)

China.

See Plantae Delavayanae 167. 1890 and Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, new series 17(1): 22–23, f. 7. 1910, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11(296–300): 428. 1912, J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(16): 6928–6935. 2008, Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin (The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan) 56(9): 1338–1341. 2008, Natural Product Research 22(11): 990–995. 2008, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 19(13): 3389–3391. 2009

(Dried roots used for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Immunosuppressive activity.)

Campylotropis pinetorum (Kurz) Schindl. subsp. velutinum (Dunn) H. Ohashi (Campylotropis pinetorum (Kurz) Schindl. subsp. velutina (Dunn) H. Ohashi; Campylotropis velutina (Dunn) Schindler; Campylotropis velutina Schindler; Lespedeza pinetorum auct. non Kurz; Lespedeza velutina Dunn; Millettia cavaleriei H. Lév.)

China. Perennial non-climbing shrub

See Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 42(2): 230. 1873 and Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 27(4): pl. 2700. 1901, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 11(296–300): 429. 1912, Flore du KouyTchéou 238. 1914, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 20(561–576): 286. 1924, J. Jap. Bot. 49(2): 43–44. 1974, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 30(4): 346–348. 1992

(Root astringent and pain reliever.)

in China: mian nan hang zi shao, rong mao hang zi shao

Campylotropis polyantha (Franchet) Schindler (Campylotropis muehleana (Schindler) Schindler; Campylotropis neglecta Schindl.; Campylotropis polyantha f. macrophylla P.Y. Fu; Campylotropis polyantha f. souliei (Schindler) P.Y. Fu; Campylotropis reticulata S.S. Chien; Campylotropis reticulata Ricker, nom. illeg.; Campylotropis sargentiana Schindler; Campylotropis smithii Ricker; Campylotropis souliei Schindler; Campylotropis tomentosipetiolata P.Y. Fu; Campylotropis wangii Ricker; Lespedeza blinii H. Lév.; Lespedeza eriocarpa subvar. polyantha (Franchet) Pampanini; Lespedeza eriocarpa var. chinensis Pampanini; Lespedeza eriocarpa var. polyantha Franchet; Lespedeza muehleana Schindler; Lespedeza polyantha (Franchet) Schindler; Lespedeza polyantha (Franch.) H. Lév.; Lespedeza sargentiana (Schindler) H. Lév.)

China. Shrub, pink flowers, fodder for cattle

See Plantae Delavayanae 168. 1890 [Plantae Delavayanae sive Enumeratio plantarum quas in provincia chinensi Yunnan, collegit J.-M. Delavay ...] and Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, new series 17(1): 21–22. 1910, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 9(227–229): 517– 518, 520–521. 1911, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 11(291–295): 339–341. 1912, Bulletin de l’Académie Internationale de Géographie, Botanique 25: 48. 1915, Catalogue des Plantes de Yun-Nan 158. 1916, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54(1): 66. 1917, Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China: Botanical Series 8: 129. 1932, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 36(2): 40. 1946, Index Florae Yunnnanensis 1: 576. 1984, Bulletin of Botanical Research 7(4): 46–50, f. 6. 1987, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 30(4): 346–348. 1992, Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 14(4): 203–207. 1997, Journal of Japanese Botany 77: 319. 2002

(Root used for reducing fever, promoting diuresis, expelling phlegm and as a pain reliever.)

in China: sa gen ti hang zi shao, xiao que hua

in Tibet: ji jo, jiong nie, jion nie peng

Campylotropis speciosa (Schindl.) Schindl. (Campylotropis eriocarpa Schindler; Campylotropis eriocarpa (DC.) Schindler; Campylotropis macrostyla (D. Don) Miq. var. eriocarpa (Maxim.) H. Ohashi; Campylotropis speciosa Schindl.; Campylotropis speciosa (Royle ex Schindl.) Schindl.; Lespedeza eriocarpa auct. non DC.; Lespedeza speciosa Royle ex Maxim.; Lespedeza speciosa Schindl.; Lespedeza speciosa Royle ex Schindl.)

Nepal, Bhutan. Perennial non-climbing shrub, many-branched, pink or purple flowers in axillary or terminal spikes, flowers boiled and pickled

See Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 4: 102. 1825, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 242. 1825, Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(2): 230. 1855, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 519. 1911, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 11: 344, 347, 425. 1912, J. Jap. Bot. 77(6): 325. 2002

(Bark juice antiinflammatory, antiseptic, applied to treat cuts and wounds.)

in China: mei li hang zi shao

in Nepal: sakhino, sakino

Campylotropis trigonoclada (Franchet) Schindler (Campylotropis alata Schindler; Campylotropis balfouriana (Schindler) Schindler; Campylotropis balfouriana (Diels ex Schindler) Schindler; Lespedeza angulicaulis Harms ex Schindler; Lespedeza angulicaulis Schindler; Lespedeza balfouriana Diels ex Schindler; Lespedeza balfouriana Schindler; Lespedeza trigonoclada Franchet; Lespedeza trigonoclada fo. intermedia Pamp.; Lespedeza trigonoclada var. angustifolia Pamp.)

China. Shrub, yellowish flowers

See Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 70–71, pl. 39–40. 1803, Pl. Monghol.-Chin. 6. 1835, Plantae Delavayanae 167, pl. 42. 1890 and Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, new series 17(1): 24. 1910, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 9(227–229): 522–523. 1911, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 11(296–300): 430–431. 1912, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 30(4): 346–348. 1992

(Whole plant used for reducing fever and relieving coughs. Root for treating mastitis and stroke.)

in China: san leng zhi hang zhi shao

Cananga (DC.) Hook.f. & Thomson Annonaceae

From the Malayan vernacular name, kenanga; see Hist. Pl. Guiane 1: 607, t. 244. 1775, Syst. Nat. (Candolle) 1: 485. 1817, Flora Indica: being a systematic account of the plants . . 129–130. 1855, Histoire des Plantes 1: 213. 1868 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(4): 270–294. 1946, Ceiba 44(2): 105–268. 2003 [2005].

Cananga latifolia (Hook.f. & Thomson) Finet & Gagnepain (Cananga latifolia Finet & Gagnep.; Canangium latifolium (Hook.f. & Thomson) Ridley; Unona brandisana Pierre; Unona latifolia Hook.f. & Thomson)

Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia. Tree, grey shaggy bark, alternate soft velvety aromatic leaves, inflorescence a raceme with fragrant flowers, sepals 3, lanceolate greenish petals, fruit of many separate hairy carpels, flowers can be used like those of ylang-ylang

See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 53, Mém. 4(2): 84. 1906, Cytologia 55: 187–196. 1990, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 107(1): 12–18. 2006

(Wood infusion febrifuge, antiplasmodial; bark a remedy for dizziness.)

in Cambodia: chker sreng

in China: da ye yi lan

in Laos: may ka seng

in Malaysia: kenanga, tho shui tree

in Thailand: khae saeng, nao, raap, sakae saeng

in Vietnam: c[aa]y tai nghe, th[oo]m shui, s[uw] t[aa]y

Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Cananga odorata Hook.f. & Thomson; Cananga scortechinii King; Canangium fruticosum Craib; Canangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill. ex King; Canangium odoratum (Lam.) Baillon; Unona odorata (Lam.) Dun.; Unona odorata (Lam.) Baill.; Uvaria axillaris Roxb.; Uvaria odorata Lam.)

Australia, Pacific islands, SE Asia. Tree, evergreen, straggling, pendulous, pale yellow-green sweetly fragrant flowers on short leafless axillary shoots, flowers hang in loose bunches, fruits dark green, brown seeds embedded in yellow oily pulp

See Species Plantarum 536. 1753, Supplementum Plantarum 44, 270. 1782, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1(2): 595. 1785, Genera Plantarum 283. 1789, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 61(2): 41–42. 1892 and Flore de Madagascar et des Comores 78: 1–103. 1958, Taxon 31: 576–579. 1982, Plant Systematics and Evolution 144: 165–177. 1984, Plant Systematics and Evolution 159: 49–79. 1988, Parasitol. Res. 84(9): 746–752. 1998, J. Nat. Prod. 64(5): 616–619. 2001 [Cytotoxic constituents of the fruits of Cananga odorata.], Planta Med. 70(7): 632–636. 2004, Fitoterapia 76(7–8): 758–761. 2005, Phytother. Res. 20(9): 758–763. 2006, Cutis. 77(3): 149–50. 2006

(Used in Sidha. Ylang-ylang oil has been accepted as an allergen. Bark antibacterial, amebicidal, antifungal and cytotoxic; bark applied against scurf; bark infusion for stomach problems. Dried flowers against malaria, fresh flowers paste for treating asthma. Leaves poultice rubbed on the skin against itch. Seed used externally to cure intermittent fever.)

in English: cananga, fragrant cananga, ilang-ilang, macassar oil plant, perfume tree, ylang-ylang, ylang-ylang tree

in Tonga: mohokoi

in Bali: bungan sandat

in Burma (Myanmar): kadapgnam, kadatngan, sagasein

in Cambodia: chhkè srèng

in China: yi lan

in India: apoorva champaka, apoorvachampakamu, apurbachampa, apurvacampaka, apurvacampakamu, cirucanpakam, ceti campanki, canpakam, catimanoca, cumana, cuvetaka, cuvetika, iracaputtiri, irattimanikkakkoti, irattimanikkam, irunti, kamalada mara, kamanda mara, kananga hoo, karumukai, katthe sampige, malani, malati, malatimaram, maramanorancitam, nettiramali, nettiramalimaram, nettiranirumali, pamini, pavalavaruti, picci, piriyavata, pitti

in Indonesia: bunga selanga, kananga, kenanga, sepalen

in Laos: ka dan nga thay

in Malaysia: chenanga, hutan, kananga, kenanga, kenanga utan, neriah, nérian, nyai

in Philippines: alangilang, ilang-ilang, ylang-ylang

in Thailand: fereng, kradang-nga-thai, kradang-ngaa-thai, kradangnga-songkhla, kradangnga-thai, sabannga-ton

in Vietnam: ho[af]ng lan, ng[oj]c lan t[aa]y, ylang ylang

Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson var. fruticosum (Craib) Sinclair (Canangium fruticosum Craib; Cananga odorata var. fruticosa J. Sinclair; Canangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill. ex King var. fruticosum (Craib) Corner)

SE Asia, Thailand. Dwarf variety, bush, curly petals

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1(2): 595. 1785, Genera Plantarum 283. 1789, Flora Indica: being a systematic account of the plants . . 129–130. 1855, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part 2. Natural history 61(2): 41. 1893 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1922(5): 166–167. 1922, Gardens’ Bulletin, Straits Settlements, ser. 3, 10: 15. 1939, Sarawak Museum Journal 5(3): 599. 1951

(Antibacterial, antifungal.)

in English: shrubby cananga

in Thailand: kradang nga songkhla

Canarina L. Campanulaceae

From the Canary Islands, see Mantissa Plantarum Altera 2: 148, 225, 588. 1771 and Ind. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 1753–74 (Regn. Veg.li.) 36. 1967.

Canarina eminii Asch. & Schweinf. (Canarina elegantissima T.C.E. Fr.; Canarina eminii Asch. ex Schweinf.; Canarina eminii Asch. & Schweinf. var. elgonensis T.C.E. Fries)

Tropical Africa. Epiphytic or terrestrial, erect or scandent, climber, pendent, herbaceous, weak stem, thick root, latex when cut, funnel-shaped corolla pink yellow-orange with red-purple lines, stems and petioles eaten

See Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1892: 173. 1892 and Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 392, 395. 1923, International Journal of Primatology 26(6): 1345–1373. 2005

(For psychosis, madness. Magic, ritual.)

in Rwanda: umuhurura

Canarium L. Burseraceae

From the Moluccan vernacular name kanari or kenari; see C. Linnaeus (1707–1778), Amoenitates academicae. 4: 121, 143, adnot. Holmiae [Stockholm] et Lipsiae [Leipzig] 1749[-1769] and Herman Johannes Lam (1892–1977), “The Burseraceae of the Malay Archipelago and Peninsula, with annotations concerning extra-Malayan species especially of Dacryodes, Santiria and Canarium.” Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. III. 12(3–4): 281–561, pl. 1–14. 1932.

Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch. (Canarium album Raeusch.; Pimela alba Lour.)

SE Asia, China, Vietnam. Tree, white aromatic resinous sticky sap, yellowish-green flowers in axillary raceme, raw fruit edible, douc langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus L.) eat the leaves and fruits

See Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 407–408. 1790, Nomenclator Botanicus, ed. 3, 287. 1797, Prodromus 2: 80. 1825, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 793. 1837 and Blumea 9(2): 402–405, f. 24. 1959, Primates 19: 101–114. 1978, Australian Primatology 8: 5–6. 1993, Asian Primates 4: 4–6. 1995, Proceedings [of] 10th Asian Chemical Congress: Sessions. 2. Medical Chemistry & Natural Products. Hanoi, 2003: 45–48. 2003, Food Chemistry 102(3): 808–811. 2007, Food Chemistry 105(3): 1307–1311. 2007, European Food Research and Technology 226(5): 1191–1196. 2008, J. Zhejiang Univ. Science B. 9(5): 407–415. 2008

(Olive leaf extract powerful antiviral, detoxificant, antioxidant, sedative, antibacterial, antifungal and antiinflammatory, shown to be effective in the treatment of many conditions where antibiotics have been found to be ineffective, against HIV and tuberculosis, sore throat, cough, malaria, fish or crab poisoning, to remove heat. Raw fruit to help indigestion and combat drunkenness. Antioxidant, tannins extracted from leaves, twigs and stem bark.)

in English: Chinese olive, Chinese white olive

in China: ch’ing kuo, gan lan, kan lan, kan lang

in Japan: kanran

in Vietnam: ca na, cay bui, tram trang

Canarium amboinense Hochr.

Papua New Guinea.

See Hochreutiner, Benedict Pierre Georges (1873–1959), Plantae bogorienses exsiccatae novae vel minus cocnitae [!] quae in horto botanico coluntur, auctore B.P.G. Hochreutiner ... 55. [Buitenzorg] typis Instituti botanici bogoriensis. 1904.

(Against boils.)

Canarium bengalense Roxb.

India, China. Tree, fragrant amber coloured oleoresin, imparipinnate leaves, lanceolate leaflets, inflorescences axillary, dark purple spindle-shaped aromatic drupes, persistent calyx disk-shaped, infructescences extra-axillary or axillary, ripe fruits eaten fresh

See Hort. Bengal. 49. 1814, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants ed. 1832, 3: 136. 1832, FBI 1: 534. 1875 and Blumea 9(2): 412–414. 1959, Current Science 32(4): 162–163. 1963, Pharmaceutical Biology 37(3): 225–230. 1999

(Leaves for bronchitis, leprosy, jaundice; juice of leaves with ginger juice administered in cough and respiratory diseases; smoke of the leaves inhaled as cigar in asthma; leaves infusion drunk for dysentery; leaves powder pesticide, insecticide, against fungal infection. Leaves and roots for chronic bronchitis; leaves juice or root decoction given for respiratory diseases; ashed leaves and wood mixed with honey used for coughs and asthma. Leaves and bark antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antibacterial, febrifuge, abortifacient, antiasthmatic, antiallergic, for setting broken bones, relieving pain, resolving phlegm, used externally for rheumatic swellings, inflammations. Latex in the treatment of wounds and gum infection. Antifungal. Bark resin, incense, used in worshipping.)

in English: East Indian copal, green myrobalan

in China: fang lan

in India: bero, berothing, bisjang, borsamphol, dhuna, hijungaraung, inghet-ki-ik-araung, keruta, mathek-araung, mekruk, narockpa, nerebi, tekreng, umchhiang

in Nepal: goguldhup, gokul

Canarium commune L. (Canarium commune Blanco; Canarium commune Wight & Arn.)

India, Panama. Tree, clear sticky sap, sepals and petals greenish creamy white

See Mantissa Plantarum 1: 127. 1767, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 175. 1834, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 791. 1837

(Used in Sidha. For stomach problems and coughs.)

in English: Chinese olive, elemi gum, Java almond, Java almond tree, wild almond

in India: cimaivatumai, cinappicinmaram, jaava badaami, jangli baadaam, kaggali beeja, kaggali mara, karaiccenkari, sambrani, shambrani

Canarium euphyllum Kurz

India, Andaman. Large tree, white aromatic resin, leaf with a pair of awl-like stipules, nearly sessile hairy leaflets with toothed margins

See Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xli. (1872) II. 295. 1872

(Resin burnt as mosquito repellent. Resin used for burning in ceremonies.)

in English: Indian white mahogany

in India: dhup, moye

Canarium harveyi Seem. (Canarium sapidum Hems.)

Tonga. Tree, dense canopy

See Seemann, Berthold (1825–1871), Flora Vitiensis: a description of the plants of the Viti or Fiji islands, with an account of their history, uses, and properties. 35. London: L. Reeve and co. 1865

(Resin for ulcers; fruit laxative.)

in English: canarium nut, galip nut, ngali nut, Santa Cruz ngali nut

in Tonga: ‘ai, ai, kaunicina, kaunigai, nangae, nangai

Canarium indicum L. (Canarium amboinense Hochr.; Canarium commune L.; Canarium grandistipulatum Lauterbach; Canarium mehenbethene Gaertn.; Canarium moluccanum Blume; Canarium nungi Guill.; Canarium polyphyllum Krause; Canarium shortlandicum Rech.; Canarium subtruncatum Engl.; Canarium zephyrinum Rumphius)

Indonesia, New Guinea, N. Hebrides. Tree, flowers in terminal panicles, large infructescences, fruit an ovoid purple to black drupe, kernels edible

See Amoen. Acad., Linnaeus ed. 4: 143. 1759 and Bot. Jahrb. Syst. lvi. 321. 1920, J. Arnold Arbor. 1931, xii. 236. 1931

(Resin for ulcers; fruit laxative, a preparation from the bark used for chestpain. Dried nuts eaten to induce sterility. Ritual incense.)

in English: canarium nut, galip nut, Java almond, nangai nuts, ngali nut, south-sea almond

in Indonesia: jal, kanari bagéa, kenari ambo

in Pacific: nangai, ngali

in Papua New Guinea: angal, galip, hinuei, kenari, lawele, uele

Canarium littorale Blume (Canarium acutum Engl.; Canarium bennettii Engl.; Canarium flavum Ridl.; Canarium giganteum Engl.; Canarium glaucum Bl.; Canarium pruinosum Engl.; Canarium pseudocommune Hochr.; Canarium pseudocommune var. genuinum Hochr.; Canarium pseudocommune var. subelongatum Hochr.; Canarium purpurascens Benn.; Canarium rufum Benn.; Canarium secundum Benn.; Canarium serricuspe Miq.; Canarium serrulatum Miq.; Canarium subtruncatum Baker, non Engl.; Canarium tomentosum Bl.; Canarium tomentosum var. flavum Bl.; Canarium tomentosum var. typicum Bl.)

Java. Canopy tree, dioecious, black resin, stout twigs rusty red tomentose, kidney-shaped stipules, inflorescencs paniculate and axillary, yellow-reddish-purple unisexual flowers densely ferruginous hairy, blue-black drupe with thin leathery flesh

See Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 17: 1164. [Oct 1826-Nov 1827] and Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1930, 81. 1930, Blumea 9(2): 337– 339. 1959

(For hemorrhoids.)

in Borneo: asam, bekatan, damar kahingai, jelemu, karamu barawou, kawangang, kurihang, mekos, rupai, sala, seladah

in Singapore: kedondong, kedondong bulan

Canarium luzonicum Miq. (Canarium album Blanco; Canarium carapifolium Perk.; Canarium commune F. Vill.; Canarium polyanthum Perk.; Canarium triandrum Engl.; Canarium villosum Blume; Pimela luzonica Blume)

Philippines. Tree, clustered flowers on large compound inflorescences

See Miquel, Friedrich Anton Wilhelm (1811–1871), Flora van Nederlandsch Indie. i. II. 651. Amsterdam. 1855[-59].

(Resin stimulant, rubefacient, antirheumatic, stomachic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, fungicidal and insecticidal, cough remedy, used externally for swellings of the legs, indolent ulcers, burns, sores, boils, abscesses, furuncles, arthritis and rheumatism.)

in English: elemi gum, elemi resin, Java almond, Manila elemi

in Philippine Isl.: alangi, alanki, antang, anteng, arbol a brea, bakan, bakoog, belis, brea blanca, bulau, malapili, pilauai, pilaui, pili, pisa, sahing, tugtugin

Canarium madagascariense Engl. (Canarium boivinii Engl.; Canarium greveanum Engl.; Canarium harami Bojer; Canarium liebertianum Engl.; Canarium multiflorum Engl.; Canarium obtusifolium Scott-Elliot; Canarium pulchrebracteatum Guillaumin)

Tanzania, Madagascar. Tree, extremely variable, bark containing a turpentine-odoured white clear resin, white campanulate flowers

See Monographiae Phanerogamarum [A. DC. & C. DC.] 4: 111–112. 1883 and Blumea 9(2): 275–475. 1959, International Journal of Primatology 18(2): 207–216. 1997, Acta Horticulturae 675: 133–137. 2005

(Resin insecticide and disinfectant, for the treatment of urinary complaints, dental caries, rheumatism, wounds; after heating vapor inhaled against headache, immersion in its vapor is believed to protect against infections. Fresh bark for colic, hemorrhoids and jaundice; bark decoction in treating dysentery, hypertension, cough, chest pain. Leaves boiled with other herbs and the decoction used to treat coughs; stem exudate and leaves sedative, analgesic. The seeds roasted and pounded and the resulting powder mixed with skin oil or jelly to treat wounds.)

in Madagascar: aramy, ramy

in Tanzania: mbani, mpafu

Canarium manii King

India, Andaman.

See J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 62(4): 247. 1894 [1893 publ. 6 Mar 1894] and Planta Medica 58(6): 493–495. 1992

(Hepatoprotective.)

Canarium oleosum (Lam.) Engl.

Papua New Guinea. Tree, colourless bark exudate, inflorescence axillary

See Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] iii. 4: 241. 1896 and Flora Malesiana, Series 1, 278–279, fig. 20, 21, 41. 1956

(Stimulating hair oil. Against itchiness.)

in English: grey canarium

in Indonesia: kanari minyak, kayu rasamala, rani kalang bahi

Canarium ovatum Engl.

Philippines. Tree, erect and spreading, yellowish fragrant flowers borne on cymose inflorescences at the leaf axils of young shoots

See Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum) 57(2): 107–204. 2002

(Ointment for healing wounds. Seed kernel laxative, fresh nuts purgative.)

in English: Manila elemi, Philippine nut, pili nut

Canarium paniculatum (Lam.) Benth. ex Engl. (Canarium paniculatum (Lam.) Benth.)

Mauritius. Tree, endangered

See Pharmaceutical Biology 35(4): 237–254. 1997, Pure Appl. Chem. 77(1): 41–51. 2005

(A leaf poultice and the resin applied for rheumatism, leaf poultice also applied on ulcerations. Extracts of the stem, wood and bark have shown antibacterial and antifungal activities.)

in Mauritius: bois colophane, élemi de Maurice

Canarium pilosum Bennett (Canarium grandiflorum Bennett)

Indonesia, Malaya, Sumatra, Brunei. Tree, dioecious, inner bark creamy, few-flowered inflorescences, flowers tomentose, oblong drupe with a 3-sided stone, sweet seeds edible

See Flora of British India. By J.D. Hooker assisted by Various botanists. Published under the authority of the Secretary of State for India in council. [Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir (1817– 1911)] i. 533. London, L. Reeve. 1872–1897

(Resin used for wounds. Leaves and bark for yaws.)

in Indonesia: damar kunang, damar lilin, medang serababa

in Malaysia: kedondong, kedondong kerut, kejam penggeli, keramoh batu

Canarium pimela K.D. Koenig (Canarium nigrum Roxb.; Canarium nigrum Engl.; Canarium nigrum (Lour.) Engl., nom. illeg.; Canarium pimela Zoll. ex Engl.; Canarium pimela Blume; Canarium pimela Blanco; Canarium pimela

Leenh.; Canarium pimeloides Govaerts, nom illeg. superfl.; Canarium tramdenum C.D. Dai & Yakovlev; Chirita nigrum (Lour.) Engl., nom. illeg.; Pimela nigra Lour.)

Southern China, Vietnam. Tree, resiniferous, evergreen, small flowers in axillary panicles, long-stalked fruits, edible fruit a purple-black drupe

See Flora Cochinchinensis 407. 1790, Annals of Botany 1: 361, pl. 7, f. 1. 1805, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 49. 1814, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 17: 1162. [Oct 1826-Nov 1827], Fl. Filip., ed. 2 [F.M. Blanco] 545. 1845, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(4): 240. 1896 and Blumea 9(2): 406, 408, f. 25. 1959, Botaničeskij Žurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 70(6): 784. 1985, World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1): 12. 1999, Taxon 54: 550. 2005

(Leaf nutrient and sedative, used to treat herpes, lacquer poisoning. Fruit astringent, sedative, antiinflammatory, increases salivation, appetite stimulant, antidote for eating poisonous fish, used for sore throat, toothache, diarrhea. Powdered seed to treat earache, inflammation and to dissolve lodged fishbones.)

in English: black canarium, black canary tree fruit, black Chinese canarium, canarium kernel, Chinese black olive, Chinese olive, kenari-nut tree, preserved black canarium

in China: lan ch’ih, lan chi, lan jen, kan-lan, lan ren, wu lan

in Vietnam: bùi, càna, trám-den

Canarium samoense Engler

Samoa. Tree

See Monographiae Phanerogamarum 4: 134. 1883

(For rash, sores, skin ailments.)

in Samoa: a’a matie, ma’ali, maali

Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. (Canarium occidentale A. Chev.; Canarium thollonianum Guillemin; Canarium velutinum Guillemin)

Tropical Africa, Nigeria, Senegal. Large tree, spreading, rounded umbrella crown, bark exudes a viscid sulfur-yellow oleoresin with an unpleasant taste or sweetly scented, young branchlets hairy red-brown when cut the fragrant resin smells of incense, creamy white flowers in axillary panicles, soft bluish black glabrous smooth fruits, 3-ridged stone, ripe flesh fruit and kernel eaten

See Monographiae Phanerogamarum [A. DC. & C. DC.] 4: 145. 1883 and Les végétaux utiles de l’Afrique Tropicale Française 5: 145. 1909, Research Journal of Biological Sciences 3(9): 1076–1078. 2008, Tanzania Journal of Health Research 11(1): 23–28. 2009

(Antimicrobial, used to treat bacterial infections, diarrhea and heal wounds. Fresh bark used for colic, hemorrhoids and jaundice, the exudate for venereal diseases; bark decoction in treating dysentery, hypertension, cough, chest pain. Fruits and stem bark for coughs. Fruit pulp analgesic. Leaves stimulant, to treat fever, scurvy, malaria, constipation, diarrhea, postpartum pain, rheumatism, venereal diseases; boiled with other herbs and the decoction used to treat coughs. Seeds roasted and pounded and the resulting powder mixed with skin oil or jelly to treat wounds. Magic, ritual, crystallized resin used as incense with religious significance.)

in English: African canarium, African elemi, bush candle tree, bush pear, canarium, incense tree, incense tree of the khiokhio bird, obega mahagony, úbé of the bush, white mahogany

in Cameroon: abe, abel, abell, bele, bòsao b’eyidi, eban, gberi, hehe, mbili, oleni, otu, sao eyidi, sene, toumba, wotua

in Congo: banga, bili, bolele, bubele, ki mbidi, mabélé, mbidi, mbidi nkala, mbili, mbiri, mobele, mombele, mubiri, mupatu, musuku, obe, obélé, obole

in Gabon: abe, abel, abeul, aboel, eban, mbili, moubili, muwafu, mwafu, nyege, nyegye, obe, obega, ovili, owele, ombili

in Ghana: ahie, amoukyi, bedi-wo-nua, bedi-womua, bediwu-nua, bediwonua, bediwuna, bediwunua, bedunua, bewewo-nua, kandangunuu, kantankrui, kurutwe

in Guinea: dollo, ghiémana, modjetchalè, oclanca, sava

in Ivory Coast: ahié, ahiélé, aiele, aiélé, aiéré, dirutu, elemi de Moahum, gueritu, kerendja-égué, khiala, labé, moi moua, mosu, muneu, muamohia, muemia, muénohia, nosu, okoume, okumé, senie, senyan, uréguinahi, yatu

in Liberia: beeng, beri, bi, bien-g, bo-tu, goe quehn, goekwehn, mbele, po-tu

in Nigeria: abigwa, agbabubu origbo, ako, àkó, anikantuhu, atile, atilia, atílis, boshu basang, boshu-basung, ébèn étìrìdon, eben etridon, èkpákpoghò, èshiá, ibagbo, ibwaba, ipapo, itali, kofare, njasin, njassong, njasun, njasung, oda, ofingot, oju-ngon, onumu, origbo, órigbó, órúnmùnkhìokhìo, otua, papo, papol, pwat, siselung, tamfre, ùbé agba, ùbé mkpuru aki, ùbé-óhèá, ùbé okpókó, ùbé-osà, ùbé wemba, ùbwé aba, uda, ute-siselung

in Sierra Leone: a-menẻp, a-nenẻp, dolle, dolo, mbele, mbili, sawa

in Tanzania: mbafu, mbani, mpafu, mubafu, sigonfi

in Tropical Africa: abé, abe, abel, abell, abo, aielé, bedunua, hehe, oyife

in Uganda: musanke

in Upper Volta: cien, paja

Canarium strictum Roxb. (Canarium resiniferum Brace ex King; Canarium sikkimense King; Pimela stricta Blume)

India, China, Himalaya. Trees, evergreen, buttressed, resin dark brown to black oozing from cut end of trunk, small unisexual yellowish-white flowers, inflorescence axillary panicles rusty tomentose, staminate flowers in subterminal panicles, pistillate flowers in racemes, drupes blue-black at maturity, fruits eaten

See Hort. Bengal. 49. 1814, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 138. 1832, Annales Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavi 1: 226. 1850, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 62(2): 187–188. 1894 and Fl. Bombay 1: 202. 1902, Fl. Karnataka 2: 199. 1996, Fl. Madras 1: 172. 1997

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Fruit of Canarium resiniferum taken for urinary complaints. Bark decoction as a bath for skin eruptions; an infusion taken for colic. Gum used with gingelly oil (Sesamum indicum) in rheumatic pains; decoction or powder of resin given internally as a remedy in cough, asthma, fever, hemorrhage, epilepsy, rheumatism, syphilis, poisons, skin diseases. Crushed leaves as fish poison. Resin burnt for expelling mosquitoes from house and also for healing wounds. Ceremonial, ritual, magico-religious and supernatural beliefs, conserved in sacred groves, the dried resin used to fumigate at religious adorations; resin from the stem is burnt at home to get good health and wealth, also paddy fields are fumigated.)

in English: black dammar, black dammar tree, Yunnan canarium

in China: dian lan, t’ien lan, tian lan, yang duan, yang jui, yang rui, yang tuan

in India: attam, berawthing, beroh, bot-sasat, brev, canari-telli mara, damar, dhoop, dhuna, dhup, dong-khreng, doopa, gugul, haale maddu, haalu maddi, halemaddu, halmaddi, haralu maddi, harlmuddy, inkulicamaram, itarcam, jaali banke, kaaladaamar, kakanemi, kakanemimaram, kala-damar, kala-dammar, kala dammar, kaladammar, karedupa, karee dhoopa, kari dhoopa, kariyapolam, karridhupa, karungkungiliyam, karangkunthrikam, karungundurukkam, karunkiliyam, karunkungiliam, karunkungiliyam, karunkunkiliyam, karunkuntirikkam, karuppu-damar, karuppu kungiliam, karuppudamar, karuppuk kunkiliyam, karuppukkungiliyam, karuppukkunkiliyam, karupputamar, karupudamar, karuthakungiliam, karuttukungiliam, karuttukunkiliyam, kukkil kungulam, kundrikam, kundurukkam, kungiliam, kungiliyam, kunguli, kunthirikkapayin, kunturukkam, kunturukkan, kunturukkapayam, kunturukkappayan, manda dhoopa, manda-dhup, mandadhoop, mandadhup, mandadhupa, mandadupa, mekruk, munddoopa, nalla-rojan, nalla rojanamu, nallarojanamu, nallarojen, panda, pandu, pantam, pantappayan, pantham, raala dhoopa, raladhupa, raladupa, raldhoop, raldhup, raldhupada, sanglam, silum pakia, solum, tanpukai, tanpukaimaram, telli, thally, thelli, thellippayin, thelly, tubam, tupam, viraga, viraka, virapu

Canarium tonkinense Engl. (Canarium album Leenh.; Canarium album Raeusch.; Canarium album Blanco; Canarium tonkinense (Leenh.) Engl.; Hearnia balansae C. DC.)

Vietnam. Tree, small greenish flowers in large panicles, fruit an ovoid to spindle-shaped blackish drupe, pericarp rather thick, pulp and seeds from the fruits edible, pickled fruit, douc langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus L.) eat the leaves and fruits

See Amoenitates academicae... 4: 121. 1759, Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 5: 55. 1865, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 2: 580. 1894, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(4): 240. 1896 and Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 1: 711. 1911, Blumea 9(2): 402–403, 405, 408, 410, f. 26. 1959, Primates 19: 101–114. 1978, Australian Primatology 8: 5–6. 1993, Asian Primates 4: 4–6. 1995

(Olive leaf extract antiviral, cytotoxic, antioxidant, sedative, antibacterial, antifungal and antiinflammatory, against HIV and tuberculosis, sore throat, cough, malaria, fish or crab poisoning. Raw fruit to help indigestion and combat drunkenness. Antioxidant, tannins extracted from leaves, twigs and stem bark.)

in English: Chinese olive, Vietnam canarium

in China: ch’ing kuo, gan lan, kan lan, kan lang, yue lan, yueh lan

in Indochina: ca na

in Japan: kanran

in Thailand: samo cheen

in Vietnam: cay bui, trám tráng

Canarium villosum Benth. & Hook.f. ex Náves

Philippines.

See Flora de Filipinas, ed. 3 [F.M. Blanco] Nov. App. 40. 1877–1883

(Resin stimulant, expectorant, vulnerary.)

in Philippines: pagsahingin

Canarium vitiense A. Gray

Samoa. Tree

See Monographiae Phanerogamarum 4: 134. 1883

(For rash, sores, skin ailments.)

in Samoa: a’a matie, ma’ali, maali

Canarium vulgare Leenh. (Canarium commune auct., non Canarium commune L.)

Tropical Asia.

See Blumea 8:1 88. 1955, Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 5(2): 107–108. 1995, Plant Resources of SouthEast Asia (PROSEA). 18: 56. 2000

(Demulcent, irritant, antiviral, rubefacient, stimulant, vulnerary, cytotoxic, antioxidant, sedative, antibacterial, antifungal and antiinflammatory, expectorant, immunostimulant.)

in English: Chinese olive, Java almond, kenari nut, kenari nut tree, pili nut

Canavalia DC. Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae)

The Malabar vernacular name kanavali or kana-valli (kanam ‘forest’ and valli ‘climber’) for Canavalia ensiformis. See van Rheede in Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. 8: t. 44. 1688, M. Adanson, Familles des plantes. 2: 325, 531. 1763, Anales de Ciencias Naturales 7: 63. 1804, Commentariorum de Plantis Africae Australioris 149. 1835, Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte 2: 135. 1837, Linnaea 12(3): 330–332. 1838 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 20(14): 558, 560. 1925, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 18(2): 487–559. 1937, Brittonia 16(2): 106–181. 1964, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 67(3): 523– 818. 1980 [1981], J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 7: 249–276. 1985, Fl. Lesser Antilles (Dicotyledoneae-Part 1) 4: 334–538. 1988, A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon 7: 108–381. 1991, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16(2): 305–334. 1992.

Canavalia africana Dunn (Canavalia africana Dunn ex Hutch.; Canavalia ensiformis sensu J.G. Baker; Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. var. virosa (Roxb.) Baker; Canavalia ferruginea Piper; Canavalia gladiata sensu Robyns; Canavalia gladiata sensu E.G. Baker; Canavalia polystachya Schweinf.; Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.; Canavalia virosa auct., sensu J.D. Sauer, Verdc., non (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. sensu stricto; Canavalia virosa sensu Piper & Dunn; Dolichos virosus Roxb.)

Tropical Africa, Yemen, Socotra and India. Perennial climbing herb, trailing, standard violet with white veins, seeds eaten, fodder

See Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 1: 253. 1834, The Flora of British India 2(4): 196. 1876 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1922(4): 135. 1922, Kew Bulletin 42: 657–660. 1987, Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal 19: 30–47. 2001, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4: 11. 2008

(Toxins. For insect bites, topical application of fresh leaves crushed, warmed; leaves infusion anthelmintic; leaves used in a recipe for treating smallpox. Roots diuretic; roots and bark for killing intestinal worms. Magic.)

in English: wild sword bean

in India: adavi, lamma, moodu-awara, sem

in Congo: cikubwekubwe

in Ethiopia: otongoraa

in Tanzania: kihalo

Canavalia cathartica Thouars (Canavalia bouquete Montr.; Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. var. turgida Graham ex Baker; Canavalia ensiformis var. turgida (A. Gray) Baker; Canavalia ensiformis var. turgida Baker; Canavalia ensiformis var. virosa (Roxb.) Baker; Canavalia ferruginea Piper; Canavalia glandifolia Streets; Canavalia glandifolia A. Gray ex Streets, nom. nud.; Canavalia microcarpa (DC.)

Piper; Canavalia obtusifolia sensu Prain; Canavalia obtusifolia (Lam.) DC. var. insularis Ridl.; Canavalia polystachya Schweinf.; Canavalia stocksii Dalzell & A. Gibson; Canavalia turgida Graham ex A. Gray; Canavalia turgida Graham; Canavalia turgida A. Gray; Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.; Dolichos virosus Roxb.; Lablab microcarpus DC.; Phaseolus virosus (Roxb.) Bojer)

Tropical Asia, New Caledonia. Perennial non-climbing shrub, vine, climber, scrambling, inflorescence racemose pendant, scented magenta to purple flowers, indehiscent or tardily dehiscent pod slightly inflated, develop cavities in the fruits, utilization of the extrafloral nectaries and fruits by ants, used to make maunaloa lei, highly invasive weed, mainly in coastal habitats, on beaches, behind the beach in coastal thickets

See Journal de Botanique, Appliquée à l’Agriculture, à la Pharmacie, à la Médecine et aux Arts 1: 81. 1813, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 55. 1814, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 402, 404. 1825, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 1: 253. 1834, United States Exploring Expedition 1: 440. 1854, Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. Lyon, Sect. Sci., sér. 2, 10: 197. 1860, The Flora of British India 2(4): 196. 1876, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus. 7: 142. 1877 and Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 30(43): 176. 1917, Atoll Res. Bull. 273(3): 39–64. 1983, Taiwania 32: 11–117. 1987, Arthropod-Plant Interactions 2(1): 1–8. 2008

(Mature fruits poisonous, seeds said to be edible when detoxified, often by cooking; seeds stimulate sleep. Leaves, roots and seeds for cuts, purifying blood, worms, skin diseases; leaf extract in fever; roots and bark for killing intestinal worms.)

in English: ground Jack bean, horse bean, Jack bean, silky sea bean, sword bean, wild bean

in Pacific: marlap, maunaloa, pwa maron, tu tu faroa

in India: abai, adavi chemma, adavithamma, jangli-sem, kaadavare, kaadu, kaadu avare balli, kaaranuputhige, kaaru chamma, kaaruthamma, kadsambol, kath-shim, kattuthampattai, kudsumbar, lamma, makhan sheem, minuhaeh, thamateballi

in Japan: taka-nata-mame

Malayan names: kacang rang-rang, kachang hantu, kachang riang-riang

in Nepal: ganja, tarwar simi

in Philippines: dalakórak, danglin

in Thailand: thua-krapao, thua-phi

in Vietnam: d[aaj]u bi[eer]n, d[aaj]u c[ooj], d[aa]y qua qua

in Hawaii: maunaloa

Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. (Canavalia ensiformis var. albida DC.; Canavalia ensiformis var. truncata Ricker; Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC.; Canavalia gladiata fo. leucocarpa Taub.; Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. var. ensiformis (L.) Benth.; Canavalia gladiata var. leucosperma Voigt; Canavalia incurva Thouars; Canavalia incurva (Thunb.) DC., nom. illeg. hom.; Canavalia loureiroi G. Don; Dolichos acinaciformis Jacq.; Dolichos ensiformis L.; Dolichos ensiformis Thunb.; Dolichos gladiatus Jacq.; Dolichos pugioniformis Rauschert; Malocchia ensiformis (L.) Savi)

South and Central America. Perennial non-climbing shrub, twining or prostrate, bushy, deeply penetrating root system, branching at lower nodes, flowers mauve to purple, axillary raceme with swollen nodes, pod laterally compressed, seeds edible, a forage for ruminants

See Cat. Pl. Jamaica 1: 68. 1696, Species Plantarum 2: 725– 726. 1753, Flora Japonica, ... 279–280. 1784, Collectanea 1: 114. 1786, Collectanea 2: 276, t. 215. 1788, Journal de Botanique, Appliquée à l’Agriculture, à la Pharmacie, à la Médecine et aux Arts 1: 80. 1813, Nuov. Giorn. Pisa 8: 116. 1824, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 404. 1825, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 2: 363. 1832, Hortus Suburbanus Calcuttensis 234. 1845, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 55. 1898 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 53, Mém. 3b: 140. 1906, Castanea 11: 56. 1946, Fl. Lesser Antilles (Dicotyledoneae-Part 1) 4: 334–538. 1988

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Poisonous, mature beans highly toxic but edible if boiled, heat treatment eliminates the toxic effects. Young pods and leaves for fevers, measles, skin eruptions. A preparation of the leaves burnt in mustard oil used as ointment for ulcers. Anticancer, mitogenic, anodyne, diuretic, analgesic, antiseptic, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, insecticidal, antitumor pharmaceutical composition from the fresh seeds; young pods eaten to cure asthma. Canatoxin toxic to the cotton pest. Urease from the seeds. Magic, ritual, voodoo, ceremonial.)

in English: giant stock bean, gotani beans, horse bean, horsebean, Jack bean, Jamaica horse bean, Jamaican horse bean, overlook bean, sarbre bean, snake bean, sword bean, wonder bean

in Peru: pallar del gentil

in Cambodia: tiehs

in China: dao dou, tao tau, tao tou

in India: aabayee, abai, abao, adavichamma, adavitamma, adavithamma, ampucakitacceti, ampucakitam, anititam, anititavavaraikkoti, asishimbi, awara, bara sem, baramareca, brihatshimbi, bu-wal-awara, cetittampattai, cetittampattaiyavarai, chamba kaasya, chamma, cikkuri, cikkuricceti, civapputtampattai, cupakavavarai, erratamma, errathamma, ettatamma, galaphul, gavara, gavari, gavria, gojiasema, gol, goyijiyashivalam, heppua teipi, jangli sem, kaadavare, kaaranputhige, kadasambal, kadavare, kadavari, kadsambal, kadsambu, kamtal urahi, kamtalurahi, kanavala, kanavazha, karanuputige, karochikadu, karuchamma, karutamma, karuthamma, kattuttambaltan, kattuttambattan, kattuvalamarakkaya, kattuvalari, katubaramareca, khadasambala, khadgashimbi, khadsambal, kisamari, kocapalam, kodittambattan, kolhiyavarai, koliavarai, kolikkoti, kolippuntu, koliyavarai, koliyenramuli, koshaphala, koshi avarai, kottuttambattam, lalkudsumbal, maha-shibee, mahashimbi, makam-shim abayee, nilashimbika, paluvakkoti, paraholiya, pataiyavarai, patavarai, patavavarai, pathave, peyavarai, peyppatal, peyttampattai, peyttampattaiyavarai, pukati, pukatiyavaraikkoti, safedkudsumbal, sambe, sema, shambe, shembi avare, shembiavare, shimbi, simbi, sivapputtambattai, sthulashimbi, suarasema, sufed kadsumbal, sweeta-sima, tamateballi, tamategida, tamba, tamma, tampattai, tampattam, tihon, tampattankay, tampattankoti, thamattan, thamba, thambattai, thamma, tottiraiyakkoti, tottirayam, tumbekonji, tumbettankaya, ulakanamikkoti, ulakanapi, valamara, valavarai, valavarata, varaiyaruttan, varaiyaruttankoti, vellai thambattai, vellaittampattai, vellaittampattan, vellaittumattan, wal-awara, yerratamma, yerrathambattankaya

in Indonesia: kacang parang, kacang mekah, kara bedog

in Japan: tachi-nata-mame

in Laos: thwâx fak ph’aaz

Malayan names: kachang hantu, kachang parang, kacang parang putih, kachang polong

in Philippines: badang-badang, habas, lagaylay, palang-palang

in Thailand: thua khaek

in Vietnam: cây dâu ra, dâu ngua, dâu tây

in Congo: bubi

in Yoruba: jogbonloro, papanla, popondo asinyun mowo, popondo, poponla

Canavalia galeata Gaudich. (Canavalia galeata (Gaudich.) Vogel; Canavalia gaudichaudii Endl.; Dolichos galeatus Gaudich.)

Pacific, Hawaii. Perennial climbing shrub, vine, very pubescent leaves, deep purple flowers, flowers and seeds strung into extraordinary lei

See Voyage autour du Monde, entrepris par Ordre du Roi, ... éxécuté sur les Corvettes de S. M. l’~Uranie~ et la ~Physiciennê ... Botanique 12: 486, pl. 115. 1830, Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte 1: 186. 1836, Linnaea 10: 584. 1836 and Economic Botany 25(3): 245–254. 1971

(Entire plant used for skin diseases, itch, ringworm.)

in English: sword bean

in Hawaii: ‘awikiwiki, puakauhi

Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. (Canavalia enformis (L.) DC. var. alba Makino; Canavalia ensiformis sensu auct.; Canavalia ensiformis sensu Baker; Canavalia ensiformis var. gladiata (Jacq.) Kuntze; Canavalia foureiri G. Don; Canavalia gladiata fo. erythrocarpa Taub.; Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. var. alba (Makino) Hisauti; Canavalia gladiata var. erythrosperma Voight; Canavalia gladiata var. machaeroides DC.; Canavalia gladiata var. spodosperma Voigt; Canavalia gladiolata J.D. Sauer; Canavalia incurva Thouars; Canavalia incurva (Thunb.) DC.; Canavalia incurva Thouars; Canavalia loureirii G. Don; Canavalia loureiroi G. Don; Canavalia machaeroides (DC.) Steud.; Canavalia maxima Thouars; Canavalia plagiosperma sensu auct.; Dolichos gladiatus Jacq.; Dolichos incurvus Thunb.; Malocchia gladiata (Jacq.) Savi)

Burundi, China, India. Perennial climbing shrub, twiner, trailing, spreading, stout, white lilac flowers, large sword shaped pods, forage and cover crop, young green fruits and immature seeds used as a cooked vegetable

See Cat. Pl. Jamaica 1: 68. 1696, Species Plantarum 2: 725– 726. 1753, Flora Japonica, ... 279–280. 1784, Collectanea 1: 114. 1786, Collectanea 2: 276, t. 215. 1788, Journal de Botanique, Appliquée à l’Agriculture, à la Pharmacie, à la Médecine et aux Arts 1: 80. 1813, Nuov. Giorn. Pisa 8: 116. 1824, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 404. 1825, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 2: 363. 1832, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1(3): 273. 1840, Hortus Suburbanus Calcuttensis 234. 1845, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 55. 1898 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 53, Mém. 3b: 140. 1906, Castanea 11: 56. 1946, Fl. Lesser Antilles (Dicotyledoneae-Part 1) 4: 334– 538. 1988, Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 388–398. 2009, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 15(1): 59–65. 2009

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Uncooked seed toxic at any stage, may cause poisoning; urease extracted from the seed. Anticancer, analgesic, antiangiogenic, antiseptic, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, insect repellent, diuretic, for anorexia, schizophrenia, inflammatory diseases, atopic dermatitis, hemorrhoids, swellings, boils, wounds, ulcers, acne, obesity, stomachache, dysentery, conjunctivitis, cough, asthma, headache, kidney problems and general debility. Leaf juice taken in case of abdominal pains, to kill intestinal worms; ointment for ulcer. Root and leaf extract given as antidote, antivenom. Veterinary medicine, leaves with those of Clerodendrum phlomidis, fowl extract and tamarind pounded and applied for rheumatism.)

in English: broad bean, Jamaican horse bean, Japanese Jackbean, red-seeded sword bean, scimitar bean, sword bean, sword Jackbean, white-seeded sword bean

in China: dao-dou

in India: adavi chikkudu, advi chemma, araniyamutkam, asisimbi, assisimbi, bara-mareca, bara sem, civapputtampattai, cocksim, ghevdo, kad sambu, kamtal urahi, kattavarai, kattavaraikkoti, kayilakakkoti, kayilakam, khadsampal, koliavarai, lal kadsumbal, lalkududumpal, lalkudusumpal, mahasimbi, peyavarai, phatadi, puttathamma, segapu tham-pattai, segapputampattai, shambee avare, thamma kaaya, thumbe kaayi, valamara, valavara, valpayar, valvara

in Japan: hatu-to-zu, nata-mame, shiro nata-mame, tachiwa-chi

Malay name: kachang parang

in Tibetan: mkhal-ma zho-sha nag-po

in Madagascar: morataitra

in N. Rhodesia: chikuvangu

in Tanzania: mbwanda, mwingasiafu

Canavalia nitida (Cav.) Piper (Canavalia bahamensis Britton; Canavalia cubensis Griseb.; Canavalia ekmanii Urb.; Canavalia nitida Piper; Canavalia rusiosperma Urb.; Clementea nitida Cav.)

Mexico, Haiti.

See Anales de Ciencias Naturales 7: 47. 1804, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n.s. 8: 178. 1861, Plantae Wrightianae 1: 178. 1869 and Symbolae Antillarum 1(3B): 473. 1900, Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden 4(13): 119. 1905, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 15: 317–318. 1918, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 20(14): 559, 562. 1925, Brittonia 16(2): 117. 1964, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 90(2–3): 293–316. 2004

(Aphrodisiac, for venereal diseases, herbal mixtures.)

in English: Bahama baybean, Cathie’s bean

Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. (Canavali maritima Thouars; Canavalia apiculata Piper; Canavalia arenicola Piper; Canavalia baueriana Endl.; Canavalia emarginata (Jacq.) G. Don; Canavalia lineata sensu auct.; Canavalia lineata (Thunb.) DC.; Canavalia lineata DC.; Canavalia maritima Thouars; Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Urb., nom. illeg. hom.; Canavalia maritima (Aublet) Thouars; Canavalia maritima Aub.; Canavalia miniata (Kunth) DC.; Canavalia moneta Welw.; Canavalia obcordata Voigt; Canavalia obcordata (Roxb.) Voigt; Canavalia obtusifolia (Lam.) DC.; Canavalia obtusifolia DC.; Canavalia obtusifolia var. emarginatus (Jacq.) DC.; Canavalia obtusifolia var. insularis Ridl.; Canavalia podocarpa Dunn; Clitoria rotundifolia (Vahl) Sessé & Moc.; Dolichos emarginatus Jacq.; Dolichos lineatus Thunb.; Dolichos lineatus Murray; Dolichos littoralis Vell.; Dolichos maritimus Aubl.; Dolichos miniatus Kunth; Dolichos obcordatus Roxb.; Dolichos obovatus Schumach. & Thonn.; Dolichos obtusifolius Lam., nom. illeg.; Dolichos roseus Sw.; Dolichos rotundifolius Vahl)

Tropics and warm subtropics. Perennial non-climbing shrub, trailing or climbing, creeping or scrambling, vine, herbaceous or somewhat woody, flowers pink-purple or mauve, inflorescence racemose, spirally dehiscent pod, commonly on beaches and edges of coastal bushland, a sand binder

See Observationum Botanicarum 3: 5. 1771, Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 765. 1775, Syst. Veg. (ed. 14) 658. 1784, Flora Japonica, ... 280. 1784, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 2(1): 295. 1786, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 105. 1788, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 2: 81. 1791, Plantarum Rariorum Horti Caesarei Schoenbrunnensis 2: 50, pl. 221. 1797, Journal de Botanique, Appliquée à l’Agriculture, à la Pharmacie, à la Médecine et aux Arts 1: 80–81. 1813, Hort. Bengal. 55. 1814, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 6: 441–442. 1823, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 404. 1825, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 3: 303. 1832, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 2: 362. 1832, Hortus Suburbanus Calcuttensis 235. 1845 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 15: 400. 1919, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1922(4): 137–138. 1922, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 20(14): 566–569. 1925, Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 10(10): 915–918. 2008

(Used in Sidha. Poison. Seeds in overdose are poisonous to rabbits. Aphrodisiac, tonic. Plant potion used during labor. Decoction of leaves used for rheumatism; paste of leaves used for boils; leaf a marijuana substitute; an infusion of the leaves with the juice of limes is drunk against malaria. Roots in the treatment of leprosy, rheumatic pain and cold.)

in English: bay bean, bay pod, beach bean, coastal Jack bean, horse bean, seaside bean

in Samoa: fuefue fai va’a, fue vili

in Madagascar: lalanda, lalandana

in Rodrigues Isl.: cocorico

in India: cevalavarai, cikkaram, kattu-tsjandi, koli, kolikkalavarai, kolikkoti, kolippuntu, koliyavarai, koliyenramuli, kotincika, kotincikappuntu, kutirakati, kutirakatikkoti, maharada, mudu-awara, murukkavarai, murukkavaraikkoti, perunkoliyavarai, talapotitakkoti, talapotitam, vanamancari, vanamancarikkoti

in Indonesia: joa-joa dowongi, kekara laut

in Malaysia: kacang laut, kacang rang-rang

in Japan: taka-nata-mame

in the Philippines: katang-katang, lagaylai, magtambokau, pataning dagat

in Thailand: kaitia, thua khla

in Vietnam: d[aa]y d[aaj]u, d[aaj]u dao bi[eer]n

Canavalia villosa Benth. (Canavalia hirsuta (M. Martens & Galeotti) Standl.; Canavalia multiflora Hook. & Arn.; Canavalia pilosa M. Martens & Galeotti; Canavalia pilosa (M. Martens & Galeotti) Donn. Sm.; Canavalia rostrata Benth.; Canavalia rupicola Standl. & L.O. Williams; Neurocarpum multiflorum Hook. & Arn.; Phaseolus barrancae M.E. Jones; Wenderothia discolor Schltdl.; Wenderothia hirsuta M. Martens & Galeotti; Wenderothia pilosa M. Martens & Galeotti; Wenderothia villosa (Benth.) Piper)

Central and South America. Perennial climbing shrub

See Commentationes de Leguminosarum Generibus 71. 1837, Linnaea 12: 331. 1838, The Botany of Captain Beechey’s Voyage 286, 416. 1840, Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-lettres de Bruxelles 10(2): 191–192. 1843, Enumeratio Plantarum Guatemalensium ... 1: 8. 1889 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 23(2): 495. 1922, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 20(14): 584. 1925, Contributions to Western Botany 18: 46. 1933, Ceiba 3(3): 203–204. 1953, Brittonia 16: 133–135. 1964

(Toxic, not eaten raw. Root chopped and administered for the cure of severe eye ailments, for warts, boils.)

in Mexico: bëël-cuir, cicimatic, cimatl, pek’

Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. (Canavalia africana Dunn ex Hutch., nom. nud.; Canavalia africana Dunn; Canavalia ensiformis sensu J.G. Baker; Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. var. virosa (Roxb.) Baker; Canavalia ferruginea Piper; Canavalia polystachya Schweinf.; Canavalia stocksii Dalzell & A. Gibson; Canavalia virosa auct., sensu J.D. Sauer, Verdc., non (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. sensu stricto; Canavalia virosa Náves ex Fern.-Vill., nom. illeg.; Canavalia virosa Naves ex Villar; Canavalia virosa sensu Piper & Dunn; Dolichos polystachios Forssk., nom. illeg.; Dolichos polystachios L.; Dolichos virosus Roxb.; Phaseolus virosus (Roxb.) Bojer)

India.

See Species Plantarum 2: 726–727. 1753, Flora AegyptiacoArabica 134. 1775, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 55. 1814, Fl. Ind. (ed. 1832): 3: 301. 1832, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 1: 253. 1834, Reliquiae Kotschyanae 25, pl. 20. 1868, The Flora of British India 2(4): 196. 1876, Flora de Filipinas Nov. App. 64. 1877, Flora de Filipinas 4(13A): 64. 1880 and Phil. J. Sci. 7: 413–415. 1912, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1921(10): 367. 1921, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1922(4): 135, 141. 1922, Kew Bulletin 42: 657–660. 1987, Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal 19: 30–47. 2001, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4: 11. 2008

(Toxins, poison, mature beans highly toxic, heat treatment eliminates the toxic effects; seeds reputed poisonous, uncooked seed toxic at any stage, may cause poisoning. For insect bites, topical application of fresh leaves crushed, warmed; leaves infusion anthelmintic and for gonorrhea; leaves used in a recipe for treating smallpox. Roots diuretic; roots and bark for killing intestinal worms. Magic.)

in English: broad bean, Jack bean, knife bean, wild sword bean

in China: tao tou, tau deu

in India: abai, adavi, adavi chemma, adavithamma, adavittama, assambal, bahara, gowara, jangli-sem, kaadavare, kaadu, kaadu avare balli, kaaranuputhige, kaaru chamma, kaaruthamma, kadavare, kadsambol, kalanshim, kalasim, karanuputige, karutamma, kathshim, kathsim, kattuttambattan, kattuvalamara, kolashimbi, kolasimo, koli-awari, kosaphala, kozhiavarai, krishnaphala, kushimbi, lamma, makhan sheem, mohrhorha, moodu-awara, partapankapadika, pustakashimbika, sem, shimbi, sukarapadika, thamateballi, wal-awara

Malay name: kachang kachang

Canella P. Browne Canellaceae

Latin canna ‘a reed’, Greek kanna, referring to the tightly rolled bark; see The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica in Three Parts 275, pl. 27, f. 3. 1756, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum ... 3: 168, 170. 1832, Endlicher, Istvan Laszlo (1804–1849), Enchiridion Botanicum 428. Lipsiae, Sumptibus Guil. Engelmann, 1841, N. Tommaseo & B. Bellini, Dizionario della lingua italiana. Torino 1865–1879 and Pollen. Bot. Gaz. 125(3): 192–197. 1964, Amer. J. Bot. 53(4): 336–343. 1966, Manlio Cortelazzo and Paolo Zolli, Dizionario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana. 1: 195–196. Zanichelli, Bologna 1979, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 78: 1–581. 1996.

Canella winterana (L.) Gaertn. (Canella alba Murray; Canella canella (L.) H. Karst.; Laurus winterana L.; Winterana canella L.)

Jamaica, West Indies, USA. Shrub or small tree, perennial, slow-growing, dense canopy, purple and white lightly fragrant flowers, bright red berries clustered near the tips of branches, aromatic and pungent bark, not known to be invasive, once established it is extremely drought and salt tolerant

See Species Plantarum 1: 369, 371. 1753, Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1045. 1759, Syst. Veg. (ed. 14). 443–444. 1784, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 1: 373. 1788, Deutsche Flora. Pharmaceutisch-medicinische Botanik... 626. 1882 and Ess. Oil Res. 2: 163–165. 1990, Phytochemistry 38(4): 909–915. 1995

(Leaves and stems toxic to chickens. Bark emmenagogue, cytotoxic, antifungal and antimicrobial, used to relieve headaches; inner bark infusion to treat fevers and inflamed tonsils, indigestion, to induce abortion. To relieve headache and hangover, smoke the chipped dried wood in a pipe. Leaves applied externally to relieve rheumatism and headache; for rheumatism, boil the leaves for a bath. Phytotoxic sesquiterpenoids. Leaves and bark as fish poison; bark insecticidal.)

in English: Bahama whitewood, canella, canella bark, cinnamon bark, Jamaican cinnamon tree, pepper cinnamon, white cinnamon bark, white cinnamon tree, wild cinnamon, wild cinnamon tree, winter cinnamon

in India: kiliyuram pattai

Canna L. Cannaceae

Greek kanna, kanne ‘a reed’, Latin canna, ae ‘a reed, cane’, Akkadian qanu ‘reed’, Hebrew qane ‘reed’; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 1: 1. 1753, Genera Plantarum Ed. 5. 1. 1754 and Fl. Veracruz 11: 1–8. 1980, Wu Te-lin & Chen Senjen. Cannaceae. In: Wu Te-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(2): 152–158. 1981, Flora of Ecuador 32: 1–9. 1988, National Research Council, Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1989, Makinoa, n.s., 1: 1–74. 2001.

Canna flaccida Salisbury (Canna anahuacensis Kraenzl.; Canna angustifolia Walter, nom. illeg. hom.; Canna fintelmanni Bouché; Canna flaccida Roscoe, nom. illeg.; Canna flava Michx. ex Lam., nom. subnud.; Canna glauca Walter, nom. illeg. hom.; Canna glauca var. flaccida Willd.; Canna glauca var. flava (Michx. ex Lam.) Willd.; Canna reevesii Lindl.; Eurystylus flaccida (Salisb.) Bouché; Eurystylus flaccidus (Salisb.) Bouché; Eurystylus reevesii (Lindl.) Bouché)

North America. Herbaceous perennial, leaf bases clasp the stem, leaves upright thick succulent, bright yellow flowers in a terminal cluster, modified style and modified stamens, one of the petal-like stamens bears pollen

See Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 59. 1788, Icones Stirpium Rariorum 3, plate 2. 1791, Journ. Nat. Hist. Par. 1: 416. 1792, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 1: 4. 1797, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 8: 339. 1807, Monandrian Plants of the Order Scitamineae t. 6. 1824, Edwards’s Botanical Register t. 2004. 1837, Linnaea 18: 485, 487. 1844, Linnaea 18: 485. 1845 and Das Pflanzenreich IV. 47(Heft 56): 65, t. 14. 1912, Taxon 53(3): 835. 2004

(Emollient.)

in North America: bandana-of-the-Everglades, bandanna of the Everglades, bird shot, golden canna, Indian shot

in Japan: kibana-dandoku

Canna glauca L. (Canna angustifolia L., nom. illeg.; Canna angustifolia Walter; Canna annaei André; Canna elegans Raf., nom. nud.; Canna fintelmanni Bouché; Canna glauca var. angusta J.W. Richardson; Canna glauca var. annaei (André) Petersen; Canna glauca var. rubro-lutea Hook.; Canna glauca var. rubrolutea Hook.; Canna glauca var. rufa Sims; Canna glauca var. rufa Sims ex Hook.; Canna glauca var. siamensis (Kraenzl.) Nob. Tanaka; Canna hassleriana Kraenzl.; Canna jacobiniflora T. Koyama & Nob. Tanaka; Canna lanceolata Lodd. ex Loudon, nom. nud.; Canna lancifolia Schrank; Canna liturata Link ex Dietr.; Canna longifolia Bouché; Canna mexicana Bouché; Canna mexicana A. Dietr.; Canna pedicellata C. Presl; Canna pruinosa Hoffmanns.; Canna schlechtendaliana Bouché; Canna schlechtendaliana var. annaei (André) Kraenzl.; Canna siamensis Kraenzl.; Canna stenantha Nob. Tanaka; Canna stolonifera D. Dietr.; Canna stolonifera hort. ex Bouché; Canna stricta Bouché; Xyphostylis angustifolia (L.) Raf.)

North America, Tropical America.

See Sp. Pl. 1: 1. 1753, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 59. 1788, Florula Ludoviciana, or, a flora of the state of ... 143. 1817, Bot. Mag. 49: t. 2302. 1822, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(2): 106. 1827, Hort. Brit. [Loudon] 1. 1830, Linnaea 8: 158. 1833, Botanical Magazine 62: t. 3437. 1836, Linnaea 12: 144. 1838, Synopsis Plantarum 1: 11–12. 1839, Linnaea 18: 386, 487. 1845 and Pflanzenr., IV, 47: 31, 54–55. 1912, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 14: 296. 1916, Fl. Illustr. Catar. (Cannaceae) 1: 24. 1972, Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo, B 26: 7, 9. 2000, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 107(3): 324–341. 2006

(Vegetation and rhizomes used as antitumour.)

in North America: glaucous Indian shot, Louisiana canna

Canna indica L. (Canna achiras Gillies ex D. Don; Canna achiras Gillies; Canna altensteinii Bouché; Canna amabilis T. Koyama & Nob. Tanaka; Canna ascendens Ciciar.; Canna aurantiaca Roscoe; Canna aureovittata Lodd.; Canna barbadica Bouché, nom. nud.; Canna bidentata Bertol.; Canna bifida Roem. & Schult.; Canna carnea Roscoe; Canna cearensis Huber; Canna chinensis Willd., nom. superfl.; Canna cinnabarina Bouché; Canna coccinea W.T. Aiton, nom. illeg.; Canna coccinea Miller; Canna coccinea Roscoe, nom. illeg.; Canna coccinea unranked sylvestris Regel; Canna coccinea f. flaviflora Chodat & Hassl.; Canna coccinea var. bicolor Kraenzl.; Canna coccinea var. concolor Regel; Canna coccinea var. floribunda (Bouché) Regel; Canna coccinea var. limbata Regel; Canna commutata Bouché; Canna compacta Roscoe; Canna concinna Bouché; Canna crocea Roem. & Schult.; Canna densifolia Bouché; Canna discolor Lindley; Canna discolor var. rubripunctata Nob. Tanaka; Canna discolor var. viridifolia Nob. Tanaka; Canna edulis Ker Gawl.; Canna ehrenbergii Bouché; Canna elegans Raf., nom. superfl.; Canna ellipticifolia Stokes, nom. superfl.; Canna ellipticifolia var. coccinea (Mill.) Stokes; Canna ellipticifolia var. lutea (Mill.) Stokes; Canna ellipticifolia var. patens (Aiton) Stokes; Canna ellipticifolia var. rubra Stokes; Canna esculenta Loudon, nom. inval.; Canna exigua Bouché; Canna eximia Bouché ex Horan.; Canna flavescens Link; Canna floribunda Bouché; Canna formosa Bouché; Canna fulgida Bouché; Canna heliconiifolia Bouché; Canna heliconiifolia var. xalapensis Kraenzl.; Canna heliconiifolia var. xalapensis (Bouché) Kraenzl.; Canna humilis Bouché; Canna indica Curtis, nom. illeg.; Canna indica fo. rubroaurantiaca Makino, nom. nud.; Canna indica subsp. orientalis (Roscoe) Baker; Canna indica var. coccinea Willd.; Canna indica var. coccinea (Mill.) Aiton; Canna indica var. edwardsii Regel; Canna indica var. flava (Roscoe) Roscoe ex Baker; Canna indica var. flava (Roscoe) Baker; Canna indica var. karsteniana Regel; Canna indica var. limbata (Regel) Petersen; Canna indica var. lutea (Mill.) Aiton; Canna indica var. maculata Hook.; Canna indica var. nepalensis (D. Dietr.) Baker; Canna indica var. nepalensis (Bouché) Baker; Canna indica var. orientalis Baker, nom. superfl.; Canna indica var. orientalis Roscoe ex Baker; Canna indica var. patens Aiton; Canna indica var. rubra Aiton; Canna indica var. sanctaerosae (Kraenzl.) Nob. Tanaka; Canna indica var. speciosa (Roscoe ex Sims) Baker; Canna indica var. speciosa Baker, nom. superfl.; Canna indica var. variegata Regel; Canna indica var. warszewiczii Nob. Tanaka; Canna indica var. warszewiczii (A. Dietr.) Nob. Tanaka; Canna juncea Retz.; Canna laeta Bouché; Canna lagunensis Lindl.; Canna lambertii Lindl. ex Ker Gawl.; Canna lambertii Lindl.; Canna lanuginosa Roscoe; Canna leptochila Bouché; Canna limbata Roscoe, nom. superfl.; Canna lutea Miller; Canna lutea Larrañaga, nom. illeg.; Canna lutea unranked aurantiaca Kraenzl.; Canna lutea var. aurantiaca Regel; Canna lutea var. aurantiaca (Roscoe) Regel; Canna lutea var. genuina Kraenzl. nom. inval.; Canna lutea var. maculata (Hook.) Regel; Canna lutea var. pallida (Roscoe) Regel; Canna macrophylla Horan.; Canna maculata (Hook.) Link; Canna maxima Lodd. ex Roscoe, nom. inval.; Canna montana Blume; Canna moritziana Bouché; Canna musifolia hort.; Canna nepalensis Bouché; Canna nepalensis D. Dietr.; Canna occidentalis Ker Gawl.; Canna occidentalis Roscoe; Canna orientalis Bouché, nom. illeg.; Canna orientalis Roscoe, nom. superfl.; Canna orientalis var. flava Roscoe; Canna orientalis var. flavescens (Link) Baker, nom. superfl.; Canna pallida Roscoe; Canna patens (Ait.) Roscoe; Canna patens var. limbata (Regel) Baker; Canna pentaphylla D. Dietr.; Canna platyphylla Nees & Mart.; Canna plurituberosa T. Koyama & Nob. Tanaka; Canna poeppigii Bouché; Canna polyclada Wawra; Canna polymorpha Bouché; Canna portoricensis Bouché; Canna pruinosa Hoffmanns.; Canna pulchra Hassk.; Canna pulchra Bouché ex Horan.; Canna recurvata Bouché; Canna roscoeana Bouché, nom. superfl.; Canna rotundifolia André; Canna rubra Willd., nom. superfl.; Canna rubricaulis Link; Canna sanctae-rosae Kraenzl.; Canna sanguinea Bouché; Canna sanguinea Hort. Angl. ex Bouché; Canna sanguinea Warsz.; Canna sanguinea Warsz. ex Otto & A. Dietr.; Canna saturate-rubra Bouché ex K. Koch; Canna schubertii Horan.; Canna seleriana Kraenzl.; Canna sellowi Bouché; Canna speciosa Roscoe ex Sims, nom. illeg.; Canna speciosa Roscoe; Canna speciosa Hegetschweiler, nom. superfl.; Canna spectabilis Bouché; Canna sulphurea Bouché; Canna surinamensis Bouché; Canna sylvestris Roscoe; Canna tenuiflora Bouché ex A. Dietr.; Canna texensis Regel; Canna textoria Noronha, nom. nud.; Canna thyrsiflora Hegetschw., nom. superfl.; Canna tinei Tod., nom. subnud.; Canna variabilis Willd., nom. superfl.; Canna variegata Besser; Canna variegata Bouché, nom. illeg.; Canna variegatifolia Ciciar.; Canna ventricosa Bouché; Canna warscewiczii Dietrich; Canna warszewiczii A. Dietr., nom. superfl.; Canna warszewiczii var. flameus Ram. Goyena; Canna xalapensis Bouché; Cannacorus indicus (L.) Medik.; Cannacorus ovatus Moench, nom. superfl.; Xyphostylis lutea (Mill.) Raf.)

South America. Herb, rhizomatous, perennial, erect, robust, rhizome branching horizontally, stem fleshy, leaves arranged spirally, inflorescence terminal racemose simple, single or paired bisexual flowers, labellum narrowly oblongovate, stamen petaloid portion involute, style fleshy, fruit a loculicidally dehiscent ovoid capsule, seeds globose smooth and hard, edible rhizomes

See Species Plantarum 1: 1. 1753, Gen. Pl. ed. 5; 1. 1754, The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition no. 3, 4. 1768, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... 1. 1789, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 1: 3. 1791, Botanical Magazine 13: t. 454. 1799, Der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neuesten Entdeckungen in der Gesammten Naturkunde 2: 169–170. 1808, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... The second edition 1: 1. 1810, Thou. Melanges 1. 1811, Botanical Register; consisting of coloured ... 6: t. 470. 1820, Botanical Magazine t. 2317. 1822, Botanical Register; consisting of coloured ... 9: t. 771, 772, 775. 1824 [1823], Monandrian Plants of the Order Scitamineae t. 2, 11–13, 15–16, 19, 21, 24, 33. [1824] 1828, Handbuch zur Erkennung der nutzbarsten und am häufigsten vorkommenden Gewächse 1: 226. 1829, Edwards’s Botanical Register 15: t. 1231. 1829, Edwards’s Botanical Register 16: t. 1311, t. 1358. 1830, Synopsis Plantarum 1: 4. 1831, Linnaea 8: 145, 147, 150–154, 158, 162–164. 1833, Index Seminum [St. Petersburg] 83. 1844, Catalogus Plantarum in Horto Botanico Bogoriensi Cultarum Alter 52. 1844, Linnaea 18: 487–492. 1845, Allgemeine Gartenzeitung 19: 290. 1851, Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell’Istituto di Bologna 10: 33–34, t. 5. 1859, Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 13: 7. 1863, Index Seminum [St. Petersburg] 85, 87. 1866, The Flora of British India 6(18): 260–261. 1892, Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 328. 1898 and Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 1: 297. 1901, Flora Nicaragüense 2: 806. 1911, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 47(Heft 56): 40–41, 56, 59, 67, f. 4c-e. 1912, Illustrated flora of Nippon 707. 1940, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 32(1): 18. 1945, Regnum Veg. 127: 29. 1993, J. Jap. Bot. 75: 89. 2000, Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo, B 26: 11. 2000, Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 92: 384–385. 2003, Taxon 55(2): 531. 2006, Darwiniana 45: 189. 2007

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Fresh rhizomes antidote, febrifuge, antipyretic, astringent, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, sudorific, emollient, given in acute hepatitis, diarrhea, dropsy, headache, fever, inflammation, women’s complaints, tumor, sore throat; fruits of Solanum erianthum ground with the rhizome of Canna indica, the flowers of Rosa indica, seeds of Papaver somniferum and sugar, given to cure syphilis; crushed fresh rhizomes applied topically for traumatic injuries; paste of roots applied for sprain and muscular swellings; juice extracted from grated rhizomes used against diarrhea; dried rhizome powder pesticide, insecticide, antifungal. Pounded seeds used in a poultice to relieve headache. Fumigated stems and leaves used as an insecticide. Molluscicidal. Used in religion and magico-religious beliefs, in ceremonial sacrifice, flowers used as offerings to Lord Buddha; rhizome fibre worn by children as a talisman to ward off evil spirits.)

in English: achira, Australian arrowroot, canna, canna lily, edible canna, Indian bread shot, Indian shot, purple arrow-root, Queensland arrowroot, scarlet canna, wild canna

in Burma (Myanmar): adalut, butsarana

in Cambodia: ché:k té:hs

in China: mei leng chow, mei ren jiao gen

in India: akalbarki, blak-pat-mung, canna gida, chare gundina gida, cilaivalai, daevakeli, dev-keli, devakeli, devakili, guruginja, guriginzda, hakik, hoo dingana, hoodingala, hudingana, kaabaale, kaalahoo, kaela hoo, kaelahoo, kaelaphool, kal valai, kalahu, kallankari, kallankaricceti, kalvalaicceti, kalvalai, kalvalaimani, kalvazhai, kamakshee, kamakshi, kanalvalai, kandamani-cheddi, kandamanu, kantamani, kardai, kardal, kardali, kare gulaganji, kat champa, kath-shim, katoobala, kattuvala, kattuvalai, kattuvazha, katu-bala, katubala, katuvara, kela hoo, kelahu, keli, krishnatamara, kudsumbar, kundimani, kungpui-muthui, kyaanaa gida, kyana gida, lakiya, lakiyavalai, mettamara, mettatamara, nilavalai, patacitacceti, patacitam, poovalai, puvalai, rankeli, sabbajaya, sarbajaya, sarva jaya, sarvajaya, sarvajjya, shilarambha, silarumba, siramalai, sudarson, sugandharaju, tiranapakitam, tiranapakitavalai, vanakadali

in Indonesia: buah tasbeh, ganyong, lembong njeedra, seneetra, ubi pikul

in Japan: kanna, dandoku, shokyô-kanna (= edible Canna)

in Laos: kwàyz ké: so:n, kwàyz ph’uttha so:n

Malayan names: daun tasbeh, ganjong, pisang sebiak, sebeh

in the Philippines: balungsaying, balunsaying, bandera Española, bangali, kakuentasa, kiuingam, kolintasan, kuentas-kuentasan, kukuwintasan, lasa, plantanillo, platanillo, saging-saging, tapuranga, tikas, tikas-tikas, tikis-tikis, tukas-tukas, zembu

in Nepal: bhuinchapo

in Thailand: phuttharaksa, phutthason, sakhu chin

in Vietnam: chu[oos]i hoa, dong rieng, dong ri[eef]ng, khoai dao

in Hawaii: ali’ipoe, li’ipoe, poloka

in Samoa: fanamanu

in Congo: ikokomo, isangambele, masangambele, mbobo

in Yoruba: ido dudu, ido pupa, idofin, idoiii sawo aila, idoro

Canna tuerckheimii Kraenzl. (Canna anahuacensis Kraenzl.; Canna coccinea var. sylvestris (Roscoe) Regel; Canna curviflora hort. ex Horan.; Canna gemella Nees & Mart.; Canna gigantea Desf.; Canna gigantea F. Delaroche; Canna iridiflora Willd., nom. illeg.; Canna latifolia Mill., nom. rejic.; Canna neglecta Weinm., nom. rejic.; Canna sylvestris Roscoe, nom. rejic.; Canna violacea Bouché) (for the German plant collector Hans von Türckheim, 1853–1920, traveller, in Guatemala and Santo Domingo; see Theodore W. Bossert, compil., Biographical Dictionary of Botanists Represented in the Hunt Institute Portrait Collection. 408. Boston, Mass. 1972.)

Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil.

See The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition no. 2. 1768, Flora Peruviana 1: 1. 1798, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... Suppl.: 1. 1813, Linnaea 12: 146. 1838, Prodromus Monographiae Scitaminearum 18. t. 2. 1862 and Das Pflanzenreich IV. 47(Heft 56): 65, 70. 1912, Taxon 53(3): 833–834. 2004

(Diuretic, diaphoretic.)

Cannabis L. Cannabaceae (Cannabidaceae)

Latin cannabus, i (Dioscorides), cannabis, is; Greek kannabis, kannabios, kannabeos ‘hemp’ (Sophocles); Arabian ganeh, Sanskrit gangika and bhanga; Akkadian hannabu, hanbu ‘blooming, thriving’; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 2: 1027. 1753 and Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 453. 1754 and Small, E., Cronquist, A. “A practical and natural taxonomy for Cannabis.” Taxon 25: 405–435. 1976, Chang Siushih. Cannaboideae. In: Chang Siushih & Wu Chengyih, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 23(1): 220–224. 1998.

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabis indica Lam.; Cannabis ruderalis Janischevsky; Cannabis sativa subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronquist; Cannabis sativa var. chinensis (Delile) Asch. & Graebn.; Cannabis sativa var. indica (Lam.) Wehmer; Cannabis sativa var. indica (Lamarck) E. Small & Cronquist; Cannabis sativa var. kif DC.; Cannabis sativa var. spontanea Vavilov)

Central Asia. Woody herb, normally dioecious, annual, suffrutescent, erect, heavily toothed leaves palmately compound, rough, a polymorphic species

See Species Plantarum 2: 1027. 1753, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique (Lamarck) 1(2): 695. 1785 and Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 23: 333. 1974, Taxon 25(4): 426. 1976, Recent Res. Pl. Sci. (New Delhi) 7: 261–271. 1979, Journal of Palynology 16: 85–105. 1980, Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Botanica 24: 113–126. 1982, J. Yunnan Educ. Coll., Nat. Sci. Ed. 5: 44–46, 55. 1998, Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research 16(3): 280–282. 1998

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Low toxicity. Psychoactive, narcotic, psychotropic disrupter, hallucinogenic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, sedative, analgesic, astringent, anti-phlegmatic, antiemetic, antiglaucoma, anti-asthmatic, tonic, antiseptic, emmenagogue, laxative, demulcent, diuretic, vermifuge, anthelmintic, anodyne, hemostatic. Leaves and stems as a poultice to relieve wasp sting and to reduce swelling. Leaf paste mixed with honey applied in inflamed eyes and piles; leaf extract of Mentha longifolia and Cannabis sativa taken orally for catarrh and cough; smoke from burnt leaves used in piles. Ceremonial, flowers used for Shivratri worship.)

in English: Chinese hemp, dagga, dagga canopy, dope, fragrant weed, gallow grass, grass, hashish, hemp, Indian hemp, joy-giver, marijuana, mary jane, native hemp, neck-weed, pot, red root, reefer, Russian hemp, Scythian hemp, skunk, soft hemp, true hemp, weed, wild dagga, wild hemp

in Arabic: hashish, hashish el-fogara, kif, qenneb

in Peru: cáñamo, mariguana, marihuana

in Congo: bangi, isili, masili

in East Africa: makombo, mbangi, njemu

in Lesotho: matekoane

in Southern Africa: blaardak, blaargewelf, dacha, dagga, dwaalbos, hennep, isangu, makdagga, mBanje, motokwane, muBanje, nsangu, umya

in Tanzania: mbangi

in Yoruba: igbo

in Zambia: libangwe

in Bhutan: phagpa nam

in China: chu ma, da ma, han ma, huang ma, huo ma, huo ma ren, hu ma, i ma, ma fen, ma po, ta ma

in India: ajaya, alatam, ananda, ananta muli, anantacaram, anantakarpam, anantakopitam, anantam, anantamuli, anantaymuli, anja, ankaravalli, anuvallipputu, atuttaraimayakki, auvaimuli, bahuvadini, bang, banga, bangi, bangiaaku, bangiaku, barh, bhamgi, bhang, bhanga, bhangaa, bhangachajhada, bhangala, bhangbeej, bhangi, bhangi gida, bhangi-gida, bhangigida, bhangla, bhanglyu, bhringi, bhrngi, bijeeah, bohar, burg-e-qinnab, caciyam, camittika, camittikacceti, camittu, canappu, caras, catacivanmuli, cattikurunatan, chapala, chapola, charas, cherukanchava, cimaikkanca, cipiccam, cittapattiri, cittarunnupukaimuli, civamuli, daarakte-bang, darakhte-bang, darakhte-kinnab, darakte-bang, dhurtapatri, dhurtavadhu, gaanja chettu, gaanja gida, gaanjaa gida, ganca, ganja, ganja-chedi, ganja chettu, ganja gida, ganjaa, ganjachettu, ganjah, ganjavi-chettu, ganjayi, ganje-ka-per, ganjekaper, ganjica, ganjika, ganzai, ginjilachilachi, gur, guruginja, hanga, hara, harshini, hursini, icantirumuli, icuramuli, indraasana, indrasana, indrashana, intiracanam, iyakatitacceti, iyakatitam, jadaganja, janavallika, jaya, kalengi-cansjava, kalpam, kalpam chettu, kalpamchettu, kalpamchettu, kamagni, kanab, kanca, kancabu, kancacceti, kancam, kancavittu, kancha, kanchava chedi, kanchava-cheti, kanchavachetto, kanja, kansa, kantattiri, karpam, karpamuli, kasa, katalataittan, kattittam, katutittakam, khinnab, kinnab, kirincanam, korakai, korakkar muli, korakkar-muli, korakkarmuli, korakkarmulikai, korkaluli, korkkarmuli, krishna thaamara, krishnathaamara, kurumuli, kus, kusuvu gida, kuvalai, kynja, lakiri, maadani, maatulaani, macataiyan, madamattagan, madani, manohara, matamattakam, matkunari, matta, matulani, matuli, maya, metta thaamara, mohini, moki, mullai, mutantam, nabatulqinnab, nabatul-qunnab, nanapattiri, nattukkanca, nili, nittirakari, nittirakaricceti, pangi, panki, periyorunnunkarpam, phulganja, qinnab, qinnab (bhang), ranjika, sabzi, sakasana, sankhapuspi, sankhini, saumya, segiyav, shakrashana, shiva, shivapriya, shukranaashana, siddhapatri, siddhi, siddhu (= perfect), sidhi, sivamuli, soma, tanaimayakkimuli, tandrakrt, tandraruchivardhini, taraimatu, tikaipputtiram, tiriculi, tirkkapalavam, trailokhya-vijaya, trailokya vijayaa, trailokyavijaya, tribhuvana vijayaa, tsjeru-cansjava, tukhm bhang, ujaya, ulokakarpanani, unmattini, ununda, vaccirataru, vajradruvikshaha, vajradruvrikshaha, vijaya, vijayaa, virapatra, visamulam, vrijpatta, waraq-ul-khyal, yogini, yokakarpatti, yokamavalarttitunani, yokattaivalarkkumuli

in Japan: asa

Malayan name: ganja

in Nepal: bhang, bhang ko bot, bhango, ganja

in Thailand: kancha, kancha cheen, paang

in Tibetan: momea, myan rtsi spras, solaradsa, solaradza, somaradza dmanpa

in Vietnam: c[aaf]n xa, gai m[ef]o, lanh m[as]n

in Hawaii: paka lolo

Canotia Torr. Celastraceae

See Reports of explorations and surveys : to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, made under the direction of the Secretary of War 4(5): 68. 1857 and Kew Bulletin 18: 255. 1964.

Canotia holacantha Torr.

North America. Perennial tree or shrub, berries eaten raw

See Reports of explorations and surveys : to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, made under the direction of the Secretary of War 4(5): 68. 1857 and Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 87: 251–258. 2001

(Stimulant, stomachic.)

in English: canotia, crucifixion thorn

Canscora Lam. Gentianaceae

Cansjan-cora is the Malayalam name in Kerala for Canscora perfoliata Lam.; see van Rheede, in Hortus Indicus Malabaricus 10: t. 52. 1690, Jean Baptiste Antoine Pierre de Monnet de Lamarck (1744–1829), Encyclopédie méthodique. Botanique. 1(2): 601. 1785, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 451. 1810, Hort. Malab. 37. 1818, Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 416. 1820, Fl. Ind. ed. Carey, i. 400. 1832, Fl. Filip. 510. 1837, Gen. Sp. Gent. 155. 1839 [Oct 1838], J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42(4): 235–236. 1874 [1873 publ. 26 May 1874], J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14: 431. 1875 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 9: 446. 1911, Fl. Madagasc. 168: 1–167. 1990, Blumea 48(1): 1–46. 2003.

Canscora alata (Roth ex Roem. & Schult.) Wall. (Canscora alata (Roth) Wall.; Canscora decussata (Roxb.) Schult. & Schult. f.; Canscora decussata Schult. & Schult. f.; Canscora decussata Schult.; Canscora decussata (Roxb.) Schult.; Canscora decussata (Roxb.) Roem. & Schult.; Exacum alata Roth; Exacum alatum Roth; Exacum alatum Roth ex Roem. & Schult.; Pladera decussata Roxb.)

India, Tropical Africa. Annual herb, slender, erect, spreading, winged stem, blue white flowers in lax cymes, winged calyx, fruits membranous capsules

See Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 10. 1814, Systema Vegetabilium, ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 3: 159. 1818, Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants 1: 418. 1820, Mantissa 3: 229. 1827, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] no. 4363. 1831 and Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 64(5): 888–889. 1975, Taxon 36: 766–767. 1987, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 79(2): 229–235. 2002, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 89(2–3): 211–216. 2003

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Whole plant antitubercular, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, antidote, aphrodisiac, improving memory, CNS depressant, nervine, anticonvulsant, stomachic, tonic, anthelmintic, astringent, laxative, bitter, alterative, emollient, febrifuge, for nervous disorders, insanity, epilepsy, insanity, hypertension, hypotension, urinary and liver disorders, edema, worms, inflammation, abdominal troubles, leprosy, ulcers, skin diseases, tuberculosis, snakebites; whole plant ground with honey applied for mouth ulcers.)

in India: akshapida, chitti akchinata, daakuni, daankuni, danakuni, dandotpala, dankuni, dridhapada, dunkoni, kalameg, kambumalinee, kambumalini, kambupushpi, kankacura, kancankora, kanjankora, mahatikta, maheshvari, nakuli, nellekavi, netramila, patratanduli, samkhaphuli, samkhapushpi, samkhapuspi, sanhkapushpi, sanhkapuspi, sankaphuli, sankh pushpi, sankha holi, sankhaahuli, sankhahuli, sankhaphuli, sankhapushpi, sankhapuspi, sankhini, sankhupuspam, sankinisoppu, shankapushpa, shankapushpi, shankha pushpa, shankha pushpi, shankhahuli, shankhapushpi, shankhini, sukshmapushpi, tantorpalam, tikta, tiktayava, titavi, tunduli, visarpini, yashasvini, yavatikta, yavi, yavotchi

Canscora andrographioides Griffith ex C.B. Clarke (Canscora melastomacea Handel-Mazzetti; Canscora melastomatacea Handel-Mazzetti)

India, China. Annual, erect, many-branched, 4-angled, tubular corolla white to purple, weed

See Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 14(78): 431. 1875 and Sinensia 2(10): 131–132. 1932

(Roots and leaves paste applied on skin diseases, cuts and wounds.)

in English: melastoma-like canscora

in China: luo xin cao

in India: sak sre

Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (Canscora diffusa R. Br.; Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R. Br.; Canscora diffusa (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.; Canscora kirkii N.E. Br.; Canscora lawii Wight; Canscora pauciflora Dalzell; Canscora rubiflora X.X. Chen; Canscora tenella Wall., nom. nudum; Canscora tenella Wight; Cobamba dichotoma Blanco; Exacum diffusum (Vahl) Willd.; Exacum diffusum Willd.; Gentiana diffusa Vahl; Orthostemon erectus R. Br.; Pladera virgata Roxb.; Striga esquirolii H. Lév.)

China, India, Madagascar. Herb, annual, slender, many-branched, erect, pale purple to pink salverform corolla, weed

See Symbolae Botanicae, ... 3: 47. 1794, Systema Plantarum 1(2): 637. 1798, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 451. 1810, Systema Vegetabilium 3: 301. 1818, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens [Wallich] no. 4362. 1831, Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis 4: 7, t. 1327, f. 1, 3. 1848 and Flora of Tropical Africa 4(1): 558. 1903, Flore du Kouy-Tchéou 398. 1914, Guihaia 6(3): 177–178, f. 1–5. 1986

(Used in Ayurveda. Bitter plant extract febrifuge, stomachic, tonic, antidote, aphrodisiac, laxative, alterative, sedative, CNS depressant, nervine, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, for nervous disorders, insanity; whole plant decoction used against stomachache and skin ailments. Paste of roots and flowers taken with milk as a sedative of nervous disorders, epilepsy, insanity.)

in China: pu di chuan xin cao

in India: banbana, bhuin-neem, dankuni, sankhapuspi, shankhupuspi, sankhvel, titavi, yavotchi, zinku, zinku kariatu

in Philippines: chang-bato, kubamba, malenggal, tsang-bato

in Madagascar: kifiofio

Canscora heteroclita (L.) Gilg (Canscora sessiliflora Roem. & Schult.; Exacum heteroclitum (L.) Willd.)

India. Erect herb, stem 4-winged

See Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 639. 1798, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4(2): 76. 1895

(A nerve tonic and a laxative.)

Canscora perfoliata Lam. (Canscora perfoliata Wall.)

India.

See Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 601. 1785

(Plant juice sedative, CNS depressant, nervine, anticonvulsant, taken for any poisonous bite.)

in India: cansjan-cora, kamjanakora, narayana vembu

Cansjera A.L. Juss. Opiliaceae

Tsjeru valli Canjiram or tsjerou cansjeram is a Malabar name, tsjeru ‘small’, valli ‘climber’ and canjiram ‘name of the nux vomica, Strychnos nux-vomica L.; see van Rheede in Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. 7: t. 2 and 4. 1688, Familles des Plantes 2: 80, 614. 1763, A.L. de Jussieu, Genera Plantarum. 448. 1789, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2(1): 280. 1791.

Cansjera rheedei J.F. Gmel. (Cansjera rheedei Blanco; Cansjera rheedei Náves ex Fern.-Vill.)

India. Climbing shrub, brittle leaves, dull yellow flowers, oblong red fruits

See Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 73. 1837 and Willdenowia 9: 45–48. 1979

(Leaves cooked with dhal and eaten like a vegetable as a postpartum remedy, to get relief from postnatal pains; leaves boiled and fried with onion and eaten as febrifuge; leaves decoction drunk to cure intermittent fever; a paste applied around anus to expel intestinal worms in children.)

in China: shan gan teng

in India: bhader, marade cheppu, pavvidagu, vandukkeerai

Canthium Lam. Rubiaceae

Kantankara is a Malayalam name used in Kerala for Canthium parviflorum, from kantan ‘shining’ and kara ‘spiny shrub’ (other names in India are kirni, karai, balusu, kake-gida, kandangari, neroori and kayili); see J.B.A.P. de Monnet de Lamarck, Encyclopédie méthodique. Botanique. 1: 602. 1785, Genera Plantarum 206. 1789, Systema Vegetabilium 4: 353. 1819, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 4: 469. 1830 and Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 16: 19, 25. 1960, Adansonia sér 2, 9(1): 47–55. 1969, Kew Bulletin 42: 630. 1987, Flora of Tropical East Africa Rubiaceae (3): 864, 876. 1991, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 146: 278. 2004, Novon 17(4): 519. 2007, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96(1): 175. 2009.

Canthium aciculatum Ridl.

Malaysia.

See Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 57: 57. 1911

(Leaves decoction for hiccough in small children.)

Malay name: melor hutan

Canthium angustifolium Roxb. (Canthium leschenaultii (DC.) Wight & Arn.; Canthium trachystyle Ridl.; Dondisia leschenaultii DC.)

India.

See Fl. Ind. 2: 169. 1824, Prodr. 4: 469. 1830, Cat. Ind. Pl.: 77. 1834 (24 Sept. 1834), Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 426. 1834 and J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 10: 95. 1920

(Used in Sidha. Roots for colic and stomachache.)

in India: katu-kara-walli, kuttukkarai, virinchi

Malay name: akar surumat

Canthium coromandelicum (Burm.f.) Alston (Canthium parviflorum Schlecht. ex Hook.f.; Canthium parviflorum Lam.; Canthium parviflorum Bartl. ex DC., nom. illeg.; Gmelina coromandelina Burm.f.; Paederia valli-kara Juss.; Plectronia parviflora (Lam.) Bedd.; Plectronia parviflora Bedd.; Plectronia parviflora Harv. & Sond.; Webera tetrandra Willd.)

India, Sri Lanka. Tree, light green corolla, ripe fruits of Canthium parviflorum eaten and leaves used as vegetable

See Fl. Indica (N.L. Burman) 132. 1768, Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 602. 1785, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 6: 381. 1820, Prodr. (DC.) 4: 474. 1830, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 3: 17. 1865, Beddome, Richard Henry (1830–1911), The Flora Sylvatica for Southern India: 134/5. Madras: Printed by Gantz Brothers, [1869– 1874], Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 3: 111. 1880 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6(Suppl.): 152. 1931, Pacific Sci. 50: 317–323. 1996

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Roots for snakebite. Roots and leaves as diuretic. Veterinary medicine, crushed leaves made into a paste and applied for horn cancer; leaves extract given in insect bite; boiled leaves applied and bound over fractured area; stem bark along with those of Terminalia arjuna and Tinospora cordifolia pounded and the extract given in insect bite.)

in India: baasu koora, balasa, balasu, ballusookura, balsa, balusu, balusukura, bolusu, carai, chayatinisah, cherukara, chinnabalasu, chinnabalusu, cinnabalusu, dodda kare, gangeruki, kaare, kaare mullu, kadbar, kake-gida, kalikkarai, kandangari, kanden-kara, kandenkara, kandenkhara, kantankara, kara, karai, karai maram, karaicetti, karamullu, karanceti, karay, karaycheddi, karaychedi, kari, karmai, karuvavikam, katalatti, kirna, kirni, korutan, kutirakitam, kutirakitamaram, kutiram, matamamukam, mullukarai, mullumusta, naippulikacceti, naippulikam, nakapala, nakkiri, nallakarai, nallakkarai, niruri, ollepode, palakanacceti, palakanam, patarkaraicceti, patarkkarai, pintitam, punkaram, sengarai, shiah sohgian, tambittu kare, theranaikarai, therane, tuturi, valli-kara, wollepuda

Canthium glabrum Blume (Canthium carinatum Pierre ex Pit.; Canthium carinatum Summerh.; Canthium glabrum var. pedunculatum Pit.; Plectronia glabra Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kurz; Plectronia glabra (Blume) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kurz; Plectronia glabra (Blume) Koord. & Valeton, nom. illeg.; Plectronia glabra Koord. & Valeton)

India, Malesia. Tree, tender leaves used as vegetable

See Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (Blume) 45. 1823, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 16: 967. [Oct 1826-Nov 1827], J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46(2): 153. 1877 and Koorders, Sijfert Hendrik (1863–1919), Exkursionsflora von Java 3: 260. Jena, 1911– 1913, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 3: 291–292. 1924, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928, 391. 1928

(Bark decoction given in fever; bark extract in dysentery. Root decoction given in irregular bleeding during menstruation.)

in India: golmatra

Canthium horridum Blume (Canthium horridum Benth., nom. illeg.; Canthium pauciflorum Blanco; Canthium zizyphinum Wall., nom. nud.; Dondisia horrida (Blume) Korth.; Hyptianthera rhamnoides Zoll. & Moritzi; Plectronia horrida (Blume) K. Schum., nom. illeg.; Plectronia horrida (Blume) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kurz)

China, Malaysia.

See Catalogus ... 45. 1823, Fl. Filip. 165. 1837, Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2(2): 236. 1851 [Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief. Verslagen en Mededelingen der Nederlandsche Botanische Vereeniging.], Flora Hongkongensis 159. 1861, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 46(2): 153. 1877, Adansonia 12: 197. 1878, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4(4): 92. 1891

(Roots decoction as a postpartum remedy.)

Malay names: kayu bulang, ubat luka

Canthium rheedei DC. (Canthium amarum Oken; Canthium rheedei var. minus Thwaites; Plectronia rheedei (DC.) Bedd.; Plectronia rheedei Bedd.)

India, Sri Lanka. Armed shrubs, ovate leaves, yellowish green flowers

See Prodr. (DC.) 4: 474. 1830, Allg. Naturgesch. 3(2): 853. 1841, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 153. 1859, Fl. Sylv. S. India: 134– 135. 1872

(Root decoction anthelmintic.)

in India: bidani-geli, kaarachedi, kare, karemullu, tsjerou-kara

Cantua Juss. ex Lam. Polemoniaceae

From a Peruvian name, ccantu, for Cantua buxifolia Lam.; see Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique (Lamarck) 1(2): 603. 1785, Genera Plantarum [Jussieu] 136. 1789 and American Fern Journal 49(1): 10–24. 1959, Margaret A. Towle, The Ethnobotany of Pre-Columbian Peru 79. Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago 1961, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(5A/2): 112–131. 1967, American Journal of Botany 85(6): 741–752. 1998.

Cantua buxifolia Juss. ex Lam. (Cantua alutacea Infantes; Cantua buxifolia Lam.; Cantua buxifolia var. lanceolata Brand; Cantua buxifolia var. ovata Brand; Cantua dependens Pers.; Cantua lanceolata Peter; Cantua ovata Cav.; Cantua theifolia D. Don; Cantua tomentosa Cav.; Cantua uniflora Pers.; Periphragmos dependens Ruiz & Pav.; Periphragmos uniflorus Ruiz & Pav.)

Peru. Shrub, red pink yellow tubular flowers, calyx connate, seeds with marginal wing

See Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 603. 1785, Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... [Cavanilles] 4: 43, t. 363. 1797, Flora Peruviana 2: 18, t. 133. 1799, Synopsis Plantarum (Persoon) 1: 187. 1805, Edinb. Phil. Journ. 7: 289. 1822, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien [Engler & Prantl] 4(3a): 45. 1891 and Pflanzenr. (Engler) 4, Fam. 250: 22. 1907, Lilloa 31: 88. 1962, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 97: 337–350. 2005

(Flowers infusion astringent, against diarrhea, cough, rheumatism, liver and eyes complaints. Veterinary medicine, branches and flowers infusion for diarrhea. Magic, a symbol of unity, to bring good luck, ceremonial, offerings, superstitious practices.)

in English: magic flower, magic-flower-of-the-Incas, magic tree, Peruvian magic tree, sacred-flower-of-the-Incas

in Peru: cantu, cantuta, ccantu, ccantus, ccantut, ccantutay, ccelmo, flor del Inca, jantu, jinllo, kantu, kantuta, khantuta, la flor sagrada de los Incas, qantu, qantuta

Cantua pyrifolia Juss. ex Lam. (Cantua loxensis Willd.; Cantua loxensis Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.; Cantua ochroleuca Brand; Cantua peruviana J.F. Gmel.; Cantua pyrifolia Juss.)

South America.

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1: 603. 1783, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2(1): 347. 1791, Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. iii. (1804) 117. 1804, Systema Vegetabilium ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 369. 1819 and Das Pflanzenreich (Engler) 4, Fam. 250: 23. 1907

(Infusion used as a laxative.)

Cantua quercifolia Juss.

Ecuador, Peru. Shrub or small trees, suffrutex, white flowers

See Annales du muséum national d’histoire naturelle 3: 118. 1804

(Analgesic, tonic, a remedy for malaria, sore knees.)

in Peru: dormidero, pepiso

Caperonia A. St.-Hil. Euphorbiaceae

For the apothecary Caperoni, see Histoire des plantes les plus remarquables du Brésil ... 244–245. 1826 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(6): 25–170. 1949, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(3A/1): 3–200. 1951, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 54(3): 211–350. 1967, Ceiba 19(1): 1–118. 1975, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75(3): 1087–1144. 1988, Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. 36: 1–169. 1995, Ceiba 42(1): 1–71. 2001 [2002], Anales del Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Botánica 73(2): 155–281. 2002, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584. 2007.

Caperonia castaneifolia (L.) A. St.-Hil. (Argythamnia castaneifolia (L.) Kuntze; Argythamnia paludosa (Klotzsch) Kuntze; Caperonia angusta S.F. Blake; Caperonia cubensis M.R. Schomb.; Caperonia cubensis M.R. Schomb. ex Pax & Hoffm.; Caperonia nervosa A. Rich.; Caperonia paludosa Klotzsch; Caperonia panamensis Pax & Hoffm., nom. illeg.; Caperonia panamensis Klotzsch; Caperonia stenomeres S.F. Blake; Croton castaneifolius L.; Croton castaneifolius Kunth, nom. illeg. hom.; Croton castaneifolius L.; Croton nervosus Rottler; Croton nervosus Rich. ex A. Rich.; Croton palustris Kunth, nom. illeg.; Ditaxis castaneaefolia (L.) Baill.; Ditaxis castaneifolia (L.) Baill.; Meterana castaneifolia (L.) Raf.; Tournesol castaneifolia (L.) M. Gómez)

South America.

See Species Plantarum 2: 1004. 1753, Der Gesellsschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, neue Schriften 4: 190. 1803, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 2: 70–71. 1817, Sylva Telluriana 66. 1838, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 51. 1843, Historia Fisica Politica y Natural de la Isla de Cuba, Botanica 2: 213. 1850, The Botany of the Voyage of H.M.S. ~Herald~ 103. 1853, Adansonia 4: 274. 1863–1864, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 593. 1891, Anales de Historia Natural 23: 48. 1894 and Pflanzenr., IV, 147, VI: 31. 1912, Pflanzenr., IV, 147, VII: 424. 1914, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 5: 486. 1924, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 14(13): 288. 1924, Economic Botany 46(3): 293–298. 1992

(Leaves poultice applied to swellings, ulcers.)

in English: chestnutleaf false croton

Caperonia palustris (L.) A. St.-Hil. (Androphoranthus glandulosus H. Karst.; Argythamnia palustris (L.) Kuntze; Caperonia liebmanniana Didr.; Caperonia liebmanniana Didr. ex Pax & Hoffm., nom. illeg.; Caperonia palustris A. St.-Hil.; Caperonia palustris Kunth; Caperonia palustris var. linearifolia Standl. & L.O. Williams; Caperonia palustris var. linearis Standl. & L.O. Williams; Caperonia pubescens S.F. Blake; Croton castaneifolius Kunth, nom. illeg.; Croton palustris L.; Croton palustris Kunth, nom. illeg. hom.; Croton palustris Vell., nom. illeg.; Lepidococca sieberi Turcz.; Meterana palustris (L.) Raf.; Tournesol palustris M. Gómez)

South America. Weak-stemmed straggling herb, erect or procumbent, small white flowers in terminal and axillary racemes

See Species Plantarum 2: 1004. 1753, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 2: 70–71. 1817, Florae Fluminensis 10: 67. 1831, Sylva Telluriana 66. 1838, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 15(2): 553. 1866, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 593. 1891, Anales de Historia Natural 23: 48. 1894 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(1): 12. 1922, Ceiba 1(3): 148. 1950

(Leaves poultice applied to swellings, ulcers. Aerial parts decoction taken for bladder and kidney disorders, and for back pains.)

in English: Texas weed, wild green tea

Capillipedium Stapf = Filipedium Raizada & Jain

Latin capillus, i ‘the hair’ and pes, pedis ‘foot’, referring to the spikelets, pedicels and base are ciliate, or alluding to the spikelets borne on capillary panicle branches, related to and hybrids with Bothriochloa Kuntze, see Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 11, 169. 1917, University of Queensland, Department of Biology, Papers 2(3): 1–62 (41–46). 1944, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 49: 682– 683. 1951, Phytomorphology 7: 93–102. 1957, Boissiera. Mémoires du Conservatoire de Botanique et de l’Institut de Botanique Systématique de l’Université de Genève 9: 154. 1960, Grasses of Burma ... 110–113. 1960, Flora of New South Wales Gramineae 19(1): 37–39. 1961, American Journal of Botany 53(1): 94–98. 1966 [Morphology of the Compilospecies Bothriochloa intermedia.], Bot. Tidsskr. 67: 324–326. 1973, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 15: 51–57. 1980, Pharmazie 39(1): 64. 1984, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 140–143. 1990, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 775–783. 1994.

Capillipedium huegelii (Hack.) Stapf (Andropogon foetidus Hack. ex Lisboa; Andropogon huegelii Hack.; Andropogon huegelii var. foetidus Lisboa; Andropogon schmidii Hook.f.; Capillipedium foetidum (Lisboa) Raiz. & Jain; Capillipedium huegelii (Hack.) Blatt. & McCann; Capillipedium hugelii (Hack.) Stapf; Capillipedium parviflorum f. huegelii (Hack.) Roberty; Capillipedium schmidii (Hook.f.) Stapf; Dichanthium huegelii (Hack.) S.K. Jain & Deshp.) (named for the German-born Austrian plant collector and traveller Baron Karl Alexander Anselm von Hügel, 1794/1796– 1870, soldier, horticulturist, 1830–1837 in Australasia, 1837–1849 in Vienna, 1849–1859 in Florence, 1860–1869 in Bruxelles, author of Der stille Ocean und die Spanischen Besitzungen im ostindischen Archipel. Wien 1860. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 2: 215. 1965; A. Lasègue, Musée Botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; Isaac Henry Burkill, Chapters on the History of Botany in India. Delhi 1965; S.L. Endlicher et al. [Eduard Fenzl, George Bentham and Heinrich Wilhelm Schott], Enumeratio plantarum quas in Novae Hollandiae ... collegit C. de Hügel. Wien 1837 and Stirpium Australasicarum herbarii Hügeliani decades tres. Vindobonae 1838; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 1917–1933)

India. Small value for grazing, nodes densely bearded, panicle contracted

See Fodder Grasses N. India 88. 1888, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 492. 1889, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 6: 71. 1891, The Flora of British India 7(21): 180. 1897 [1896] and Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 31(4): t. 3085. 1922, J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 420. 1928, Indian Forester 77: 752. 1951, Boissiera. 9: 154. 1960, Bulletin of the Botanical Department. 20(1–4): 135. 1978[1979]

(Essential oil with antibacterial efficacy, for rheumatism. Leaves paste applied on the wounds, boils, scorpion stings. Stem bark decoction against snakebite.)

in India: rohis

Capirona Spruce Rubiaceae

A vernacular name, see Fl. Ecuador 50: 1–112. 1994.

Capirona decorticans Spruce (Capirona duckei Huber, nom. nud.; Capirona huberiana Ducke; Capirona leiophloea Benoist; Capirona surinamensis Bremek.; Capirona wurdackii Steyerm.; Condaminea macrophylla Poepp., nom. inval.; Loretoa peruviana Standley; Monadelphanthus floridus H. Karst.)

Tropical America. Fruit edible

See J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 200. 1859, Flora de Colombia 1: 67, t. 33. 1860 and Boletim do Museu Paraense de Historia Natural e Ethnographia 3: 185. 1913, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 27: 367. 1921, Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 3: 257. 1922, Recueil Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1934, xxxi. 261. 1934, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 11(5): 222. 1936, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 10(5): 190, f. 69. 1963[1964], Acta Amaz. 15: 50, 52. 1985, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 114(2): 254–259. 2007

(Leishmanicidal. For skin diseases, psoriasis, fungal infections, diabetes and wounds.)

in Bolivia: batahua, guayabochi

in Peru: capirona, capirona de altura, capirona negra, capirona negra de altura, kshi muna, madera de hierro, metaguais, meta-guayo, pau-mulato

Capparicordis H.H. Iltis & X. Cornejo Capparaceae

See Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society [London] 145: 209–218. 2004, Brittonia 59(3): 245–254. 2007, Harvard Papers in Botany 13(1): 103–116, 117–120. 2008.

Capparicordis crotonoides (Kunth) H.H. Iltis & X. Cornejo (Capparis cordata Ruiz & Pav. ex DC.; Capparis cordata Ruiz & Pav. ex E.A. López, nom. illeg.; Capparis crotonoides Kunth; Capparis sidaefolia Ruiz & Pav. ex DC.; Colicodendron crotonoides (Kunth) Hutch.; Quadrella crotonoides (Kunth) J. Presl; Quadrella sidaefolia (Ruiz & Pav. ex DC.) J. Presl)

Peru, Ecuador west of the Andes. Xerophytic shrubs or small trees, stellate pubescence

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 5: 95, pl. 437. 1821, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 251–252. 1824 and Anales del Instituto Botánico A. J. Cavanilles 16: 386–387. 1958, The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 309. 1967, Brittonia 59(3): 248–249, 251, f. 2A-I. 2007

(Used to cure rheumatism, hot water extract given as oral application to human adult for neuritis.)

Capparicordis tweediana (Eichler) H.H. Iltis & X. Cornejo (Capparis tweediana Eichler; Colicodendron tweedianum (Eichler) Hutch.)

Argentina to Bolivia and Paraguay east of the Andes. Xerophytic shrubs or small trees, stellate pubescence, corolla yellow-green or yellow, unripe fruit boiled in water administered orally to human adult as a food

See Flora Brasiliensis 13(1): 273–274. 1865 and The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 309. 1967, Brittonia 59(3): 251, f. 1A-F, 3A-H. 2007

(Leaf decoction taken for cough, also with mate tea for sore eyes. Fresh chewed leaves applied externally to furuncles.)

Capparidastrum Hutch. Capparidaceae (Capparaceae)

Resembling Capparis, see Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(2/3): 984–1006. 1938, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1): 566–584. 2001, Ceiba 44(2): 105–268. 2003 [2005], Harvard Papers in Botany 11(1): 17–18. 2006, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584. 2007, Harvard Pap. Bot. 13(2): 229–236. 2008.

Capparidastrum frondosum (Jacq.) X. Cornejo & H.H. Iltis (Capparidastrum baducca (L.) Hutch.; Capparidastrum elegans (Mart.) Hutch.; Capparis baducca L.; Capparis elegans Mart.; Capparis frondosa Jacq.; Capparis stenophylla Standl.; Uterveria frondosa (Jacq.) Bertol.)

Neotropics.

See Species Plantarum 1: 504. 1753, Enumeratio Systematica Plantarum 24. 1760, Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist., t. 104. 1763, Sylva Telluriana 109. 1838, Flora 22(Beibl. 1): 24. 1839, Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis 2: 8. 1839 and Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 13(20): 437. 1923, The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 310. 1967, Taxon 42: 658, fig. 1. 1993, Harvard Papers in Botany 13(2): 232–233. 2008

(Irritant.)

Capparidastrum sola (J.F. Macbr.) X. Cornejo & H.H. Iltis (Capparidastrum solum (J.F. Macbr.) Cornejo & Iltis; Capparis acutifolia J.F. Macbr., nom. illeg. hom., non Sweet; Capparis sola J.F. Macbr.; Capparis sola var. longiracemosa Dugand)

South America. Shrub or undershrub

See Enumeratio Systematica Plantarum 24. 1760, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 248–249. 1824, Hortus Britannicus 585. 1830, Flora Brasiliensis 13(1): 269, 278. 1865 and Candollea 5: 358–359. 1934, Caldasia 7: 110–111. 1955, The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 310. 1967, Willdenowia 34: 261. 2004

(Arrow poison.)

Capparis L. Capparaceae (Capparidaceae)

Greek kapparis or kappari (Theophrastus, HP. 6.5.2; Dioscorides 2.173), used for the caper plant and its fruit; possibly from Greek kapros ‘wild boar, provided with tusks; penis’, Arabic kafara ‘to be hairy, villous’; Latin capparis for the caper bush and the fruit of the caper bush, the caper; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 1: 503–504. 1753, Genera Plantarum Ed. 5. 222. 1754, Genera Plantarum 242–243. 1789 and Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(2/3): 984–1006. 1938, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(4): 380–397. 1946, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1): 566–584. 2001, Ceiba 44(2): 105–268. 2003 [2005], Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society [London] 145: 209–218. 2004, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 93: 122–149. 2006, Brittonia 59(3): 245–254. 2007, Harvard Papers in Botany 13(1): 103–116, 117–120. 2008, Harvard Papers in Botany 13(2): 229–236. 2008.

Capparis angulata Ruiz & Pav. ex DC. (Capparis angulata Ruiz & Pav.; Capparis angulata Ruiz & Pav. ex E.A. López, nom. illeg. hom.; Capparis gaudichaudiana Eichler; Capparis scabrida Kunth; Colicodendron scabridum (Kunth) Hutch.)

South America. Tree or shrub, flowers dark yellowish-green

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 5(20): 95. 1821, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 253. 1824, The Botany of the Voyage of H.M.S. ~Herald~ 78. 1852, Flora Brasiliensis 13(1): 273. 1865 and Anales del Instituto Botánico A. J. Cavanilles 16: 383, tab. 431. 1958, The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 309. 1967

(Dried bark used orally as a pulmonary antihemorrhagic, hot water extract used against allergies and to regulate blood pressure.)

in Ecuador: sapote, zapote

Capparis assamica Hook. f. & Thomson

India, China. Shrub, without stipular spines or sometimes with ascending spines, white petals, red globose fruit

See The Flora of British India 1: 177. 1872

(Extract of dried leaves and roots mixed together with fresh leaves of Artemisia vulgaris taken for headache and body pain.)

in China: zong xu shan gan

in India: mantori

Capparis avicennifolia Kunth (Beautempsia avicenniifolia (Kunth) Gaudich., as avicenniaefolia; Capparis ovalifolia Ruiz & Pav. ex DC.; Capparis ovalifolia Ruiz & Pav. ex E.A. López, nom. illeg.; Colicodendron avicenniaefolium Seem.; Colicodendron avicenniifolium Seem.)

South America. Shrub or tree, leathery leaves, flowers greenish-white

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 5: 94. 1821, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 253. 1824, Bot. Voy. Herald 78. 1852, Voy. Bonite, Bot. 4: 38. 1866 and Anales del Instituto Botánico A. J. Cavanilles 16: 384. 1958

(Leaves and fruits toxic, produce dizziness and hallucinations. Hot water extract of fruit taken against neuritis and to treat rheumatism.)

in Peru: guayabito de gentil

Capparis bariensis Pierre ex Gagnep.

Vietnam.

See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 55: 209. 1908

(Root decoction taken to facilitate menstruation.)

Capparis brassii DC. (Capparis gueinzii Sond.; Capparis thonningii Schumach.)

South Africa, Togo. Woody liana, orange reddish fruits

See Species Plantarum 1: 503–504. 1753, Prodr. (DC.) 1: 248. 1824

(Used for chest complaints, expectoration of blood.)

in South Africa: uMabusana

Capparis cartilaginea Decne. (Capparis galeata Fresen.; Capparis inermis Forssk.; Capparis spinosa L. var. galeata (Fresen.) Hook.f. & Thomson)

Egypt. Shrub, pink white flowers, sharp recurved thorns

See Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 2, 3: 273. 1835 and Fl. Afr. Nord 12: 120. 1965, Taxon 52(2): 308– 309. 2003, Taxon 54(2): 530. 2005

(Leaf used as antidote. Magic.)

in Kenya: lokapilak

Capparis cynophallophora L. (Capparis cynophallophora subsp. isthmensis (Eichler) H.H. Iltis; Capparis isthmensis Eichler; Capparis jamaicensis Jacq.; Quadrella cynophallophora (L.) Hutch.; Quadrella isthmensis (Eichler) Hutch.; Quadrella jamaicensis (Jacq.) J. Presl; Uterveria cynophallophora (L.) Bertol.; Uterveria cynophallophora Bertol.)

Tropical America, Costa Rica, Panama. Small tree, sweet scented white flowers mostly solitary or in short cymes, fruit a long pod with swellings marking the position of large developed brownish seeds

See Species Plantarum 1: 504. 1753, Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 1071. 1759, Enumeratio Systematica Plantarum 23. 1760, Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis 2: 8–10. 1839, Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis 4: 15. 1840, Flora Brasiliensis 13(1): 269–270. 1865 and The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 309, in obs. 1967, Fl. Lesser Antilles 4(1): 296. 1988

(Hot water extract of roots taken as an emmenagogue.)

in English: black-willow, Jamaica caper, Jamaican caper, Jamaican caper tree, mustard tree

Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. (Capparis aphylla Hayne ex Roth; Capparis aphylla Roth; Capparis decidua Pax; Capparis decidua Edgew.; Capparis sodada R. Br.; Sodada decidua Forssk.)

Pakistan, Northern Africa, India, Arabia. Many-branched shrub or small tree, leafless green crooked spiny branches, flowers orange red, fruit and buds of young shoots edible raw, fodder for camels

See Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 81. 1775, Nov. pl. sp. 238. 1821, Species Plantarum. Editio sexta 238. 1831–1833, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany (J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot.) 6: 184. 1862, Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] iii. 2. (1891) 231. 1891 and Blumea 12: 424–425. 1965, Bulletin of Indian Medicine 159–160. 1973, Journal of Biological Sciences 7(3): 544–548, 582–584. 2007

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Whole plant antifertility, acrid, stimulant, laxative, cooling, tonic, antidote, counter-irritant, in cough and asthma, to treat bruises, boils and indolent ulcers. Hot water extract of dried aerial parts diuretic, anthelmintic, analgesic, diaphoretic, abortifacient, antidiabetic, emetic, antiinflammatory, astringent, stomachic, laxative, antidote; young twigs chewed for strengthening gums and relieving toothache. Crushed young buds juice dropped in each ear for earache; young branches to treat ear infection; tender young shoots to relieve back pain. Wood ash to relieve pain of the digestive tract, blood in the stools. Bark diaphoretic, used in cough and asthma; fresh bark and shoots to treat gum disease and tooth decay; bark and flowers healing wounds. Roots, fruits and flowers febrifuge, antiinflammatory, vermifuge, for jaundice, chronic pains, arthritis, rheumatism. Fruits in cardiac troubles, abdominal pain, rheumatism, indigestion. Root bark astringent, antiiflammatory, in rheumatism, dropsy. Veterinary medicine, antiinflammatory.)

in English: caper berry, caper plant, wild caper

in Sahara: ignine

in India: ab karir, apatra, bergesodab, cattiputpam, cattiracoputpam, chippuri, cinaikaravi, cinaikaravicceti, cippuri, ciracukkilam, cirakakoli, cirakatantai, cirakkoli, ciratci, cutakkini, enugadanta, granthila, gudhapatra, hanbag, kaareela, kabra, kachia phal, kachra, kair, kantaki, karad, karaka, kareera, kareeuppina gida, karel, karel-ka-tel, karer, kari uppigida, kari uppina gida, karia, karil, karimulli, karimullu, kario, karir, karira, karirah, kariram, kariramu, karirmula, karu, karyal, kataphala, kebir, keda, kelal, kentikam, ker, kera, keraa, kerdo, kerro, kiabara, kiruli, krakara, krakatha, krishashakha, kulaladondai, kulalatontai, kuraka, kuraram, kurel, kurrel, lete, mar vidahika, margh, marubharuha, maruruhu, marupurukam, mriduphala, mumudatu, naepathi, naevatho, nepati, nevati, nigudhapatra, nishpatra, nishpatrika, nispatigay, nispatley gida, palaccaka, satari, sengam, senkam, shakapushpa, shatakunta, shipri, shonapushpa, sirakkali, sodab, sodada, suphala, tikshnakantaka, tikshnasara, titali, tundub, ubhuruha, ushnasundara, venu, vayacca, vayaccam, vishvakpatra

in Pakistan: kaledo, kaledok, kaler, karar

in Tibet: ka ri ra, rgya sna lu, rgya sne u, u bo ka, u po ta ka, u po ta ki la

Capparis deserti (Zohary) Täckh. & Boulos (Capparis spinosa var. deserti Zohary)

Egypt.

See Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel, Section D, Botany 8: 54. 1960, Publications from the Cairo University Herbarium 5: 14. 1972 [1974]

(Leaf decoction taken as antirheumatic and leaves infusion taken for arteriosclerosis; leaves used externally for scurvy, toothache, rheumatism.)

Capparis diffusa Ridl.

Malesia.

See Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 59: 68. 1911

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha.)

in India: kala, karamarda

Capparis divaricata Lam.

India. Shrub, crooked thorns

See Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 606. 1785

(Used in Sidha. Veterinary medicine, for trypanosomiasis, bark extract pounded with leaves of Erythrina variegata, ginger, garlic and turmeric in goat’s milk and given orally.)

in India: ambaramvalli, ambaram valli, badaraeni, bhandero, boodari, budaroni, guda reni, rem, remidi, remmani, revadi, thu’raddai, thu’raddi, totla, totte, tottulla, turatti

Capparis diversifolia Wight & Arn. (Capparis diversifolia Sessé & Moc., nom. illeg.)

India.

See Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 27. 1834, Flora Mexicana. 130. 1894

(Leaves and flowers consumed with milk for headache.)

in India: vaarithumbaipatchilai

Capparis elaeagnoides Gilg

South Africa, Tanzania.

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 1: 248. 1824 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 33: 215. 1903, Kew Bulletin 16: 81. 1962

(Infusion of dried root administered orally to treat sleeping sickness.)

Capparis erythrocarpos Isert

Tanzania, Ghana. Armed vine, spiny liana, climbing shrub, straggling, with spiny hooks, curved spines, papery leaves, green flowers, red ridged fruit

See Ges. Naturf. Freunde zu Berlin neue Schrift. ix. (1789) 334. t. 9. 1789

(Pieces of roots placed by making incision on the breasts to provoke milk secretion.)

Capparis fascicularis DC. var. elaeagnoides (Gilg) DeWolf

East Africa. Shrub, very thorny, scrambling, leaves elliptic shortly stalked, flowers white or cream clustered at the base of the leaves, fruits orange when ripe

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 1: 248. 1824 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 33: 215. 1903, Kew Bulletin 16: 81. 1962

(Roots and leaves poisonous, vomiting and purging followed by death.)

in East Africa: akatono, akatungu, kerda, kiptablelet, lubisu, lubisu lugosha, lugve, luwisu, mukamira, obutungutungu, ol aturude, omukwatangwe

in South Africa: caper tree, Transvaal caper

Capparis fascicularis DC. var. fascicularis (Capparis flanaganii Gilg & Ben.; Capparis rudatisii Gilg & Ben.; Capparis transvaalensis Schinz; Capparis transvaalensis var. calvescens (Gilg & Ben.) Marais)

East Africa, Ghana. Shrub, woody climber, sprawling, spreading, very thorny, with hooked spines, scrambling, flowers pale greenish cream

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 1: 248. 1824

(Root decoction taken to treat gastrointestinal problems and stomachache.)

in South Africa: caper tree, Transvaal caper

in Tanzania: maji ya gagulo

Capparis flexuosa (L.) L. (Capparis cynophallophora L., nom. illeg.; Capparis didymobotrys Ruiz & Pav.; Capparis didymobotrys Ruiz & Pav. ex DC.; Capparis didymobotrys Ruiz & Pav. ex E.A. López, nom. illeg.; Capparis eucalyptifolia O.L. Haught; Capparis flexuosa L.; Capparis flexuosa Blume ex Hassk.; Capparis flexuosa Vell., nom. illeg.; Capparis guayaquilensis Kunth; Capparis isthmensis Eichler; Capparis lanceolata Ruiz & Pav. ex E.A. López, nom. illeg.; Capparis lanceolata Ruiz & Pav. ex DC.; Capparis mollis Kunth; Capparis polyantha Triana & Planch.; Capparis sinclairii Benth.; Morisonia flexuosa L.; Quadrella cynophallophora (L.) Hutch.)

Central and South America. Tree, white scented clustered flowers, fruit somewhat segmented

See Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 1071. 1759, Plantarum Jamaicensium Pugillus 14. 1759, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 1: 722. 1762, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 5: 88–89. 1821, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 253. 1824, Florae Fluminensis 230. 1829, Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis 2: 9. 1839, The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur 65, t. 27. 1844, Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 6, 17: 76. 1862, Flora Brasiliensis 13(1): 269– 270. 1865 and J. Bot. (London) 52: 142. 1914, Tropical Woods 20: 31. 1929, Anales del Instituto Botánico A. J. Cavanilles 16: 379–380, tab. 429, fig. b. 1958, The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 308–309. 1967, Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 139. 1998, Harvard Papers in Botany 11(1): 17. 2006, Harvard Papers in Botany 13(1): 118–119. 2008

(Hot water extract of bark taken as an emmenagogue; water extract of root used as an emmenagogue; water extract of dried wood taken for abdominal pain.)

in English: bay-leaved caper, caper tree, limber caper

Capparis floribunda Wight (Capparis floribunda Lepr. ex Walp.; Capparis oligostema Hayata)

India.

See Illustrations of Indian Botany 1: 35, pl. 14. 1838, Repertorium Botanices Systematicae (Walpers) 1: 197. 1842– 1847 and Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 22–23. 1913

(Fresh leaves heated and applied on boils and bisters.)

in China: shao rui shan gan

Capparis galeata Fresen.

Egypt. Shrub, fresh fruit eaten

See Museum Senckenbergianum 2: 111. 1837, The Flora of British India 1: 173. 1872

(Fruit eaten against fever, headache, rheumatism, used externally as a cold remedy. Flowers eaten for toothache. Hot water extract of leaf taken as an emmenagogue.)

Capparis grandiflora Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thomson

India.

See The Flora of British India 1: 174. 1872

(Bark and leaves infusion taken for swellings.)

in India: totlamullu

Capparis grandis L.f. (Capparis bisperma Roxb.; Capparis grandis Russ. ex Wall.)

India, Burma. Tender fruits used as vegetable

See Supplementum Plantarum 263. 1782 [1781 publ. Apr 1782], Numer. List [Wallich] n. 7001. 1828–1849

(Used in Sidha. Fresh leaves cooked and eaten as a vegetable soup for skin eruptions. Leaves crushed and the juicy pulp applied for insect bite. Dried bark and leaf infusion administered orally for swellings and eruptions; dried stem bark powder given for increasing appetite.)

in India: antera, aridonda, avagudu, baevapi, duddupi, dudduppi, dudippi, dudupi, ghuti, goolee, guli, gullem chettu, gullenguli, gulli, haro-kairio, kaldero, kandel, katarni, kauntel, kautel, mudakothan, mudkondai, nakkulijan, nakkulincan, nalluppi, nalluti, oridonda, pachenda, pachonda, pachovand, pachunda, padanbor, pandanbor, puchunda, punchunda, ragot, ragota, raygutti, regguti, regutthi, regutti, remide, revadi, shuda-thoratti, shudathoratti, torate, torati, totla, totte, tottulla, turatta, uppi, vatareni

Capparis heyneana Wall. ex Wight & Arn. (Capparis heyneana Wall., nom. nud.)

India.

See A Numerical List of dried specimens of plants in the East India Company’s Museum: collected under the superintendence of Dr. Wallich of the Company’s botanic garden at Calcutta. n. 6985. London 1828–1849, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 1: 25. 1834

(Stomachic, astringent.)

in India: ran-mamdaru

Capparis himalayensis Jafri (Capparis spinosa L. var. himalayensis (Jafri) Jacobs)

India. Young leaves and flower buds cooked as vegetable, fruits edible

See Species Plantarum 1: 503. 1753 and Kew Bull. 4: 299. 1949, Pakistan Journal of Forestry 6: 197, pl. 1, f. 1B. 1956, Blumea 12(3): 419–420. 1965

(Fruits paste applied over wounds and inflammations.)

in China: zhua jia shan gan

in India: chetup, kabra

Capparis indica (L.) Druce (Breynia indica L.; Capparis amygdalina Lam.; Capparis breynia Kunth, nom. illeg.; Capparis breynia L.; Capparis breynia Jacq. ex Hemsl., nom. inval.; Capparis indica Druce; Capparis indica (L.) Fawc. & Rendle; Linnaeobreynia indica (L.) Hutch.; Pseudocroton tinctorius Müll.Arg.; Quadrella indica (L.) H.H. Iltis & X. Cornejo)

Neotropics, Nicaragua. See also Quadrella indica

See Prodr. Fasc. Rar. Pl., 13, t. ad p. 13. 1739, Species Plantarum 1: 503. 1753, Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1071. 1759, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1: 608. 1785, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum [H.B.K.] (quarto ed.) 5: 97. 1821, Prir. Rostlin Aneb. Rostl. ii. 260. 1825, Sylva Tellur. 109. 1838, Pl. Nov. Hort. Bonon. ii. 10. 1839, Flora 55: 24. 1872, Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 1(1): 43. 1879 and Botanical Exchange Club and Society of the British Isles (Report) 3: 415. 1914, The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 310. 1967, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 52(618): 144. 1914, The Genera of Flowering Plants 2: 311. 1967, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 69(2): 426. 1982 [1983], Willdenowia 34: 262. 2004, Novon 17(4): 452. 2007, Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 4(1): 126–127. 2010

(Hot water extract of fruits and hot water extract of roots administered orally against menstrual complaints.)

in English: black witty, white willow

Capparis kirkii Oliv.

Tanzania.

See Flora of Tropical Africa [Oliver et al.] 1: 98. 1868

(Dried root used to clean the nipples before nursing, powdered roots of Capparis kirkii, Ximenia sp. and Pentanisia sp. applied externally with saliva.)

Capparis micracantha DC. (Capparis liangii Merr. & Chun; Capparis micracantha Teijsm. ex Miq.; Capparis myrioneura Hallier f.; Capparis odorata Blanco)

Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia. Shrub or small tree, drooping branches, straight or slightly curved thorns, white petals with yellow base, berry strongly smelling when ripe, slimy sweet pulp

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 1: 247. 1824 and Lingnan Sci. J. 5: 83. 1927, Sunyatsenia 2(1): 29–30. 1934

(Roots decoction in stomachache and as a uterine tonic after childbirth; hot water extract of roots taken as a diuretic, antipyretic. Decoction of dried leaf and root taken for asthma. For swellings, pound the leaves and fruit with salt and turmeric, and poultice. Stem crushed with water applied topically to relieve pain and swellings. Whole plant hot water extract for asthma and chest pain.)

in Cambodia: kanchoen bai dach

in China: xiao ci shan gan

in Indonesia: balung, kledung, sanek

in Laos: say sou

in Malaysia: kaju tuju, melada

in Philippines: halubagat-kahoi, salimbagat, salimomo, tarabtab

in Thailand: chingchee, kradaat khaao, nuat maeo daeng

in Vietnam: b[uf]ng ch[ef], c[as]p gai nh[or]

Capparis micrantha A. Rich.

Abyssinia.

See Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 1: 31. 1847

(Antitumour.)

Capparis moonii Wight

Sri Lanka. Woody vine, creamy, anthers light orange, fruit greenish orange

See Illustrations of Indian Botany 1: 35. 1840–1850

(Used in Ayurveda.)

in India: aadsenda, adonda, bandiraroveldi, mullu kathari, mullu katthari balli, mullukarti, mullukathari, mullukattari, rudanti, rudanti phal, rudrvanti, tatla, totte, tottulla, udipi, vaghati

Capparis olacifolia Hook. f. & Thomson

India, Nepal, Tropical Himalaya. Climbing shrubs, unarmed or with short straight stipular spines, flowers in axillary rows, white oblanceolate petals, red globose fruits

See The Flora of British India 1: 178. 1872

(Bruised leaves put externally as poultice in gout.)

in China: zang dong nan shan gan

in India: dieng sia, hais, jhenokung, kotahar, naski, osaro, simbri, sopada

Capparis ovata Desf. (Capparis ovata M. Bieb.)

Europe.

See Fl. Atlant. 1: 404. 1798, Flora Taurico-Caucasica 2: 1. 1808, Fl. Alger. 82. 1888 and Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93(1): 137. 2006

(Leaf and stem decoction used externally for indolent ulcer and toothache; decoction administered orally for arthralgia.)

Capparis pedunculosa Wall. ex Wight & Arn. (Capparis pedunculosa Wall.)

India.

See A Numerical List of dried specimens of plants [Wallich] ... n. 6999. London 1828–1849, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 27. 1834

(Used in Sidha.)

in India: alantal, amantalam, appaimaricam, civappukkattiri, karuncurai, siru-vashuthunai

Capparis pyrifolia Lam. (Capparis acuminata Willd.; Capparis pyrifolia Wight & Arn.)

Thailand, Indonesia. A shrub, sometimes climbing, leaves oblong or ovate-oblong, thorns straight or slightly curved upwards, petals very thin pubescent on both surfaces, flowers white-tinged pale yellow or green, filaments white, berry globular shiny black, in the lowlands and hills in dry locations, teak forest

See Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 606. 1785, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 25. 1834

(The wood used for biliousness, stomachache and giddiness. Leaves used as a remedy for headache.)

in Indonesia: gagahan, kaloang-kaloangan, sanek

in Malaysia: kaju tujuh

in Thailand: kinkhee, maengso, naam haang nokkaling

in Vietnam: c[as]p c[os] m[ur]i, ta cha

Capparis rheedei DC. (Capparis brevispina var. rheedii (DC.) Thwaites; Capparis heyneana Wall. ex Wight & Arn.)

India. Shrub, solitary axillary bluish flowers, berry ovoid

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 246. 1824, Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 25. 1834, Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae 15. 1858 and J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 33(1): 242- 2009

(Leaves juice, mixed with the dung of wild boar, given as an antiarthritic ointment. Leaves and flowers infusion purgative; leaves and fruits made into a paste consumed for cold and one-side headache. Fruit taken with milk a sedative of passion.)

in India: vempudampatchilai

Capparis rosea Oliv. (Capparis carvalhoana Gilg; Capparis rosea (Klotzsch) Oliv.; Petersia rosea Klotzsch)

Tropical Africa.

See Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 1: 99. 1868

(Carminative.)

Capparis roxburghii DC. (Capparis bisperma Wight ex Hook.f.)

India. Scandent shrub

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 247–248. 1824, Fl. Brit. India [J.D. Hooker] 1: 176. 1872

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha.)

in India: abooba, agooba, aguba, chittigara, mudakothan, otai, rudanti

Capparis sepiaria L. (Capparis citrifolia sensu Arwidss.; Capparis corymbosa Lam.; Capparis corymbosa sensu Oliv.; Capparis corymbosa Roxb., nom. illeg.; Capparis flexicaulis Hance; Capparis glauca Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thomson; Capparis sepiaria Wall.)

SE Asia, India, Sri Lanka, China. Treelet, woody vine, scandent, many-branched shrub, scrambling, stout, zigzag twigs, thorns short recurved, flowers sweetly-scented with light spicy odor, petals white, filaments white, berry globose

See Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1071. 1759, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1(2): 605–606. 1785, Flora Indica or Descriptions of Indian plants 2(2): 569. 1824, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 16(188): 225. 1878 and Blumea 12: 489. 1965

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Plant febrifuge, alterative, tonic, for skin diseases; decoction used externally for swellings. Fruit eaten for typhoid fever. Hot water extract of dried root bark taken as a purgative, a diuretic and for gingivitis; decoction of bark and root antiinflammatory. Root poultice for itching around anus; root juice drops in nostrils for headache; root paste with opium applied on swelling of eyes; root extract in the treatment of ear ache; root crushed along with ginger and asafoetida, and the paste applied externally to cure mumps, wounds, scratches. Powdered seeds antidote. Contact therapy, root piece stuck on the lock of hair of pregnant woman for inducing abortion. Veterinary medicine, leaves febrifuge.)

in China: qing pi ci

in India: ahimsra, ahinsra, amlaphala, aundi, ayinciram, baasingi, cekkavuricceti, cenkaddari, cenkattarip pattai, chaili, chhail, cirukattiri, curai, duhpradharsa, dupravesha, durdharsha, gajalca, grdhranakhi, gridhranakhi, guchchagulmika, hainsa, himsra, hinsra, hium gama, hium garna, hium-garna, hiun, hiun garna, incurai, incuraicceti, jal, jali, kaadu katthari, kaadukathari, kachiga, kadukattari, kakadani, kakadhani, kakatinduka, kakdani, kali kanther, kante, kantha, kanthaari, kanthar, kanthari, kantharika, kantharo, kantharvela, kantharyel, kanther, kanthor, kanya, kapalakulika, karindu, karintu, karuncurai, karuncuraiver, karunjurai, katan, kathari gida, kathiramullu, katthari gida, katthari mullu, kattukathiri, kattukkattari, kattukkattiri, katukatiri, kokilanayanam, kokkimullu, korintai, krishnashriphalika, kruragandha, krurakarma, kurudu gajjiga, lukko, lukkocurai, maiccuri, mancuranceti, miti, mitiki, mitikicceti, musthodi, nalla uppi, nallapuee, nallapuyyi, nallaupli, nallauppi, nallavuppi, nalluppi, nibate, niputthige, olle uppina gida, pantaki, pantanki, pelikacceti, pelikam, petitayacceti, petitayam, peykkattiri, peyttiriti, puyyi, sirukkattiri, solorakoli, surai, thoratti, thottilu mullu, tikshnagandha, turmokam, uppi, vakrakantaki, vayastinduka, waghoti

in Indonesia: pokan

in Philippines: arayat, keme-keming, tarabtab

in Thailand: naam kieo kai, phee waidaat, wua sang

in Vietnam: c[as]p h[af]ng r[af]o

Capparis sepiaria L. var. citrifolia Toelken (Capparis citrifolia Lam.; Capparis volkameriae sensu DC.; Capparis woodii Gilg & Ben.; Volkameria capensis Burm.f.)

South Africa, Tanzania. Shrub, petals white pink, sepals green-yellow

See Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 606. 1785

(Emetic, used for gall sickness.)

in English: Cape capers, caper tree, wild caper bush in Southern Africa: imFishlo, inTshihlo, Kapkapper, Kapkappertjie, wildekapperbos, wilde lemoenboom

Capparis speciosa Griseb. (Capparis pruinosa Griseb.; Capparis speciosa Miranda, nom. illeg. hom.; Capparis speciosa Moric. ex Eichler; Capparis speciosa Griseb. & Hassler; Capparis speciosa var. normalis Kuntze; Capparis speciosa var. pruinosa (Griseb.) Hassl.; Capparis speciosa var. pruinosa Hassl.; Capparis speciosa var. vera Hassl.)

Central and South America. Shrub or small tree, many-branched, yellowish to whitish flowers, cut fruit with strong odor, edible fruit

See Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) 13(1): 272. 1865, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 24: 18. 1879 and Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 253–254, descr. emend. 1913, Anales del Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional de México 24(1): 77–78, f. 5. 1953, Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 2(1): 65. 2008

(Dried bark used to cause embedded thorns to come out of skin. Leaves decoction wound healing.)

in Bolivia: alcaparra, alcaparro, coca de cabra

Capparis spinosa L. (Capparis spinosa auct.; Capparis spinosa var. parviflora Boiss.)

Mediterranean Near East, India. Shrub, herbaceous, prostrate, sprawling, straggling, xerophytic, root system very extensive, yellowish white solitary axillary flowers, fruit a berry, thin pericarp leathery to corky, seeds embedded in yellow fruit pulp, twigs and leaves grazed by goats and sheep, polymorphic complex species

See Species Plantarum 1: 503. 1753 and Kew Bulletin 4: 299. 1949

(Used in Ayurveda and Unani. Plant extract for viral hepatitis, jaundice, cirrhosis. Bruised leaves as poultice for gouty affections; leaves juice in cough and bronchitis. The flower buds on lesions of the vascular system. Root bark purgative, tonic, diuretic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, expectorant and analgesic; a common ingredient of hepatoprotective herbal drugs; root bark infusions or decoctions for dropsy, anemia, arthritis, rheumatism; macerated roots applied to sores.)

in English: caper, caper berry, caper bush, caper plant, common caper, common caper bush, kaper bush, Mariana caper, Mariana caper-bush, Spanish caper

in China: shan gan

in India: asef, azuf, barari, bassar, bauri, ber, bhotiayaskabara, bikh kabar, enugadanta, himsra, kabar, kabarra, kabbar, kabra, kabur, kachra, kakadani, kakri, kalvari, kander, karer, kari, karia, karira, kartotti, karyal, kathari mullina gida, katthari mullina gida, kaur, kebir, kiabara, kiari, kokilaakshamu, kokilakshamu, kokitha, kurak, kuraka, lasafa, lassaf, maraat moggu, mullu katthari, mullukattari, mullukatthari, mumudatu, nepati, nibate, nippatthike, nispatigay, parwati rai, rohtokpa-martokpa, taker

in Malaysia: melada

in Philippines: alcaparras

Capparis tomentosa Lam. (Boscia tomentosa sensu O.B. Mill.; Capparis alexandrae Chiov.; Capparis biloba Hutch. & Dalziel; Capparis corymbifera E. Mey. ex Sond.; Capparis corymbifera E. Mey. ex Harv. & Sond.; Capparis hypericoides Hochst.; Capparis persicifolia A. Rich.; Capparis polymorpha A. Rich.; Capparis venenata Schinz; Capparis verdickii De Wild.; Capparis volkensii Gilg)

Tropical Africa. Shrub, liana, scrambler, sprawling, scandent, climbing, green, woody, recurved thorns, young parts with a powdery brownish indumentum, sweet scented flowers in terminal inflorescences, petals greenish-white with red veins, calyx green-yellow, orange round fruit, many seeds surrounded by pink pulp, dense thorny bush

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1: 606. 1785, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 1: 62. 1860

(Dried entire plant abortifacient, purgative and diuretic. Roots used for chest complaints, pleurisy, impotence, barrenness, chronic coughing; roots water extract taken as an aphrodisiac; bark of roots for scrofula. Dried bark in the treatment of leprosy, headache, cancer. Leaves antidote, for hepatitis, leprosy, ophthalmia and malaria. Poisonous, vomiting and diarrhea. Control of evil spirits.)

in English: caper bush, woolly caper bush

in East Africa: akodekodet, andal, dunguranossa, goragala, iravu, irudi, katasuba, kiseva, lutono, makayo, makirutu, mbeba, moraapfumu, mpapula-chui, mtatasange mkubwa, mtungu, ol atorode, omutungu, ongono, rukwakongo, tungula ngoswe, tungulangosa, wangombe

in Nigeria: kaidodo

in Southern Africa: gwambadzi, iMfishlo, imFihlo (= hidden thing), inKunzibomvu, iNkunzi-ebomvu, inTshihlo, iQwaningi, khawa, modyangwe, motawana, muKanyengwe, muKorongwe, muoba-dali (= to stop the fever), uKokwane, uMabusane, umKanyengwe, umQoqolo, wag-’n-bietjie, wag’n-bietjie tree, wag-’n-bietjie climber, wollerige kapperbos

in Tanzania: kombe la nyau, mkombamnyau, mtenga shari

in W. Africa: dunguruwo, jatabeli

Capparis zeylanica L. (Capparis hastigera Hance; Capparis hastigera var. obcordata Merr. & F.P. Metcalf; Capparis horrida L.f.; Capparis horrida Banks ex Wight & Arn.; Capparis swinhoei Hance; Capparis zeylanica Wight & Arn.; Capparis zeylanica Roxb.)

SE Asia, Sri Lanka, India. Shrub, climbing, scandent, recurved thorns to hooked spines, many-branched, yellowish white to pinkish flowers, red to purple berry woody-coriaceous, numerous seeds embedded in fleshy edible pulp

See Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 720. 1762, Suppl. Pl. 264. 1782, Hort. Bengal. 47. 1814, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 25. 1834, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 6(70): 296. 1868 and Lingnan Science Journal 16(2): 192. 1937, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 9: 91. 1971, Phytochemistry 12: 2893. 1973

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Stem bark and stem bark of Argyreia sp. pounded together and boiled and the liquid drunk to treat hematuria. Leaves as a counter-irritant, a cataplasm in boils and swellings, to reduce perspiration and to improve the appetite, for rheumatic pain, arthritis. Fresh root to reduce swellings; root paste applied externally to expel worms from wounds, and also to the body in rheumatism; pounded roots applied on the sores of snakebites. Paste of root bark used in the treatment of boils; hot water extract of dried root bark used for ulcers and as a cholagogue. Fresh pickled fruit eaten daily as an antidote for snakebite or against snake poisoning. Veterinary medicine, fruits given orally during estrus/oestrum; bark extract given in indigestion.)

in Burma: nah-ma-nee-tanyet

in Cambodia: rôôk sââ

in China: niu yan jing

in India: aadonda, aare dhonda, aathondai, aathundi kaayi, adandai, adavinima, adhandai, adonda, adondai, adondathivva, adontha, alanday, alavirukkam, alavirutcam, antai, anthundi-kai, anthundi kaayi, anthundikaayi, aradanda, aradonda, aradoonda, ardanda, ardandi, arhonda, ari donda, aridonda, arthondah, arudonda, ashari, asria, atandai, atandam, atanday, atantai, atantam, athendri, atonda, atontai, avavirutcam, bhagnaha, bauri, cakacopai, cakacopam, cakacopeku, cala, calavirutcam, carkkalam, chilli gara, chittigara, cikkolikkulal, cilesmavinacini, cisnam, cittigara, cuvacutittam, cuvatutittapalatai, doddi, gitoran, govinda phala, govindaphal, govindha phala, govindi, granthila, grdhranakhi, hankaru, hingshra, hins, hinsa, igudi, ikuti, indu, intai, intu, jakhambel, jhiris, jhiris gitoran, ka-thotti, kaguturatti, kakadoni, kakanturatti, kakatturatti, kakaya, kalatturatti, kalhins, kalikera, kalturatti, kantakalata, kapaccar, karambha, karrotti, karumoli, karumolikkoti, katatti, katotti, kattatti, kattotti, katukandari, kayttotti, khalis, kijr, kinkani, krishangi, kutantakam, loothi kaayi, makakalankam, marukam, migupalattam, mikupalavantam, mikupattiri, mikupattirikkoti, mikuppalattam, morandan, mullu kaarthi, mullukarti, mullukattari, mullukatthari, murrontai, murruratti, muthukallari, mutthu kallaari, nusphar, ontipparappan, oritamiyakkoti, oritamiyam, orumulaimatar, osaro, oserwa, ottuppalati, paalaki, palaki, palbun, palikee, palleke, pallike, paltaittuvam, patam, rohini, sabbi, sivappu boomi sakkarai kizhangu, tantai, tapasapriya, taramati, thotlaku, thotte balli, todaku, tondai, tontai, tontakai, toratti, totla, totli, totte, tottula, tottulla, tulambikkiri, tulampi, tulampikkiri, tulampikkoti, turatti, turatticceti, turattimaram, tuspirataru, ukkiracakkoti, ukkiracam, ukkiracatam, ukkiracava, ukkiracavaki, ukkiracavakikoti, ukkiracca, ukkiracukirantam, ukkiracurakkoti, ukkiracuravar, ukkirakattotti, ukkiratotticceti, ulolarcisnam, uppi, vaagati, vaciyakkani, vaganti, vagata, vaminta, vartala, viyanniccam, vyaghraghanti, vyaghranakhi (vyaghra, tiger, nakha, nail), vyagranakhi, vyaghrapada, viyanicham, wag, wagat, wagati, yalavarutam

in Indonesia: melada

in Philippines: baralauik, halubagat-baging, tarabtab

in Thailand: sa-ae, thao lang makkep, yieokai

in Vietnam: cáp tieh pan, c[as]p t[is]ch lan, gai den

Capraria L. Scrophulariaceae

Latin caper, capri ‘a goat’, capra, ae ‘a she-goat, caprarius, a, um ‘pertaining to the goat, tithymalus’, Greek kapros ‘wild boar’, indicating the leaves, liked by goats; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 2: 628. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 276. 1754, Mélanges de Philosophie et de Mathématique de la Société Royale de Turin 3(1): 178–181, pl. 5, f. 1. 1766, Florae Peruvianae, et Chilensis Prodromus 24, t. 4. 1794, Fl. Peruv. [Ruiz & Pavon] 2: 13. 1799, Index Seminum [Goettingen] 1831: 4. 1831 and Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(5B/3): 461–717. 1971, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(9/4): 319– 416. 1973, Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. 41: 1–69. 2000, Castanea 65(2): 101. 2000, Lundellia 7: 53–78. 2004.

Capraria biflora L. (Capraria biflora fo. hirsuta Loes.; Capraria biflora fo. hirta Loes.; Capraria biflora subsp. havanensis Tzvelev; Capraria biflora var. pilosa Griseb.; Capraria biflora var. pilosa M. Gómez; Capraria hirsuta Kunth; Capraria hirsutum Kuntze; Capraria lanceolata Hort. ex Steud.; Capraria lanceolata Vahl, nom. illeg.; Capraria lanceolata L.f.; Capraria mexicana Griseb.; Capraria semiserrata Willd.; Capraria semiserrata var. berterii A. DC. ex Benth.)

North and South America. Perennial herb, shrub, evergreen, erect, branched, white or creamwhite five-lobed campanu-late axillary flowers, tiny yellow seeds

See Species Plantarum 2: 628. 1753, Suppl. Pl. 284. 1782 [1781 publ. Apr 1782], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 2: 47. 1798, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 3: 325. 1800, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum [H.B.K.] (quarto ed.) 2: 355. 1817 [1818], Fl. Brit. W.I. [Grisebach] 427. 1862, Dicc. Bot. Nombres Vulg. Cub. Puerto-Riq. 47. 1889, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 274. 1891 and Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 3(4): 284. 1903, Botaničeskij Žurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 72(12): 1663. 1987, Planta Med., 55: 622. 1989, Sida 17(1): 259–263. 1996, Rev. Cubana Farm. 34: 290–291. 2000, J. Nat. Prod. 63(11): 1515–1518. 2000, Acta Farm. Bonaerense 22(1): 53–55. 2003

(Leaves antibiotic, antiseptic, antinflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, diuretic, tonic, stimulant, CNSdepressant, digestive, purgative, antiemetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cholagogue, insecticidal, used for treatment of fever, influenza, colds, congestion, swelling, menstrual pain, matrix bleeding, pelvic inflammation, rheumatic disorder, vomiting, indigestion, diarrhea, scabies, acne, pimps, itching and other skin diseases. Leaves juice squeezed into the ear to relieve earaches; leaves infusion tonic, as an eyewash, to soothe skin itch; leaf decoction for colds, stomachache, indigestion, diarrhea, diabetes. In large doses produces general debility, disorientation, stupor, paralysis and loss of memory. Veterinary medicine, ground with lime juice and used for sheep with colds.)

in English: earache bush, goatweed, granny bush, nigger broom, obeah bush, Peru tea, wild tea, worry bush

in Central and South America: balsaminha, bhuyara, box, chokuilxim hembra, chokuilxim macho, claudiosa, ditay paye, du thé pays, savadilla, tanchi, té del país, thé du pays

Capraria frutescens (Mill.) Britton (Capraria biflora var. pilosa Griseb.; Capraria cuneata R. Br.; Capraria frutescens (Mill.) Standl.; Capraria hirsuta Kunth; Capraria saxifragifolia Schltdl. & Cham.; Erinus frutescens Mill.; Pogostoma saxifragaefolia (Schltdl. & Cham.) Schrad.)

Mexico, Honduras. Shrub, monopodial stems, white to lavender purple petals

See The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition no. 4. 1768, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... The second edition 4: 45. 1812, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 2: 355. 1817[1818], Linnaea 5: 105. 1830, Index Seminum [Goettingen] 1831: 4. 1831 and Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 45: 315. 1907, Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 23(2): 85. 1944

(Used for coughs and sore wounds.)

in Mexico: box, claudiosa, sek’aax

Capsella Medikus Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

Latin capsella, ae ‘little box, a small box, small coffer’ (Titus Petronius Arbiter), capsa, ae (from capio) ‘box, case, a repository’; see Definitiones Generum Plantarum 225. 1760, Friedrich Kasimir Medikus (1736–1808), PflanzenGattungen 85, 99. Mannheim 1792 and Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(2/3): 937–983. 1938, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(4): 354– 380. 1946, Intermount. Fl. 2(B): 1–488. 2005.

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Shafer; Bursa bursa-pastoris Shafer; Bursa bursa-pastoris Britton; Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britton; Bursa bursa-pastoris var. bifida Crép.; Bursa gracilis Gren.; Bursa pastoris Weber ex F.H. Wigg.; Capsella bursa Raf.; Capsella bursa-pastoris Moench, nom. illeg.; Capsella bursa-pastoris Medik.; Capsella hyrcana Grossh.; Capsella rubella Reut.; Crucifera capsella E.H.L. Krause; Iberis bursa-pastoris (L.) Crantz; Thlaspi bursa-pastoris L.)

East Africa. Annual herb, erect, slender taproot, basal leaves stalked in a rosette, stem leaves clasping the stem, white flowers in a terminal raceme on slender stalks, flattened twovalved fruit, reddish brown flattened seeds, weedy edible herb, fodder for goats, sheep and camels

See Species Plantarum 2: 645–647. 1753, Stirpium Austriarum Fasciculus 1: 21. 1762, Primitiae Florae Holsaticae 47. 1780, Meth. 271. 1794, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5: 172. 1894 and Annuaire du Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de Genève 1: 25. 1901, Deutschl. Fl. (Sturm), ed. 2 6: 144, pl. 23. 1902, Watsonia 22: 243–250. 1999, Weed Technology 15(4): 892– 895. 2001

(Human skin may blister from contact with the seeds. Do not take this herb during pregnancy. Whole plant decoction or infusion astringent, analgesic, antifertility, antiemetic, antiinflammatory, oxytoxic, emmenagogue, vasodilator, vasoconstrictor, styptic, hemostatic, hypotensive, diuretic, antiscorbutic, vulnerary, stimulant, tonic, uterine-contracting properties, for internal and external bleeding, intestinal and uterine bleeding, heavy uterine bleeding, dysentery, diarrhea, kidney problems, stomachache and cramps, cystitis, a wash for poison ivy and wounds; infusion of seed pods anthelmintic, vermifuge, taken for stomachache and internal worms. Used in the treatment of eye diseases and dysentery; tender parts cooked as a vegetable for constipation; flowers for chronic dysentery. Seeds reported to be toxic to mosquito larvae.)

in English: blind-weed, case weed, mother’s heart, pepper plant, shepherd’s purse, toy-wort

in Arabic: harra el-berria, keis el ra’ai, kis er-ra’i, shenaf

in Southern Africa: geldbeursie, herderstassie, sebitsa, wagter-se-sakkie

in Bhutan: so-ka-pa

in China: chi tsai, ji cai, qi, ti mi tsai

in India: botlya, chulti, shamso, shanso, sog-ka, tori

in Japan: nazuna, sanshin-gwâ

in Nepal: tori jhar

in Tibetan: sog-ka-ba, tuntkya

in Vietnam: co tam giac, dinh lich, te thai

Capsicum L. Solanaceae

Greek kapto ‘to bite, to swallow’; see Carl Linnaeus (1707– 1778), Species Plantarum. 1: 188–189. 1753 and Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 86. 1754, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 2 3: 261, 263. 1849 and Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(5B/1): 3–267. 1962, Kurtziana 5: 153. 1969, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(10/1–2): 1–151. 1974, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 13: 99–106. 1978, Chromosoma 80: 57–68. 1980, Chromosoma 89: 352–360. 1984, Cytologia 51: 645– 653. 1986, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Plant Sciences 97: 55–61. 1987, Cytologia 53: 709–715. 1988, Cytologia 54: 287–291, 455–463. 1989, National Research Council, Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1989, Plant Systematics and Evolution 186: 213–229. 1993, Amer. J. Bot. 82(2): 276– 287. 1995, Pl. Syst. Evol. 202: 37–63. 1996, Cytologia 62: 103–113. 1997, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52(2): 61–70. 1996, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584. 2007. Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense are mostly considered as three different species, they are, however, closely related.

Capsicum annuum L. (Capsicum annuum var. conoide (Miller) Irish; Capsicum annuum var. fasciculatum (Sturtevant) Irish; Capsicum annuum var. grossum (L.) Sendtner; Capsicum chinense Jacq.; Capsicum conoide Miller; Capsicum curvipes Dunal; Capsicum fasciculatum Sturtevant; Capsicum frutescens L.; Capsicum frutescens var. fasciculatum L.H. Bailey; Capsicum frutescens var. grossum L.H. Bailey; Capsicum frutescens var. longum L.H. Bailey; Capsicum grossum L.; Capsicum longum A. DC.; Capsicum longum Bouton ex Dunal; Capsicum petenense Standl.)

Cosmopolitan. Suffrutescent, small shrub, small white axillary flowers, cylindrical hollow fruit, seeds kidney-shaped, edible fruit

See Species Plantarum 1: 188–189. 1753, The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition no. 8. 1768, Hortus Botanicus Vindobonensis 3: 38, t. 67. 1776, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... 1: 241. 1809, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis 86. 1813, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 13(1): 423. 1852, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 15: 133. 1888, Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden 9: 65–68, pl. 9, f. 2–4. 1898 and Publications of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 461(4): 84. 1935, Manual of Cultivated Plants 783. 1949, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 591, 594. 1973, New Botanist 5: 59–62. 1978, Taxon 29: 711. 1980, Cytologia 46: 75–79. 1981, Science and Culture 47: 334. 1981, Science and Culture 49: 325–326. 1983, Cytologia 48: 195–199. 1983, Current Science 56: 1181–1182. 1987, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 91–96. 1990, Genome 33: 279–282. 1990, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 78(3,VIII): 145. 1991, Cytologia 57: 81–83. 1992, Biologia 48: 441–445. 1993, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 80(3:VIII): 138. 1993, Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. Part B, Biological Sciences 60: 151–156. 1994, Advances in Plant Sciences 9(2): 111–119. 1996, J. Yunnan Educ. Coll., Nat. Sci. Ed. 5: 44–46, 55. 1998, Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research 16(3): 280–282. 1998

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Carminative, insecticide, pesticide, antimicrobial, stimulant, tonic, spasmolytic, antiseptic, rubefacient, hallucinogenic. Fruits for inducing sweat; for smallpox, powder of the dry fruits with seeds of Elaeocarpus sphaericus; fruit infusion antipyretic, vaso-regulatory; dried powdered fruits mixed with honey consumed for cold and cough; fruits and roots used for jaundice.

Birth control by abortion, fruits of Capsicum annuum and juice from cut leaves of Aloe vera or Aloe littoralis pasted, mixed with honey and given internally. A few leaves crushed in the palm and inhaled for headache. The skin of the root included in a complex preparation rubbed on the skin as a treatment for mental disorders; stembark of Croton oblongifolius, Prunus triflora, rhizome of Curcuma domestica, ripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola and root of Capsicum annuum crushed together and boiled in water and the extract given in jaundice. Used in religion and magico-religious beliefs, to keep off evil spirits, leaf juice applied on the forehead and the fruits tied around waist; contact therapy, pieces of roots tied on the neck in malaria. Veterinary medicine, powdered dried fruit applied for foot diseases; smoke of the ripe fruits inhaled by cattle suffering from acute diarrhea.)

in English: aromatic hot pepper, aromatic pepper, bell pepper, bird pepper, bonnet pepper, capsicum, Cayenne pepper, chili pepper, Chinese pepper, garden pepper, green pepper, Guinea pepper, mango pepper, paprika, paprika pepper, pimento, pimiento, red chili pepper, red pepper, Spanish pepper, sweet pepper

in South America: ají, chile, chilli, ik, pimiento, pucunucho

in China: la chiao, la jiao

in India: ahmur, birik, branmaricha, bruhi, byadagi menasina kaayi, capo-molago, chabai, chalie, cuvannamulaku, donne menasina kaayi, filfile, filfile-surkh, gach-marich, gach-mirichi, gachmarich, galakonda, gasmiris, hmarchate, jalakia, jangli lanka, jeeni chedy, jhal, kappalmelaka, kappalmulaku, katuvira, katuvirah, kempu menasu, kempumenasu, khaarada menasinakaayi, kogamiriya, laal mirchee, ladumira, lal, lal mirch, lalmirca, lalmirich, lalmirichi, lalmorich, lanka, lanka-marich, lodachina, marcha, marchi, marchii, marchu, marichi-phalam, marichiphalam, mattisa, mattisawangru, menasina, menasina kaayi, menasinakai, milagai, milakai, milakay, mirapa kaayi, mirapa-singa, mirapakaya, mirch, mirch-wangum, mirchee, mirchi, mirepakaya, miris, miriyapukaya, mirpakaya, mirsang, mirsinga, molagay, morok, mulagai, mulakay, mulaku, munrit, paccamulaku, parankimulaku, perangimuluk, pi-phik, pilpile-surkh, pittakarini, raktamarica, raktamaricah, seemai milagai, simamirapa, simamirepa, sudmirapakaaya, sudmirapakaya, tiksna, upperi-patanki, upperimulaku, upperiparanki, usimilagai, usimulagay, valmilagay

in Indonesia: cabe

in Japan: kidachi-tô-garashi, kôreigus, tô-gara-shi

in Malaysia: chabai, chabai achong, chaboi seberang, chaboi selaseh, chili, chili besar, lada merah

in Pakistan: hari, lal mirch

in Philippines: chili, katumbal, kitikot, lagda, pasites, sili, siling-labuyo

in South Laos: (people Nya Hön) ngaam ngay

in Tibetan: tsitraka

African names: filfil romi, forotu, kilikili, totoshi

in Angola: omu ndungu

in Benin: ata oyibo, takin, yédésé

in Congo: ndongo, ndongoya assuele, ndongaya assuêlê, pilipili

in Ethiopia: mitmita, mitmitta

in Gabon: ntogolo y’atanga, nungu-tsi-mitangani, okam-ntangha

in Kenya: nudulu

in Madagascar: malao, pilipilidia, pilipily, pilopilo, pilopilombazaha, piment de Cayenne, piment doux, piment enragé, piment Martin, poivron, rajakojakomena, sakaibe, sakaifantsinakoho, sakaipilo, sakay, sikafo

in Mali: keepel, kelekele

in Niger: barkhannu, barkhanou, tonko

in Nigeria: aman-ntuen, asie, ata abaijosi, ata abalaye, ata abureku, ata-eiye, ata gbasejo, ata isenbaye, ata-jije, ata-jiji, ata sisebe, ata wewe, barkono, ekie, isie, koruuko, ntokon, ntueen, ose, ose etore, ose mkpe, ose nukwu, ose nwamkpi, ose-oyibo, sata-jije, tashshi

in Rwanda: urusenda

in Sierra Leone: hua-wuyei

in Tanzania: biribiri, mpilipili, mpilipili hoho, pilipili, pilipili hoho

in Togo: kami

in Arabic: felfel, felfel ahmar, felfel rumi, felfila, ifelfel

Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare (Dierb.) D’Arcy & Eshbaugh (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill; Capsicum annuum var. minimum (Mill.) Heiser; Capsicum frutescens var. frutescens; Capsicum hispidum Dunal var. glabriusculum Dunal; Capsicum indicum var. aviculare Dierb.; Capsicum minimum Mill.)

India, Mexico. Small erect shrub

See The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition no. 10. 1768, Handb. Med. Pharm. Bot. 28. 1819, Archiv des Apotheker-Vereins im Nordlichen Teutschland 30: 19–31. 1829, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 13(1): 419–420. 1852 and Ciencia y Naturaleza 7: 52. 1964, Phytologia 25(6): 350. 1973, Baileya 19(4): 156. 1975

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Carminative, spasmolytic, stimulant, diaphoretic, antimicrobial, externally as a rubefacient, counter-irritant and antiseptic.)

in English: African chillies, bird pepper, capsicum, chillies, hot pepper, red pepper, Tabasco pepper

in India: cimaippaccaimilakay, cinimilakay, cirukoccimilakay, filfil-i-ahmar, filfil-i-surkh, gachmarich, irumpulikacitacceti, iruppulikacitam, kanalmilakay, kantari, kappalmulaku, kappamulaku, kilappuriyacceti, kocci, koccikkay, koccimilakay, kocumilakay, kondamirapa, lodachina, maricha, maricham, mirepakaaya, mirepakaya, mirisang, miriyapukaaya, miriyapukaya, parangimenasinakayi, parengimenasinakayi, peymilagay, portugali, shalie, sinaippachaimilagay, sudimirapa, sudimirapakaaya, sudimirapakaya, sudimirepakaya, tirankam, tirankamilakay, ucimilakay, ucimilakaycceti, usimilagay, vainacikacceti, vayakketanacceti, vayakketanam

Capsicum baccatum L.

South America. Perennial, bright yellow fruits nearly globose

See Mantissa Plantarum 1: 47. 1767, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 449. 1891, Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden 1898: 99–101. 1898 and Feddes Repertorium 72: 173. 1966

(The oil in the fruits will cause a blistering rash in many individuals. Antihemorrhoidal, antirheumatic, antimicrobial, tonic, digestive, irritant, rubefacient, sialagogue. Insect repellent. Veterinary medicine.)

Capsicum fastigiatum Blume

East Indies, Africa.

See Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsch Indie 13: 705. 1826

(Used in Sidha. Stimulant, astringent, rubefacient, carminative, antimicrobial, for cholera, diarrhea, dyspepsia.)

in English: Cayenne pepper, chili

in India: cimai milakay, kantari, mirepakaya, miriyapukaya, peymilakay, ucimilakay

Malay name: chili

Capsicum frutescens L. (Capsicum annuum L.; Capsicum frutescens Rodsch.; Capsicum longum A. DC.; Capsicum longum Bouton ex Dunal; Capsicum minimum Roxb.)

India. Shrubby perennial, herb, greenish-white flowers, erect fruiting pedicels, fruit eaten

See Species Plantarum 1: 189. 1753, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis 86. 1813, Flora Brasiliensis 10: 147. 1846, Prodr. (DC.) 13(1): 414. 1852

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Fruits poisonous, vesicants and irritants if eaten in quantity. Fruits carminative, pungent, irritant, acrid, spasmolytic, stimulant, antimicrobial, febrifuge, diaphoretic, digestive, antiseptic, stomachic, externally as a rubefacient, antirheumatic, counter-irritant and antiseptic; fruit paste mixed with boiled cow milk used for chest disorders and pain; dried powdered consumed for gastric complaints. Leaves crushed on palm and inhaled for headache; for boils, pound young leaves of Derris elliptica with leaves of Capsicum frutescens and apply as a poultice. Stem bark of Allanblackia floribunda mixed with Capsicum frutescens or Solanum anguivi used for the treatment of cough. Veterinary medicine, leaf paste applied on wounds of fowls; bark of Elaeocarpus serratus pounded with fruits of Capsicum frutescens given orally as a tonic. Religious and supernatural beliefs, used in a kind of magical treatment for warding off troubles of stomach, to prevent drunkenness and to drive out evil spirits; to find out if a stranger has evil intention. Veterinary medicine, pounded leaves applied on wounds of poultry, birds.)

in English: African chilli, African pepper, berry capsicum, bird pepper, burgoman pepper, bush red pepper, capsicum, Cayenne pepper, Chile pepper, chili pepper, chilli, chilli bean, foreign spice, goat pepper, green chilli, Guinea pepper, hot pepper, pepper, pili pili, red pepper, shrubby capsicum, spur pepper, tabasco, tabasco pepper, wild pepper

in South America: aji caballero, aji caribe, aji picante, ajillo, chile, chile bravo, chile picante, chille, chilpete, maaxic

in Brazil (Amazonas): prika aki

in Guyana: bokoramana, kwa bada

in Angola: alu ndungu, jindungo, otchindungu

in Benin: ata, atasisédé, gamako, gninkou, olobéré, ountakouin, taki, takihn, takin winiwini, tambo, tonka, vavo, yébéssé, yébéssi, yékou

in Burundi: ipiripiri

in Congo: ikuame, kani buseu, kasololo, lushenda, makaya ma nuungu, makuame, n’nuungu, ndongo, ndungu, nunga, pili-pili, pilipili, pilipilimanga, piripiri, urusenda, vusewe

in Gabon: andu, byasi, ikadada, itugulu, ndongo, ndunga, ndungu, nongo, ntangalyè, ntangani, ntsèfu, ntogolo, nungu, okam, tokodo

in Madagascar: malao, pilipilidia, pilipily, pilopilo, piment de Cayenne, piment enragé, piment Martin, rajakojakomena, sakaifantsinakoho, sakaipilo, sakay, sikafo

in Nigeria: aman-ntuen, asie, ata abaijosi, ata abalaye, ata abureku, ata-eiye, ata eye, ata gbasejo, ata ijosi, ata isenbaye, ata-jije, ata-jiji, ata-nla, ata olobenkan, ata-pupa, ata sisebe, ata wewe, atasisédé, bar kono, barkono, ekie, isie, koruuko, ntokon, ntueen, ose, ose etore, ose mkpe, ose nukwu, ose nwamkpi, ose-oyibo, sata-jije, tashshi

in Senegal: barkhannu, barkono, ebaba kani, étambakani, foratu, gamaho, gamako, kani buseu, kaní-kaní, on-gaine, on-grendt

in Sierra Leone: hua-wuyei

in Southern Africa: rooi-rissie, miripiri, Natal chilli

in Tanzania: biribiri, pilipili-kichaa

in Togo: atadésue, atadévi, yébéssévi

in Uganda: alyera, eshenda, kalali, kamurari

in West Africa: atabévi, biéko, fon takin winéwini, froto, makon, yébéssévi

in Borneo: cabi padi, kacang penguji

in China: la jiao

in India: aggi mirapa, ajadakumaricha, arukanam, arunamilakay, birik-man, brahu, brahumaricha, capoomologoo, cataiccikiri, cataiccikiricceti, chabai, chabelombok, cheeramulaku, cilli, cillika, cullakkay, cullituvan, eri, fil-file-ahmar, filfile-surkh, h-marchate, hmarchate, kanjalakia, gach-mirch, gachmirich, golakanda miraph, golakonda, golakondamirapa, golkondamirapa, holada menasina gida, holada menasina kaayi, holadamenasina kaayi, jeere khorshaney, jhal, kaanal milagaai, kaantharimilagai, kappalmelaka, kappalmilaku, kappalmulaku, katuvira, kaupalakkay, kaupalam, kempumenasu, kogamiriya, kollamilaku, kollamulaku, konda mirapa, ladamera, ladamerachina, ladumira, lal-mirch, lalmircha, lalmirich, lanka, lankamirchi, lavungi mirchi, macuki, macukicceti, man, maricha, marichi-phalam, marichiphala, menashina-kayi, menashinakayi, menasinakayi, menasu, merapukai, milagai, milagay, milakai, milakay, milakaycceti, mirapa, mirapa-kaya, mirapakaaya, mirapakaiya, mirapakaya, miraph, mirch, mirchi, mirepakaya, miriyapukaya, mirsamg, mollaghai, mulagai, mulakay, mulaku, mullagay, naipalamaricha, nattumilakay, orupanankai, paccaimilakay, parangimenasinakayi, parangimulaku, parankimulaku, parengimunchi, parengimunci, pharengimenasinakayee, pocanakkurata, pocanakkuratacceti, raktamaricha, seemamirapakaaya, simamirapakaiya, sudimirapakaaya, sudimirapakaiya, tambhudamirchingay, tikshna, tivrashakti, ujjvala, valiyakappalmulaku, vallia-capo-molago, veki

in Indonesia: lia alok, lombok setan, tjabé rawit

in Japan: kidachi-tô-garashi, kôreigus

Malayan names: chabai achong, chaboi seberang, chaboi selaseh, chili, chabai, lada merah

in Papua New Guinea: kodukarava, lombo, ule hekini

in the Philippines: chili, katumbal, kitikot, lagda, pasites, sili, siling-labuyo

in South Laos: (people Nya Hön) ngaam ngay

in Tibetan: tsitraka

in Hawaii: nioi, nioi pepa

Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav. (Brachistus lanceaefolius Miers; Capsicum guatemalense Bitter; Capsicum lanceaefolium Kuntze; Capsicum lanceifolium (Miers) Kuntze; Capsicum violaceum Kunth; Capsicum violaceum Desf.)

Peru, Guatemala. Herb or climbing shrub

See Flora Peruviana 2: 30. 1799, Tableau de l’École de Botanique 70. 1804, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 3: 49. 1818, Annals and Magazine of Natural History 2: 267. 1849, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 450. 1891 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 20: 377. 1924

(Antihemorrhoidal, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic, digestive, irritant, rubefacient, tonic.)

in English: Apple chilli, chilli manzana, locoto, rocoto

in Indonesia: cabe bendot, cabe dieng, cabe gondol

Caragana Fabr. Fabaceae (Galegeae)

From qaraqan, a Mongolian name for Caragana arborescens, see Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum 421. 1763 and Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nei Menggu 24(6): 633–635. 1993.

Caragana aegacanthoides (Parker) L.B. Chaudhary & S.K. Srivastava (Astragalus aegacanthoides R. Parker)

India, Himalaya. Perennial non-climbing herb

See Indian Forester 49: 78, t. 5. 1923, For. Fl. Kumaun 158. 1927, Biologia 7(1 & 2): 61. 1961, Legum. India 84. 1992, South Asia Legum.: Checkl. 221. 2003, Taiwania 52(1): 25–48. 2007

(Roots used for burns, boils, skin diseases.)

Caragana brevispina Benth.

Nepal. Perennial non-climbing shrub, multi-stemmed, flowers yellow turning coral with age, leaves or flower buds cooked as vegetable

See Illustrations of the Botany ... of the Himalayan Mountains ... 198. [1833] 1839[–1840] and Taxon 29: 355– 357. 1980

(Plant decoction taken for joint ache. Ceremonial, the flowers.)

in India: shuroo

in Nepal: jomosing, sabalo

Caragana sukiensis C.K. Schneid. (Caragana hoplites Dunn; Caragana nepalensis Kitam.)

India, Nepal. Perennial non-climbing shrub

See Illustriertes Handbuch der Laubholzkunde 2: 99. 1907, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 7: 313. 1907, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 15: 132. 1954, Taxon 28: 627–628. 1979

(Root paste applied to treat cuts, wounds and dislocation of bone.)

in China: ni bo er jin ji er

in Nepal: pakchar

Caraipa Aublet Calophyllaceae (Clusiaceae, Guttiferae)

A native name for Caraipa parvifolia Aublet, called caraipé by the Garipons, French Guiana, see Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 561, t. 223, f. 1. 1775 and Botanical Museum Leaflets—Harvard University 29(1): 49–50. 1983.

Caraipa densifolia Mart. (Caraipa laxiflora Benth.; Caraipa variabilis Cambess.)

Brazil, Colombia.

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum ... 1: 105, pl. 65, f. 6–11. 1824, Mémoires du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 16: 416. 1828, London Journal of Botany 2: 364. 1843, Flora Brasiliensis 12(1): 323. 1886 and J. Nat. Prod. 46(1): 118–122. 1983, Food and Chemical Toxicology 48(6): 1597–1606. 2010

(Sap applied as antifungal, for skin diseases.)

in Colombia: kar-pat’, ma-wan-he-te

Caraipa grandifolia Mart. (Caraipa glabrata Mart.; Caraipa lacerdaei Barb. Rodr.; Caraipa paraensis Huber)

Brazilian Amazon.

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum ... (Martius) 1: 105. 1826, Rodrigues Joao Barbosa (1842–1909), O tamakoaré, especies novas da ordem das ternstroemiaceas, Manáos, Impresso na typographia do Jornal do Amazonas, 1887 and Boletim do Museu Paraense de Historia Natural e Ethnographia 3: 432. 1902, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 29: 121. 1978, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 101(3): 287–290. 2006

(Antibacterial and cytotoxic, crushed leaves applied on skin diseases, herpes, mange, rashes, itching.)

Caraipa parvielliptica Cuatrec.

Colombia.

See Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 8: 64. 1950

(Crushed leaves applied on skin diseases, sores of the mucous membrane of the mouth, rashes, itching.)

Carallia Roxb. Rhizophoraceae

Karalli (karu ‘forests’ and alli ‘shining’, referring to the leaves) is a Telugu (a Dravidian language spoken in southeastern India, in an area north of Madras and running inland to Bellary) name in Andhra Pradesh for one species; see Fl. Cochinch. 1: 296. 1790, Genera Nova Madagascariensia 24. 1806, William Roxburgh, Plants of the Coast of Coromandel 3: 8, t. 211. 1811, Flind. Voy. ii. 549. 1814, Hort. Malab. 31. 1818, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 3: 294. 1828 and Flora Malesiana ser. 1(54): 445–493. 1958, Adansonia, n.s. 2: 122–128. 1962, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 48: 15–21. 1997, J. Trop. & Subtrop. Bot. 6(1): 40–46. 1998.

Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. (Barraldeia madagascariensis DC.; Carallia baraldeia Arn.; Carallia barraldeia Wight & Arn., nom. illeg.; Carallia brachiata Merr.; Carallia integerrima DC.; Carallia lanceaefolia Roxb.; Carallia lucida Roxb.; Carallia lucida Roxb. ex Kurz; Carallia madagascariensis Tul.; Carallia madagascariensis (DC.) Tul.; Carallia scortechinii King; Carallia sinensis Arn.; Carallia spinulosa Ridl.; Diatoma brachiata Lour.; Eugenia cupulifera H. Perrier; Petalotoma brachiata (Lour.) DC.)

Tropical Asia, India, Madagascar. Shrub or small canopy tree, many-branched, inner bark yellow with prominent rays, twigs swollen at nodes, horizontal opposite branches, coriaceous opposite leaves with margins very finely toothed, large stipules often covered by resin, flowers in cymes, green cupuliform calyx, white corolla and yellow anthers, pink-red to black globose fleshy berry, seed covered by an orange aril, ripe fruits eaten

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 732. 1824, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 3: 33, 295. 1828, Nov. Act. Ac. Caes. Leop.-Car. 18: 334. 1836, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1(5): 370–371. 1838, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 4: 117, t. 6. 1856 and Philippine Journal of Science 15(3): 249. 1919, J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 82: 184. 1920, Mémoires de l’Institut Scientifique de Madagascar, Série B, Biologie Végétale 4(2): 190. 1952, Fitoterapia 75(7–8): 785–788. 2004, Ling, S.K. et al. “Lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase inhibitory activities of constituents from Phyllagathis rotundifolia and Carallia brachiata.” Malaysian Journal of Science 24(1): 247–252. 2005, PTR. Phytotherapy research 20(6): 458–461. 2006

(Used in Sidha. Leaves and bark antibacterial, antioxidant, to treat septic poisoning, septicemia, scabies and itch; bark antiinflammatory, used for treating oral ulcers, inflammation of the throat and stomatitis.)

in English: carallia, carallia tree, corkwood, corkybark, freshwater mangrove, Indian carallia

in Madagascar: amparimamy, farimamy, fatsikahidambo, tamenaky

in Burma: maniauga, manioga

in Cambodia: tromeng

in China: zhu jie shu

in India: anda murimu, andamuria, andhi punaaru mara, andhimaragala, andhimuriyana, andi muriya, andimargal, andimiriam, andimuria, andimuriya, andinaru, andipunaaru mara, andipunai, andipunar, andipunaru, andivu naaru gida, andumurugal, antimiriyan, daini jam, dieng-sohlangbali, dieng sohsyllih, gijuru chettu, han-bara-alau, kaaralli, kaaravalli, kaarvalli, kamdelo, kanthekera, kara, karali, karalli, karavalli, kare-kandel, kierpa, murukanhiram, naayi halasu, ponsi, pumpillu, punselu, savo-kam-delo, theiria, thekra aga, thenbu-thung, thengu-thung-araung, undimara, vallabham, vallayam, valogam, valovam, vankana, varanga, varangu

in Malaya: false kelat, kesinga, meransi, mesinga, siseh puyoh, sisek puyu

in Nepal: kathe kera

Carallia suffruticosa Ridl.

Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia. Tree, slender, small yellow flowers, red fruits, rare, endangered

See Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 61: 6. 1912

(Leaves paste applied to boils and to reduce fever; leaves decoction taken to expel worms from the intestines. Pound the leaves and extract the juice, use this as a postpartum remedy.)

in Malaya: sireh puyoh, sisek puyu, tulang daeng

Caralluma R. Br. Asclepiadaceae (Apocynaceae)

Possibly from Arabic qarh al-luhum, or car-allum, a Telugu name in Andhra Pradesh for Caralluma adscendens or Stapelia adscendens Roxburgh, see On the Asclepiadeae 14. 1810, Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 25. 1811 and Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 13: 1–224. 1985, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 51: i-ix, 1–267. 1994.

Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw. (Caralluma adscendens Haw.; Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) R. Br.; Caralluma dalzielii N.E. Br.; Caralluma subulata (Forssk.) Decne.; Stapelia adscendens Roxb.; Stapelia subulata Forssk.)

India. Herb, very variable, fleshy almost leafless stems, deep purple-brown or yellowish white flowers, slender follicles, cooked plant eaten as vegetable

See Plants of the Coast of Coromandel 1: 28–29, t. 30. 1795, Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society 1: 25. 1810, Synopsis plantarum succulentarum ... 47. 1812 and Taxon 30: 696. 1981, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2(7): 1228–1229. 2009

(Antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antidote and anthelmintic, used in treatment of rheumatism, diabetes, leprosy, tumor, fungal diseases, snake, scorpion bite. Young stem ground with onion and tamarind and made into a paste used to cure digestive problems.)

in India: kaarallamu, kundelu kommulu, kundethi komulu, maakada singi, mangana kodu, pachaipuli, thavite chettu, vajra che baji

Caralluma attenuata Wight (Caralluma adscendens var. attenuata (Wight) Gravely & Mayur.)

India. Herb, stem used as vegetable

See Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis [Wight] 4: 15–16, t. 1268. 1848 and Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum 4(1): 13. 1931, Proc. Indian Sci. Congr. Assoc. (III, C) 67: 57. 1980, Taxon 30: 696. 1981, Bradleya 8: 11. 1990, Fitoterapia 74(3): 274–279. 2003, J. Herbal Pharmacother. 4(1): 35–40. 2004

(Leaves for diabetes, hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic.)

in India: ekkyan, makadsing

Caralluma dalzielii N.E. Br. (Otanema latifolia Raf.)

Nigeria.

See New Fl. (Rafinesque) iv. 61. 1826 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1912: 280. 1912, Taxon 26: 557–565. 1977, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92: 233– 244. 2004

(Latex considered toxic. Stem antiinflammatory, tonic, antipyretic, antiemetic, analgesic, aphrodisiac, antinociceptive, antifungal, antidote and anthelmintic, used in treatment of rheumatism, earache, otitis, diabetes, leprosy, fungal diseases, snake and scorpion bite. Magic, against bad spell.)

in Ivory Coast: dudumosu, horba ya kalé, mbolla, myebzoya

in Mali: sukulaga

in Niger: hudda sardzé, tobey bargan

in Senegal: burinaney, burnéné

Caralluma dummeri (N.E. Br.) White & Sloane (Angolluma dummeri (N.E. Br.) Plowes; Orbea dummeri (N.E. Br.) Bruyns; Pachycymbium dummeri (N.E. Br.) M.G. Gilbert; Stapelia dummeri N.E. Br.)

East Africa.

See Synopsis plantarum succulentarum ... 37. 1812 and Gardener’s Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette 61: 132. 1917, Journal of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America 12: 82. 1940, Excelsa, Taxon. Ser. 1: 69. 1978, Cact. Succ. J. New South Wales 17: 63. 1990, Bradleya; Yearbook of the British Cactus and Succulent Society 8: 22. 1990, Excelsa 16: 110. 1993, Aloe 37(4): 74. 2000

(For chest pain, drink stems decoction with fresh milk or chew. Sap applied for wounds. Magic.)

in Kenya: lochen

Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Benth. ex Hook.f. (Boucerosia edulis Edgew.; Boucerosia stocksiana Boiss.; Caralluma edulis A. Chev., Hutch. & Dalziel; Caralluma edulis A. Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel, nom. illeg.; Caralluma edulis A. Chev., nom. nud.; Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Benth.; Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Gravely & Mayur., nom. illeg.; Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Benth. & Hook.f.; Caralluma edulis Benth.; Caralluma edulis Benth. ex Hook.f.; Caralluma longidens N.E. Br.; Caralluma mouretii A. Chev.; Caralluma vittata N.E. Br., non Wickens; Caudanthera edulis (Edgew.) Meve & Liede; Cryptolluma edulis (Edgew.) Plowes)

West Africa, India. herb, slightly succulent, slender, many-branched, eaten as a salad green or boiled vegetable

See Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 6: 205, t. 1. 1862, Genera Plantarum 2: 782. 1876, The Flora of British India [J.D. Hooker] 4(10): 76. 1883 and Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 4(1.3): 483. 1903, Exploration Botanique de l’Afrique Occidentale Française ... 1: 440. 1920, Flora of West Tropical Africa [Hutchinson & Dalziel] 2: 65. 1931, Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum n.s. Nat. Hist. Sect. 4(1): 8. 1931, Haseltonia 3: 57–58, figs. 1 & 11. 1995, Plant Systematics and Evolution 234(1–4): 201. 2002

(Used in Ayurveda. Tonic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antidote and anthelmintic, used in treatment of rheumatism, diabetes, leprosy, tumor, fungal diseases, snake, scorpion bite.)

in India: dugdha, dugdhapashana, dugdhika, kshirakshava, kshiri, kshirini, pimpa, uttamphalini, yugmaphalottama

in Pakistan: apitak

Caralluma fimbriata Wall. (Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata (Wall.) Gravely & Mayur.)

Burma, India. Tender succulent, spines covering the angled stems, star-shaped fleshy foul-smelling flowers, eaten raw or cooked, famine food

See Plantae Asiaticae Rariores 1: 7, t. 8. 1829 and Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum 4(1): 13. 1931, Res. Bull. Univ. Calcutta Cytogenetics Lab. 2: 1–50. 1970, Bradleya 8: 11. 1990, Chem. Biodivers. 5(2): 239–250. 2008

(Eaten to suppress appetite, to enhance endurance.)

in India: kallimudayan, karallamu, kullee mooliyan, makad shenguli, ranshabar, shindala makadi, vajira che baji, yugmaphallottama

Caralluma longidens N.E. Br. (Caralluma mouretii A. Chev.; Spiralluma longidens (N.E. Br.) Plowes; Spiralluma mouretii (A. Chev.) Plowes)

Sudan, Egypt.

See Gardener’s Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette 2: 369. 1892 and Revue de Botanique Appliquée et d’Agriculture Tropicale 14: 270. 1934, Journ. Agric. Trop. et Bot. Appl., (J.A.T.B.A.) 19: 259–399. 1972, Haseltonia 3: 53–54, f.1. 1995

(Lactogenic.)

in Niger: haba haba

Caralluma russelliana (Courbon ex Brongn.) Cufod. (Boucerosia russeliana Courbon ex Brongn.)

Ethiopia.

See Bull. Soc. Bot. France 7: 900. 1863 [1860 publ. 1863] and Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 31(Suppl.): 718. 1961, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 39(Suppl.): 30, basion. cit. 1969, Phytochemistry 68(10): 1459–1463. 2007

(Antiinflammatory.)

Caralluma somalica N.E. Br. (Desmidorchis somalica (N.E. Br.) Plowes)

Somalia. Stinking flowers

See Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin 1829: 31, 39. 1832, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1895: 264. 1895 and Taxon 26: 557–565. 1997, Haseltonia 3: 59. 1995

(Sap applied to wounds. Magic, to protect animals.)

in Kenya: lokosurio

Caralluma speciosa (N.E. Br.) N.E. Br. (Caralluma codonoides K. Schum.; Caralluma foetida E.A. Bruce; Caralluma oxyodonta Chiov.; Desmidorchis foetida (E.A. Bruce) Plowes; Desmidorchis speciosus (N.E. Br.) Plowes; Sarcocodon speciosus N.E. Br.)

Somalia.

See Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 17: 170. 1878, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1895: 264. 1895 and Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 34: t. 3371. 1939, Haseltonia 3: 58–59. 1995, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4: 10. 2008

(Antiinflammatory, emetic, antipyretic, antinociceptive, wound healing, antifungal, antidote and anthelmintic, used in treatment of rheumatism, open wounds, diabetes, leprosy, tumor, fungal diseases, snake, scorpion bite.)

Caralluma tuberculata N.E. Br. (Apteranthes tuberculata (N.E. Br.) Meve & Liede; Borealluma tuberculata (N.E. Br.) Plowes)

Pakistan. Eaten raw as a vegetable

See Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1895: 264. 1895 and Taxon 30: 76–77. 1981, Haseltonia 3: 63, f. 26. 1995, Plant Systematics and Evolution 234(1–4): 199. 2002

(Powder of the ground plant used to treat fever, vermifuge, to counteract snakebite and scorpion and insect stings.)

in Pakistan: apitak, aputak, boteri, marmootak, marmut, pamanghi, sapmoi

Caralluma umbellata Haw. (Boucerosia umbellata (Haw.) Wight & Arnott; Boucerosia umbellata Wight & Arn.; Desmidorchis umbellata (Wight & Arn.) Kuntze; Desmidorchis umbellata (Haw.) Kuntze; Desmidorchis umbellata (Wight & Arn.) M.R. Almeida; Desmidorchis umbellata (Haw.) M.R. Almeida; Desmidorchis umbellata (Haw.) Decne.; Desmidorchis umbellata (Wight & Arn.) Decne.; Stapelia umbellata (Haw.) Roxb.)

India. Perennial fleshy angular herb, succulent, well branched, leaf scars spine-like, deep red flowers in terminal umbels, cylindrical follicles

See Synopsis plantarum succulentarum ... 47. 1812, Plants of the Coast of Coromandel 3: 36. 1819, Contributions to the Botany of India 34. 1834, Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 2, 9: 266. 1838, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 418. 1891 and Taxon 30: 696. 1981, Flora of Maharashtra State 3A: 242. 2001

(Antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antidote and anthelmintic, astringent, used in treatment of rheumatism, diarrhea, diabetes, leprosy, tumor, fungal diseases, paralysis, snake, scorpion bite; plant roasted made into a paste and applied for indigestion. Veterinary medicine, stem extract given orally to stop diarrhea.)

in India: anaikkallimulaiyan, chirukalli, eluman, elumanpuli, hucchu bangte, kallimullian, kalmulaiyaan, kundelu kommulu, kundetikommulu, kundina kommulu, molanakodu, yerumai kalli, yerumaikannai mulliyaam

Carapa Aublet Meliaceae

Caraipe is a vernacular South American name for Carapa guianensis Aublet; see J.B.C. Fusée Aublet (1720–1778), Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Françoise. 32, t. 387. 1775 and João Geraldo Kuhlmann (1882–1958), “As mais úteis plantas da rica flora brasileira - a ucuhuba e a andiroba.” Chacaras e Quintaes. 33(5): 406–408. São Paulo 1926, Eurico Teixeira da Fonseca, “Plantas medicinales brasileñas.” R. Flora Medicinal. 5(11): 625–636 and 5(12): 689–698. Rio de Janeiro 1939, Amaro Henrique de Souza, “Andiroba, Carapa Guyanensis Aub.” Chacaras e Quintaes. 77(4): 423–425. São Paulo 1948, Flora Neotropica 28: 1–470. 1981, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584. 2007, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 165: 186–221. 2011.

Carapa grandiflora Sprague

Tropical Africa. Uganda. Tree, rounded pink-white flowers, brown valved fruits

See Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 37: 507. 1906 [1904–1906 publ. 1906]

(Insecticides, arachnicides.)

in Burundi: umushwaati

Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Amapa guinaensis (Aubl.) Steud., nom. nud.; Carapa latifolia Willd. ex C. DC., nom. nud.; Carapa macrocarpa Ducke; Carapa nicaraguensis C. DC.; Carapa slateri Standl.; Granatum guianense (Aubl.) Kuntze; Granatum nicaraguense (C. DC.) Kuntze; Guarea mucronulata C. DC.; Persoonia guareoides Willd.; Xylocarpus carapa Spreng.)

French Guiana, Brazil. Tree, dense crown, large spreading many-branched panicle, white or creamy white flowers, staminal tube orange-tipped, brown woody four-cornered nut

See Mantissa Plantarum 2: 150. 1771, Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 2(Suppl.): 32, t. 387. 1775, Der Naturforscher 20: 2. 1784, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 4: 215. 1798, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 2: 331. 1799, Nomenclator Botanicus 69. 1821, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 2: 213. 1825, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 1: 717–718. 1878, Annales de la Société Botanique de Lyon 7: 132. 1880, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 110. 1891 and Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 7: 499. 1917, Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 3: 191. 1922, Tropical Woods 10: 48. 1927, Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 22(4): 699–701. 2006

(Bark decoction taken for diarrhea. Oil analgesic, antimalarial, emollient, febrifuge, antiinflammatory, insect repellent, larvicidal, antiparasitic, vermifuge, wound healer, antiallergic, antibacterial, for insect bites and stings, wounds, diabetes, diarrhea, digestion, arthritis, rheumatism, colds, skin parasites, acne, bruises, psoriasis, dermatitis, heat rash, itch, leprosy, skin cancer, herpes. Seed oil rubbed on sore feet, in hair for lice; drunk for flu and fever.)

in English: andiroba oil, bastard mahogany, Brazilian mahogany, crabwood, Demerara mahogany

in Tropical America: andiroba, angiroba, andiroba-saruba, carapa, carapá, cedro macho, figueroa, iandirova, jandi roba, jandiroba (= bitter oil), karaba, krapa, nandiroba, nhandiroba, requia, tallicona, tangare, y-andiroba, yandiroba

in Ghana: asokoru, osuabise, osuobise

Carapa procera DC. (Carapa guineensis Sweet ex A. Juss.; Carapa guineensis Sweet; Carapa gummiflua C. DC.; Carapa microcarpa A. Chev.; Carapa surinamensis Miq.; Carapa touloucouna Guillem. ex Perr.; Carapa velutina C. DC.; Granatum procerum (DC.) Kuntze; Granatum surinamensis (Miq.) Kuntze; Trichilia procera Forsyth, nom. nud.)

Senegal, Niger. Tree, pachycaulous, slash with sticky red sap, leaves in huge terminal spirals, leaflets with extra floral nectaries at tips, young leaves with nectaries at end of rhachis and at end of each leaflet, flowers scented, large lax panicles among leaves, each inflorescence subtended by one scale, round brown valved fruits, gorillas eat leaves and fruit

See The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica in Three Parts 278. 1756, Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 2(Suppl.): 32, t. 387. 1775, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 626. 1824, Mémoires du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 19: 242. 1830, Florae Senegambiae Tentamen 1: 128. 1831, Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappy der Wetenschappen te Haarlem 7: 75, t. 19. 1850, Annales de la Société Botanique de Lyon 7: 132. 1880, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 110. 1891 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 54 Mém. 8: 2. 1907, Les Végétaux Utiles de l’Afrique Tropicale Française 5: 191. 1909, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 8: 257–263, 265–277. 1983, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 21: 109–125. 1987, Acta Leidensia 59(1–2): 377–382. 1990, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 112(1): 122–126. 2007, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 114: 44–53. 2007, Journal of Reproduction and Contraception 19(3): 161–166. 2008, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 116(3): 495–500. 2008

(Seeds or oil antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifilaria, anthelmintic, vermifuge, purgative, sedative, insect repellent, stimulant, used for treating sores, edema, burns, ulcers, skin diseases, wounds, bruises, insect bites, arthritis, rheumatism, rheumatic pains, child’s respiratory diseases, coughs, bronchitis, convulsions, ear infections, ringworms. Roots or bark decoction for malaria, dysmenorrhea, painful menstruation and fever. Stem bark antiseptic, antibacterial; stem with leaves for arthritis, malaria, jaundice; leaves decoction for menstrual problems, internal parasitism, stomachache. Veterinary medicine, anthelmintic, vermifuge, purgative. Ceremonial, magic, to protect a newborn baby against evils.)

in English: Brazilian mahogany, British Guiana mahogany, crabwood, kunda oil tree, monkey cola, tallicoonah oil tree

in Tropical America: andiroba, asoroa, asorowa, kaapa, kelaba, keraba, kraba, krappa

in Cameroon: engang, nanga, ngan, nganga, godjo

in Central African Republic: gojo, gozo, gozon, mongodjo, mongozo

in Congo: bobondo, bokolo, boru, bula nima, bulanima, ekala mbomo, ekara nguti, fisi, futi, gozau, gozon, kala mbomo, kisoloko, kooyo, mbili manganga, mbolu, mbukulu, mbukulu okoto, mbuluku, mobemba, mofesi, monangu, mubaba, mubila nkumi, mukala mbomo, mukukubi, mungulu, ngodjo, nkayapub, okoto, osiele, sesemu baketi, sesemu ya baketi, woso

in Gabon: engang, ngan

in Ghana: krabise, krabisi, krupi, krupia, kwaku bise

in Guinea: gbon, gobi, goobi, kobi, kobii, kora

in Ivory Coast: akaumassé, alla, allahia, balou, bibi-abé, boukounou, dona, elakoumi, gboui, kangasakié, kobi, kokoué, kondou, kouloupia, koundou, likpogré, lipogoré, loukrou, niamalango, soroua, sorowa, touloucouna, wéwé

in Liberia: chu say dor kohn, kowi, toon kor doh

in Mali: kobi, tulukuna, tulunkuna

in Nigeria: abo oganwo, agogo, ebegogo, ebogogo, efu iya, egogo, irere, njinku, nkpaku, nkpi, obi, obi ojidi, ogidi

in Senegal: bukunum, kané, kola amarga, kola amorgozo, kola malgos, mucaca mumbi, pada di kola, psamé, si foré, si hebay, si kãnd, siti, tifuri sikan, touloucouna, tulucuna, tulukuna

Carapichea Aubl. Rubiaceae

See Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 929, 1122, 1364. 1759, Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 100, 167, pl. 39, 64. 1775, Nova genera et species plantarum seu Prodromus 3, 45. 1788 and Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 1–177. 1999, Kew Bulletin 57(2): 363–374. 2002, Govaerts, R. World Checklist of Monocotyledons. Kew. 2004 [as Psychotria.], Revista de Biologia Neotropical 3: 13–96. 2006 [2007], Kew Bulletin 63(4): 661–664. 2008.

Carapichea ipecacuanha (Brot.) L. Andersson (Callicocca ipecacuanha Brot.; Cephaelis acuminata H. Karst; Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.) Tussac; Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.) A. Rich.; Evea ipecacuanha (Brot.) Standl.; Evea ipecacuanha (Brot.) W. Wight; Ipecacuanha fusca Raf.; Ipecacuanha officinalis Arruda; Ipecacuanha preta Arruda; Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot.) Standl.; Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot.) Stokes; Uragoga acuminata (H. Karst) Farw., nom. illeg.; Uragoga granatensis Baill.; Uragoga ipecacuanha (Brot.) Baill.) (Cephaelis Sw., from the Greek kephale ‘head’, referring to the arrangement of the flowers; ipecacuanha from native Brazilian indigenous people “i-pe-kaa-guéne”, to describe a plant for sick people; From a vernacular (Tupi and Guaraní ypec-acuãia (= pênis de pato, a bird), ypecacuãia, ipe-kaa-guaña, ipecacuanha) name, Portuguese ipecauanha, Spanish ipecacuana. Psychotria L., probably from the Greek psychotria ‘vivifying, exhilarating’ or psyche ‘soul, life’ and iatria ‘therapy, medicine’, referring to the healing properties of some species; or modified and coined by Linnaeus from the Greek word psychotrophon, psychros ‘cold’ and trophe ‘food’, a name already applied by Patrick Browne (1720–1790) to describe a Jamaican taxon; Latin psychotrophon, i used by Plinius for a plant, betony.)

Tropical America. Shrub, straggling, main rhizome thick compact, roots cylindrical sharply flexuous or curved, inflorescence corymbiform, white flowers, ellipsoid ribbed berry

See Genera Plantarum 126. 1789, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 27. 1801, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 6: 137, t. 11. 1802, Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 365. 1812, Bull. Fac. Med. 4: 92. 1818, Georg Christian Wittstein, Etymologisch-botanisches Handwörterbuch. 475f. 1852, Adansonia 12: 323. 1879, Hist. Pl. (Baillon) 7: 281, 370. 1880 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 9: 216. 1905, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18(3): 123. 1916, Luíz Caldas Tibiriçá, Dicionário Tupi-Português. Traço Editora, Liberdade 1984, Luíz Caldas Tibiriçá, Dicionário Guarani-Português. Traço Editora, Liberdade 1989, F. Boerner & G. Kunkel, Taschenwörterbuch der Botanischen Pflanzennamen. 4. Aufl. 283. 1989, Taxon 54(4): 1081. 2006

(Used in Unani and Sidha. Roots toxic, antidote, febrifuge, hemostatic, emetic, antispasmodic, insecticide, insect repellent, amebicide, anthelmintic, analgesic, digestive, antiinflammatory, stimulant, expectorant, diaphoretic, cholagogue, cytotoxic, rubefacient, for diarrhea, amebic dysentery, constipation, nausea, rashes, sores, abscesses, asthma, cough, fever, influenza, pneumonia, sore throat, spasms, in the treatment of bilharzia, Guinea worms, poisoning, to stop bleeding. Veterinary medicine, root decoction for gastrointestinal troubles and pneumonia.)

in English: Brazilian ipecac, Cartagena ipecac, Carthagena ipecac, Columbian ipecac, ipecac, ipecacuanha, New Granada ipecac, Panama ipecac, Rio ipecac, savanilla ipecac in India: gurmar buti, ipecac, ipika, ipikaakyuna oushadhi, ipikakku, ipikakkucceti

Cardamine L. Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

Greek kardamis, kardamine (Dioscorides) ‘nasturtium, a kind of cress’ (Xenophon, Cyropaedia), Latin cardamina, ae and cardamum used for a species of cress (Pseudo Apuleius Barbarus), nasturtium; Latin berula, ae for an herb, called also cardamine; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 2: 653–656. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 295. 1754, Florula belgica, opera majoris prodromus, auctore ... 124. 1827, Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society 5: 129, 147. 1861, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(2): 184. 1891 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32: 391, 396, 408. 1903, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 66: 94. 1933, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(2/3): 937–983. 1938, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(4): 354–380. 1946, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 35(1): 99–106. 1948, Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 207: 101–116. 1977, Taxon 27: 519–535. 1978, Taxon 30: 829–842, 855. 1981, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores 84: 1–32. 1982, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 8: 1–427. 1984, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 13: 1–224. 1985, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 40: i-viii + 1–238. 1991, Bocconea, Monographiae Herbarii Mediterranei Panormitani 3: 229–250. 1992, Candollea 48(1): 221–230. 1993, Opera Botanica 121: 159–172. 1993, AAU Rep. 34: 1–443. 1994, Phyton. Annales Rei Botanicae 34: 19–34. 1994, Opera Botanica 137: 1–42. 1999, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 84: viii-xv, 1–278. 1999.

Cardamine amara L. (Cardamine amara Lam.; Cardamine amara M. Bieb.)

Europe, North America.

See Sp. Pl. 2: 656. 1753, Encycl. (Lamarck) 2(1): 185. 1786, Flora Taurico-Caucasica 2: 109. 1808 and Ber. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rubel 44: 42–85. 1977, Bull. Soc. bot. Fr. 125: 91–93. 1978, Acta Fac. Rerum Nat. Univ. Comenianae, Bot. 26: 1–42. 1978, Phyton (Horn) 20: 73–94. 1980, Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 59: 13–22. 1988, Watsonia 19: 169–171. 1993, Pl. Biol. 1: 529–537. 1999

(Diuretic, depurative, antispasmodic.)

Cardamine bonariensis Pers. (Cardamine bonariensis Juss. ex Pers.; Cardamine flaccida Bert. ex C. Muell.; Cardamine flaccida Lojac.; Cardamine flaccida Cham. & Schltdl.; Cardamine flaccida subsp. bonariensis (Pers.) O.E. Schulz; Cardamine flaccida subsp. bonariensis O.E. Schulz; Cardamine flaccida subsp. minima (Steud.) O.E. Schulz; Cardamine flaccida subsp. minima O.E. Schulz; Cardamine laxa var. pumila A. Gray; Cardamine nasturtioides Cambess.)

Argentina.

See Synopsis Plantarum (Persoon) 2(1): 195. 1806, Linnaea 1: 21. 1826, Flora Brasiliae Meridionalis (quarto ed.) 1: 89. 1829, United States Exploring Expedition 50. 1854, Flora 39: 410. 1856 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32(4): 450–451. 1903, Malpighia xx. 114. 1906, Rev. Asoc. Rural Urug. 54(8): 46. 1927, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage 17b: 530. 1936

(For liver and kidneys ailments.)

in Ecuador: guarmi-berros

Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (Arabis bulbosa Schreb.; Arabis bulbosa Schreb. ex Muhl.; Arabis rhomboidea Pers.; Cardamine bulbosa Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.; Cardamine rhomboidea Durand; Cardamine rhomboidea (Pers.) DC.; Cardamine rhomboidea DC.; Dentaria rhomboidea (Pers.) Greene; Dentaria rhomboidea Greene; Dracamine bulbosa Nieuwl.; Dracamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) Nieuwl.)

North America. Perennial herb

See Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 3: 174. 1793, Synopsis Plantarum [Persoon] 2: 204. 1807, Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale [Candolle] 2: 246. 1821, Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and Pteridophyta Reported as Growing Spontaneously within One Hundred Miles of New York 4. 1888, Pittonia 3(15D): 124. 1896 and Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4(1–2): 40. 1915, Rhodora 78: 329– 419. 1976, Taxon 31: 120–126. 1982, Sida 13: 241–250. 1988

(Poisonous roots.)

in English: bulbous bittercress, spring-cress

Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) O. Schwarz (Cardamine laciniata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Alph. Wood; Cardamine laciniata Wood; Cardamine laciniata F.Muell.; Cardamine laciniata Steud.; Dentaria concatenata Michx.; Dentaria concatenata Michx. var. coalescens Fernald; Dentaria laciniata Muhl.; Dentaria laciniata Muhl. ex Willd.; Dentaria laciniata Muhl. ex Willd. var. integra (O.E. Schulz) Fernald; Dentaria laciniata var. integra Fernald; Rorippa laciniata (Steud.) L.A. Johnson; Rorippa laciniata (F. Muell.) L.A.S. Johnson)

North America. Perennial herb, roots toothed, lanceolate 3-palmate leaves, flowers borne in terminal cluster

See Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 3(1): 479. 1800[1801], Flora Boreali-Americana (Michaux) 2: 30. 1803, Nomenclator Botanicus. [Steudel], Editio secunda 1: 281. 1840, Trans. Phil. Soc. Vict. 1: 34. 1855, The American Botanist and Florist 38. 1870 and Rhodora 10: 84. 1908, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 46(1155–1167): 188. 1939, Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium 3: 97. 1962

(Hallucinogen. Analgesic, heart tonic, stomachic, for headache, heart palpitations, colds, gastrointestinal disorders. Ceremonial, ritual, love charm, divination, spiritual, emotional.)

in English: cut-leaf toothwort, cutleaf toothwort

Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Alph. Wood (Dentaria bifolia Stokes; Dentaria diphylla Michx.; Dentaria incisa Small; Dentaria incisa Eames, nom. illeg.; Dentaria incisifolia Eames)

North America. Perennial herb, food

See Species Plantarum 2: 653–654. 1753, Flora Boreali-Americana (Michaux) 2: 30. 1803, A Botanical Materia Medica 3: 443. 1812, The American Botanist and Florist 37. 1870 and Flora of the Southeastern United States [Small] 480–481, 1331. 1903, Rhodora 5(57): 216. 1903, Manual of the Flora of the Northern States and Canada [Britton] (ed. 2) 1066. 1905

(Analgesic, sedative, stomachic, tonic, carminative, for cold, headache, heart disease, flu, hoarseness, fevers, sore throat, chest pain, swellings, gastrointestinal disorders, tuberculosis, venereal disease. Ceremonial, ritual, love charm, divination, spiritual, emotional.)

in English: crinkle root, pepper root, pepperwort, toothwort

Cardamine douglassii Britt. (Arabis douglasii Torr.; Arabis douglassii Torr., nom. inval.; Arabis rhomboidea Pers. var. purpurea Torr.; Cardamine bulbosa Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. var. purpurea Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.; Cardamine douglasii Britton; Cardamine rhomboidea fo. purpurea (Torr.) O.E. Schulz; Cardamine rhomboidea DC. var. purpurea Torr.; Dentaria douglasii (Britton) Greene; Dentaria douglassii Greene; Dentaria douglassii (Britton) Greene; Dracamine purpurea (Torr.) Nieuwl.; Dracamine purpurea Nieuwl.; Thlaspi tuberosum Nutt.)

North America. Perennial herb

See Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 2(1): 204. 1806, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. [Nuttall]. 2: 65. 1818, Syst. Nat. [Candolle] 2: 246. 1821, American Journal of Science, and Arts 4(1): 66. 1822, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1(1): 83. 1838, Fl. New York 1: 56. 1846, Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and Pteridophyta Reported as Growing Spontaneously within One Hundred Miles of New York 4. 1888, Trans. New York Acad. Sci. 9(1–2): 8. 1889, Pittonia 3: 124. 1896 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32(4): 424. 1903, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 40. 1915, Rhodora 78: 329–419. 1976

(Antidote.)

in English: limestone bittercress, purple cress

Cardamine flexuosa With. (Barbarea arisanensis (Hayata) S.S. Ying; Cardamine arisanensis Hayata; Cardamine debilis D. Don, nom. illeg.; Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis O.E. Schulz; Cardamine flexuosa var. debilis (O.E. Schulz) T.Y. Cheo & R.C. Fang; Cardamine flexuosa var. occulata (Hornem.) O.E. Schulz; Cardamine flexuosa var. ovatifolia T.Y. Cheo & R.C. Fang; Cardamine hirsuta auct. non L.; Cardamine hirsuta subsp. flexuosa (With.) Hook. f.; Cardamine hirsuta var. flaccida Franch.; Cardamine hirsuta var. omeiensis T.Y. Cheo & R.C. Fang; Cardamine hirsuta var. sylvatica (Link) Hook. f. & T. Anderson; Cardamine occulata Hornem.; Cardamine scutata subsp. flexuosa (With.) H. Hara; Cardamine sylvatica Link; Cardamine zollingeri Turcz.; Nasturtium obliquum Zoll.)

Eurasia, India. Short-lived herb, ascending, weak, racemose inflorescence, rachis flexuose, white flowers, erect petals, cylindric yellow siliqua, seeds arranged in a single row, tender leaves eaten by cattle

See Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale 2: 265. 1821, Prodromus Florae Nepalensis 201. 1825, Fl. Brit. India 1: 138. 1875 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32(4): 478. 1903, Icones Plantarum Formosanarum nec non et Contributiones ad Floram Formosanam. 3: 20, f. 7. 1913, Bulletin of Botanical Laboratory of North-Eastern Forestry Institute 6: 23. 1980, Harvard Pap. Bot. 9(2): 257–296. 2005

(Stem chewed to relieve toothache.)

Cardamine hirsuta L. (Cardamine hirsuta A. Chev., nom. illeg.; Cardamine hirsuta Pall. ex DC., nom. illeg.; Cardamine hirsuta Oed.; Cardamine hirsuta var. formosana Hayata)

Europe, North America. Herb, low, weedy, stem arises from basal rosette of leaves, flowers in racemes, petals white, erect linear siliques with 2 deciduous valves, used as a vegetable, leaves and flowers raw or cooked, species not known to be poisonous, can be very invasive

See Species Plantarum 2: 655. 1753, Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale 2: 256, 259–260. 1821 and Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 2: 459. 1902, Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 30(1): 30–31. 1911, Research Bulletin [Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta] 2: 1–50. 1970, Cytologia 40: 727– 734. 1975, Norwegian Journal of Botany 22: 71–76. 1975, Fl. Taiwan 2: 686. 1976, Botaniska Notiser 129: 123–130. 1976, Bot. Zhurn. 64(8): 1099–1110. 1979, Taxon 31: 583– 587. 1982, Turun Yliopiston Julkaisuja: Sarja A II, Biologia-Geographica 3: 1–12. 1982, Willdenowia 13: 101–106. 1983, International Organization of Plant Biosystematists Newsletter 13: 17–19. 1989, Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxo nomica 25: 381–388. 1990

(Stomachic, diuretic, stimulant.)

in English: common bitter cress, hairy bitter cress, hairy bittercress, hairy wood-cress, hoary bittercress, pepperweed, shotweed, small bittercress, snapweed

in Italian: billeri primaticcio

Cardamine impatiens L. (Cardamine basisagittata W.T. Wang; Cardamine dasycarpa M. Bieb.; Cardamine glaphyropoda O.E. Schulz; Cardamine glaphyropoda var. crenata T.Y. Cheo & R.C. Fang; Cardamine impatiens subsp. elongata O.E. Schulz; Cardamine impatiens var. angustifolia O.E. Schulz; Cardamine impatiens var. dasycarpa (M. Bieb.) T.Y. Cheo & R.C. Fang; Cardamine impatiens var. eriocarpa DC.; Cardamine impatiens var. fumaria H. Léveillé; Cardamine impatiens var. microphylla O.E. Schulz; Cardamine impatiens var. obtusifolia Knaf; Cardamine impatiens var. obtusifolia Knaf ex O.E. Schulz; Cardamine impatiens var. pilosa O.E. Schulz; Cardamine nakaiana H. Léveillé; Cardamine senanensis Franchet & Savatier)

Europe. Herb, numerous finely divided leaves, invasive, leaves and young shoots raw or cooked used as a vegetable

See Species Plantarum 2: 655. 1753, Flora Taurico-Caucasica 3: 437. 1819, Flora 29: 294. 1864 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32(4): 459–460. 1903, Acta Horti Gothoburgensis 1(4): 159– 160. 1924, Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Comenianae, Botanica 23: 1–23. 1974, Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Comenianae, Botanica 26: 1–42. 1978, Bulletin of Botanical Laboratory of NorthEastern Forestry Institute 6: 21. 1980, Botaniceskjij Žurnal SSSR 69(4): 511–517. 1984, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 9(1): 10–11, pl. 3, f. 4–5. 1987, Botaničeskij Žurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 73: 290–293. 1988, Flora Mediterranea 9: 331– 339. 1999

(Leaves antirheumatic, diuretic and stimulant; juice of plant given in fever.)

in English: bushy rock-cress, narrow-leaf bittercress, narrowleaf bittercress

in China: tan lie sui mi ji, tan lie sui mi qi

in India: ban laiyya, nari

Cardamine maxima (Nutt.) Alph. Wood (Cardamine × maxima A. Wood; Cardamine anomala (Eames) K. Schum.; Cardamine maxima Wood; Dentaria anomala Eames; Dentaria maxima Nutt.)

North America. Perennial herb, food

See The Genera of North American Plants [Nuttall]. 2: 66. 1818, The American Botanist and Florist 38. 1870 and Rhodora 5(57): 217–218. 1903, Just’s botanischer Jahresbericht. 31(1[5]): 830. 1904

(Roots stomachic, for gastrointestinal disorders.)

in English: large toothwort

Cardamine nasturtioides Bert. (Cardamine bonariensis Pers.; Cardamine nasturtioides Cambess.; Cardamine nasturtioides Schur; Cardamine nasturtioides D. Don; Nasturtium nasturtioides Herter; Nasturtium nasturtioides (Cambess.) Herter; Rorippa hilariana (Walp.) Cabrera)

Chile.

See Prodromus Florae Nepalensis 201. 1825, Flora Brasiliae Meridionalis (A. St.-Hil.) (quarto ed.) 1: 89. 1829, Repertorium Botanices Systematicae. 1: 137. 1842, Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 48. 1866 and Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 32: 467. 1925, Estud. Bot. Reg. Uruguay 5: 21. 1928, Manual de la Flora de los Alrededores de Buenos Aires 231. 1953

(For tumor, ulcers, kidney inflammations.)

in Ecuador: berro, berros

Cardamine ovata Benth. (Cardamine lehmannii Hieron.; Cardamine ovata subsp. lehmannii (Hieron.) O.E. Schulz; Cardamine ovata var. bracteata O.E. Schulz; Cardamine ovata var. eriocarpa O.E. Schulz)

Colombia.

See Plantas Hartwegianas imprimis Mexicanas 158–159. 1845, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 20 (Beibl. 19): 19. 1895 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32: 412–413. 1903

(Infusion diuretic.)

Cardamine papuana O.E. Schulz

Papua New Guinea. Leaves with a pungent taste

See Species Plantarum 2: 655. 1753 and Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 55: 271. 1918

(Squeezed leaves onto a tooth cavity to relieve toothache; heated leaves rubbed onto sores, used to treat sores, boils, cuts, tropical ulcers. Fresh leaf juice antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiinflammatory.)

in Papua New Guinea: kalanevuda, tiligibe, wanggilolo

Cardamine pratensis L. (Dracamine pratensis (L.) Nieuwl.)

North America.

See Species Plantarum 2: 656. 1753 and American Midland Naturalist 4(1–2): 40. 1915, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 291: 8. 1949, Bot. Žurn. (Moscow & Leningrad). 61(7): 963–969. 1976, Feddes Repert. 100: 92. 1989, Pl. Syst. Evol. 200: 141–159. 1996

(Depurative, diuretic, for epilepsy, scurvy.)

in English: cuckoo bitter-cress, cuckoo flower, lady’s smock, meadow cress, spinks

in China: cao dian sui mi qi

Cardamine scaposa Franchet (Cardamine denudata O.E. Schulz)

China. Herb, erect, perennial, scapose, slender rhizomes, racemes terminal, petals white, smooth linear fruit, brown wingless seeds

See Plantae Davidianae ex Sinarum Imperio 1: 33. 1884 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 36(5, Beibl. 82): 46. 1905

(Antiinflammatory.)

in China: luo jing sui mi ji, luo jing sui mi qi

Cardamine scutata Thunb. (Cardamine angulata var. kamtschatica Regel; Cardamine autumnalis Koidz.; Cardamine baishanensis P.Y. Fu; Cardamine dentipetala Matsum.; Cardamine drakeana H. Boissieu; Cardamine flexuosa subsp. regeliana (Miq.) Franch. & Sav. ex O.E. Schulz; Cardamine flexuosa var. kamtschatica (Regel) Matsum.; Cardamine flexuosa var. manshurica Kom.; Cardamine flexuosa var. regeliana (Miq.) Kom.; Cardamine flexuosa var. regeliana (Miq.) Matsum.; Cardamine flexuosa var. scutata (Thunb.) O.E. Schulz; Cardamine hirsuta var. latifolia Maxim.; Cardamine hirsuta var. regeliana (Miq.) Maxim.; Cardamine hirsuta var. rotundiloba Hayata; Cardamine regeliana Miq.; Cardamine regeliana var. manshurica (Kom.) Kitag.; Cardamine scutata subsp. regeliana (Miq.) H. Hara; Cardamine scutata var. longiloba P.Y. Fu; Cardamine scutata var. rotundiloba (Hayata) T.S. Liu & S.S. Ying; Cardamine sylvatica var. regeliana (Miq.) Franch. & Sav.; Cardamine taquetii H. Lév.; Cardamine taquetii H. Lév. & Vaniot; Cardamine zhejiangensis T.Y. Cheo & R.C. Fang; Cardamine zhejiangensis var. huangshanensis D.C. Zhang)

Japan. Small erect herb, small white flowers, brown minute seeds

See Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 2: 339. 1794, Annales Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavi 2: 73. 1865, Botanical Magazine 13: 73. 1899 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32(4): 476–477. 1903, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 8: 259. 1910, Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 30(1): 31. 1911, Flora of Japan 447. 1925, Journal of the Faculty of Science: University of Tokyo, Botany 6: 59. 1952, Cytologia 40: 727–734. 1975, Bulletin of Botanical Laboratory of North-Eastern Forestry Institute 6: 24, f. 5. 1980, Flora Plantarum Herbacearum Chinae Boreali-Orientalis 4: 109, 116, f. 61, 67. 1980

(Leaves in skin diseases, and also seeds.)

in China: yuan chi sui mi qi

Cardamine tangutorum O.E. Schulz

China. Herb, erect, perennial, creeping rhizomes, racemes, purple petals, linear fruits, swampy meadows, ditches

See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32(2–3): 360– 361. 1903, Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 16(3): 310–318. 1996

(Antiinflammatory.)

in China: tang gu sui mi ji, tang gu sui mi qi

Cardamine trichocarpa Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Cardamine talamontiana Chiov.)

Central and eastern Africa, Tanzania. Herb, prostrate, erect or ascending, inflorescence a terminal densely flowered stalked raceme, linear fruit green-yellow, leaves boiled and eaten as a vegetable, leaves fodder for goats and rabbits, in mountainous areas

See Flora Sicula (Presl) 92. 1826, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 1: 18. 1847 and Annali di Botanica 9: 51. 1911, Botaniska Notiser 129: 123–130. 1976, Taxon 31: 773. 1982, Opera Botanica 121: 159–172. 1993

(Useful to treat kwashiorkor. Crushed leaves used as a dressing on wounds to improve healing, and also a good bath for babies.)

in Tanzania: kisegeu cha nghujini

Cardiocrinum (Endl.) Lindley Liliaceae

Greek kardia ‘heart’ and krinon ‘a lily’, an allusion to the cordate leaves, see Species Plantarum 1: 302–303. 1753, Veg. Kingd., ed. 2.: 205. 1847 and Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1–456. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 1994, Flora of China 24: 1–431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1–590. 2003, Singh, N.P. & Sanjappa, M. (eds.) Alliaceae, Liliaceae, Trilliaceae & Uvulariaceae. Fascicles of Flora of India 23: 1–134. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi. 2006, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 117(2): 362–377. 2008.

Cardiocrinum giganteum (Wall.) Makino (Cardiocrinum giganteum Makino; Lilium giganteum Wall.)

E. Asia, Himalayas, Nepal, India. Bulb, perennial, monocarpic, erect, offset bulbs, heavily scented flowers

See Tentamen Florae Napalensis Illustratae 1: 21–23, pl. 12–13. 1824, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27(318): 125–126. 1913

(Bulbs diuretic, tonic, for cough, fever, injuries. Leaves applied to wounds and bruises, fresh leaves pounded and used as a cooling poultice. Root paste applied to treat dislocated bones.)

in English: giant Himalayan lily, giant lily, Himalayan lily

in China: da bai he

in India: giotia, giotira

in Nepal: bhogati

Cardiocrinum giganteum (Wall.) Makino var. yunnanense (Leichtlin ex Elwes) Stearn (Lilium giganteum var. yunnanense Leichtlin ex Elwes; Lilium mirabile Franch.)

China. Bulbous, perennial, erect, hollow, offset bulbs, fragrant flowers creamy-white with red-purple midveins

See Journal de Botanique (Morot) 6(17–18): 310–311. 1892 and Botanical Magazine 27: 126. 1913, Gardener’s chronicle, ser. 3 60: 49, f. 18. 1916, Gardener’s chronicle, ser. 3 124: 4. 1948

(Tonic, starch from the bulb.)

in English: Yunnan cardiocrinum

in China: bai he qi, pai ho ch’i, yun nan da bai he, yun nan ta pai ho

Cardiopteris Wallich ex Royle Cardiopteridaceae (Olacaceae, Icacinaceae)

Greek kardia ‘heart’ and pteris ‘fern’, pteron ‘wing’, referring to the fruit, see Illustrations of the Botany ... of the Himalayan Mountains ... 136. 1834, Rumphia 3: 205, 207. 1847, Pl. Jav. Rar. 246. 1852.

Cardiopteris moluccana Blume (Cardiopteris lobata var. moluccana (Blume) Mast.; Cardiopteris rumphii var. blumeana Baill.; Cardiopteris rumphii var. intermedia Baill.)

SE Asia, Malesia. Herb, vine, climbing, twining, white milky latex, leaves spirally arranged, flowers in panicles, forest edges, in secondary vegetation

See Adansonia 10: 280–281. 1872, Fl. Brit. India 1: 597. 1875

(Stem sap used to treat asthma and other respiratory problems; a stem decoction for hepatitis. Leaves for headache.)

in Papua New Guinea: duman, qacac, zafengang

Cardiospermum L. Sapindaceae

Greek kardia ‘heart’ and sperma ‘a seed’, referring to the shape of the seed or to a heart-shaped spot on the seeds; see Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), Species Plantarum. 1: 366–367. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 171. 1754 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(6): 234–273. 1949, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(3A/2): 291–391. 1956, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 13: 1–224. 1985, AAU Reports 24: 1–241. 1990.

Cardiospermum canescens Wall. (Cardiospermum clematideum A. Rich.; Cardiospermum corindum sensu Trimen; Cardiospermum corindum L.f. canescens (Wall.) Radlk.; Cardiospermum oblongum A. Rich.)

SE Asia, India, Sri Lanka. Annual herb, scandent, climber, many-branched

See Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 526. 1762, Plantae Asiaticae Rariores (Wallich) 1: 14, t. 14. 1829, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 1: 100–101. 1847 and Fl. Tamilnadu 1: 83. 1983

(Leaf paste used orally to cure jaundice, insect repellent.)

in India: boodahcacarathega, buddakaakarathige, buddakakaratige, chinnabuddaboosara, chinnabuddabusara, cinnabuddabusara, dodda bekkina budde balli, kattu modakkathai, pedde budda

Cardiospermum grandiflorum Sw. (Cardiospermum barbicaule Baker; Cardiospermum caillei A. Chev., Hutch. & Dalziel; Cardiospermum caillei A. Chev.; Cardiospermum elegans Kunth; Cardiospermum grandiflorum fo. elegans (Kunth) Radlk.; Cardiospermum grandiflorum forma genuinum Radlk.; Cardiospermum grandiflorum fo. hirsutum (Willd.) Radlk.; Cardiospermum grandiflorum var. elegans (Kunth) Hiern; Cardiospermum grandiflorum var. hirsutum Hiern; Cardiospermum grandiflorum var. hirsutum (Willd.) Hiern; Cardiospermum hirsutum Willd.; Cardiospermum hispidum Kunth)

Tropical Africa, Ghana. Herbaceous climber, fragrant creamy-white flowers, lantern-shaped fruits

See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus (Swartz) 64. 1788, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 5: 99–101, t. 439. 1821, Flora of Tropical Africa [Oliver et al.] 1: 418. 1868, Sitzungsberichte der MathematischPhysikalischen Classe (Klasse) der K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München 8 (Heft III): 260. 1878 and Explor. Bot. Afrique Occ. Franc. i. 148. 1920, Economic Botany 30(4): 395–407. 1976, Phytotherapy Research 10(2): 167–169. 1996

(Poisonous, cyanogenic. Leaves and stem purgative, antifungal, febrifuge, analgesic, spasmogenic, abortifacient, emetic, diuretic, laxative, for skin diseases, itch, scabies, sore, swellings, gout, dropsy, stomach troubles, eye treatments. Magic, ceremonial.)

in English: balloon vine, black winter cherry, bladder creeper, heartseed, heartseed vine

in Sierra Leone: gbafo-yamba, jikevie, kiogange, kukbobo, kukui, ma-foi-ma-bana

in Yoruba: ako ejinrin, atugun, ikuuku erin, irowo, saworo

Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (Cardiospermum acuminatum Miq.; Cardiospermum corindum auct. non Linnaeus; Cardiospermum corindum L.; Cardiospermum corindum fo. molle (Kunth) Radlk.; Cardiospermum corindum fo. molle Radlk.; Cardiospermum halicacabum var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume; Cardiospermum luridum Blume; Cardiospermum microcarpum Kunth; Cardiospermum molle Kunth; Cardiospermum pumilum Blume; Cardiospermum truncatum A. Rich.; Corindum halicacabum (L.) Medik.; Corindum halicacabum Medik.) (Latin halicacabus for a plant called vesicaria (Plinius), Greek halikakabos.)

Tropical Africa and Asia, Amazonian Ecuador. More or less hairy vine, herbaceous, slender, climbing, lianescent, trailing, leaves compound, flowers yellowish white subtended by curled thin bracts, green papery inflated triangular fruits, dark seeds, eaten as a vegetable, an edible oil can be obtained from the seed

See Species Plantarum 1: 366–367. 1753, The Gardeners Dictionary ... Abridged ... fourth edition. 1754, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 1: 526. 1762, Ueber einige künstliche Geschlechter aus der Malvenfamilie, denn der Klasse der Monadelphien 110. Mannheim, 1787, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) [H.B.K.] 5: 103–104. 1821, Linnaea 17: 579. 1843 (1844), Linnaea 18: 359. 1844 (1845), Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 101. 1847, Rumphia 3: 184–185. 1849, Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) 13(3): 447. 1897 and Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 62: 117–130. 1989, Botanica Acta 103: 372–383. 1990, Regnum Veg. 127: 30. 1993, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 43: 89–124. 1994, Journal of Helminthology 74: 241–246. 2000, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88: 19–44. 2003, Ethnobotany 16: 52–58. 2004, Parasitology Research 97(5): 417–419. 2005, Ethnobotany 19: 1–16. 2007, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2: 35. 2006, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113: 457–470. 2007

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Toxic to livestock, strongly cyanogenic. Hunting poison from the juice of the plant. Whole plant CNS-depressant, antiinflammatory, blood refrigerant and purifier, antiphlogistic, antifilarial, antiparasitic, antibacterial, analgesic, stomachic, diuretic, antidiarrheal, laxative, antidote, emetic, emmenagogue, cooling, rubefacient, diaphoretic, sudorific, antihyperglycemic, for cold, earache, fever, nervous diseases, eczema, edema, urinary tract infections, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, swellings, sprains and external wounds; whole plant crushed in groundnut oil and applied all over the body in fever, jaundice and swelling; pills from the whole plant paste used to treat asthma; plant juice fed to infants in flatulence, colic; whole plant fried with sulphur and human hairs, made into a paste with mustard oil and applied for eczema. Leaves and stalks for dysentery and diarrhea; leaves fried in groundnut oil eaten to cure waist pain; leaves for insanity, convulsion, catarrh, rheumatism, fever, indigestion, urinary complaints, venereal diseases, syphilis, skin diseases, itchy skin, swellings, sores; fresh juice of leaves removing foul smell in the ear, and also a cure for earache; necklace made from the stem cures sores. Roots laxative, purgative, astringent, antibacterial, diaphoretic, rubefacient, diuretic, emetic, antipyretic, demulcent, root powder to treat rat and snake-poisoning, cough with fever, scrotal enlargement, alopecia, anemia and jaundice, diarrhea and dysentery; root paste applied over the joints to get relief from rheumatism; bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica and roots of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Solanum torvum crushed and the paste taken for gastroenteritis. Seed oil insect repellent. Veterinary medicine, for retained placenta, vaginal prolapse; root paste applied on the body of the cattle to remove lice or other parasites; leaf juice with the urine of young girls given orally for anorexia of cattle; leaves used for filariasis (philariasis); leaf paste applied locally for rheumatism; leaves decoction given orally for rheumatism; leaves ground with stem bark of Carissa spinarum given in fevers; leaves of Andrographis paniculata along with those of Vitex negundo, Cardiospermum halicacabum, tubers of Curculigo orchioides and Urginea indica pounded and extract given for ephemeral fever. Magic, ritual, bad spirits, sorceries; contact therapy, a necklace from seeds hung around neck to keep contagious diseases from children.)

in English: balloon vine, bishop’s cap, heart-leaved pea, heart pea, heart seed, leaved-heart pea, love-in-a-puff, smooth leaved heart pea, winter cherry

in Benin: gbantoto

in Burundi: imbogobogo, umurengo

in Cameroon: kanganga, pumpum, zikli

in Comoros: kalso, kanisso, mbamba ounango

in Congo: amoteremi, gumba, lofofo, mani mani, mubogo bogo, mubogobogo, ndakoma djombo, tototo

in Kenya: binina, binyna, etiriamit, ltugumi

in Madagascar: inasontsokina, kisangy, vallintsokina, voafaniha

in Malawi: msendezere

in Mali: dyuga, ti n’tlokoro pô

in Nigeria: garafunin, okulefo, saworo

in Rwanda: umubogobogo, umubogora, umukobora, umurengo

in Sierra Leone: gbafo-yamba, jikevié, ma-foi-ma-bana

in Southern Africa: blaasklimop, ikhambi leziduli, ikhambileziduli, legadullo le lethokhu, opblaasboontjie, uzipho, uziphu

in Sudan: hab-el-aris

in Tanzania: mwalika, nyamtumuka

in Togo: gbato-gbato, gbatogan, gbatogbato

in Uganda: kambula

in Bangladesh: nalamaiachi

in China: dao di ling, jia ku gua

in India: agniballi, alappukkorrran, alappukku, allena, analappirapam, ankapati, arattai, ataralappu, atinayanan, attankoti, bakhate, banu uchchhe, bari-chirmi, batte kaayi balli, bekkina budde gida, bekkina thoraduballi, bekkina toddina balli, bekkina budde gida, bekkinatoddinaballi, bodha, booddakankaraakkoo, budda boosara, budda gudichi, budda kaarana theege, budda kakara, buddakaakara, buddakakara, buddakakaratige, buddakakkira, buddakankarakoo, buddalaaku, budduva, bunu-uchchhe, camuttira, camuttiratoyam, camuttirotayam, cancivimeti, cancivimetikkoti, cempam, cevikkotiyal, chirphuta, chirpota, chirputa, chitaki hambu, ciliyakkai, ciliyakkaikkoti, ciliyanai, coliyan, cotismati, cukattam, cukattan, cutcumavalli, cutukatumittan, cutukaturaiyan, ekkuduthige, ekkudutige, eramballi, erikkoti, erumballi, eruvaballi, habb-ulkalkal, habbulkalkal, habbul qulqul, habul-kalkal, indravalli, intiravalli, intiyavalli, irattapati, irumballi, jothishmathi, jottigida, jyothishmathige, jyautishmati, jyotir, jyotirlata, jyotishmati, jyotishmatitige, jyotismati, kaadatheege, kaanphodi, kaasarithige, kagdolio, kagdoliyo, kaka-mardanika, kakadni, kakadola, kakaralata, kakatikta, kakumardanika, kalegomche, kalicharmoi, kanakaaya, kanakaia, kanakaiah, kanakappirapai, kanaphata, kanaphuta, kanfuti, kangu, kangu balli, kangunge, kangunne, kanphata, kanphoota, kanphote, kanphuta, kanphute, kanphuti, kanputi, kapal phori, kapal phuta, kapalaphodi, kapalphodi, kapalphore-bel, kapalphoti, kapolavalli, karavi, karkaralatha, karnasphota (karna, ear; sphota, crack), karnaspota, karodio, kasaritige, kash, katabhi, kirivattiyam, korran, korrankoti, korravan, kotikkottan, kottavan, kotte cheppu, kuppaimulikai, kuppaimulikaikkoti, laftaf, lata, lataphatkari, lataphatki, lataphatkiri, lottan, lottankoti, madapaku, mudakkaruthan, makotaracurupi, malamai, malmai, mantalakarakam, matappalippuntu, melliyakottan, melliyakottankoti, minaju balli, minchina balli, minchuballi, mincuballi, minijuballi, modakhethan, modakkatthaan kodi, moddacoatan, modikkotan, mooda-cottan, mooda cottan, mudakathan kodi, mudakattan, mudakithan, mudakkaruththaan, mudakkathan, mudakkatran, mudakkothan, mudakothan, mudakottan, mudukkottan, mudukottam, mukamottaimuli, mutakarran, mutakkarran, mutakkaruttan, mutakkaruttankoti, mutakkattan, mutakkattankoti, mutakkorran, mutakkoruttan, mutakkottan, mutakkurran mutakottan, mutarkurran, mutkkattan, muttaittukki, muttaittukkikkoti, nagna, nakanam, nalla goolesenda, nallagoolisienda, nallagulisinda, nallagulivinda, nallagolisyanda, nallagolisyandu, nantai, napatki, nayaphataki, nellagoolisienda, nellagulisetenda, nimpatecam, nimpateci, nimpatecikkoti, nipalam, paatalithivva, painaira-wel, palloolavum, paluruvam, paravatanghi, paravati-padi, patali tivva, patalitivva, patantiravalli, payiravi, periyavilai, periyayilaimudakottan, phati, phuga (= balloon), pirotta, poak, pokapiya, pokkanapantukkikkoti, pokkanappicci, ramano, sabni, sakralata, samuttiradoyan, samuttiram, satakratulata, shib-ihul, shibjal, shibjhul, shibjub, siliyanai, sita, taftaf, tapuhi-swan, tecovam, tejavati, tejovati, tekamataraci, theega, thella gurivinda, tiptam, tirakamulakakkoti, tirakamulakam, tirakamulam, tiramulam, tirkkamulam, tirukumulam, ulina, ulinja, ulinna, ullenathige, ullenatige, upparintha, urundeburu, uzhinga, uzhinja pacha, uzhinna, uzinna, valli uzinna, varutakakkoti, varutakam, vatanaci, vekkuditege, vekkuduthige, vel, vicuvakenti, visaantaravatanaci, vullingatheega, yeruva balli, yintiriyavallikoti

in Indonesia: cenet, ketipes, parenan, paria gunung, peparé kurung

in Malaysia: bintang berahi, bintang beraleh, peria bulan, uban kayu

in Philippines: ablayon, alalayon, alalayou, angelica, bangkilong, bangkolan, bangkolon, kana, lagupok, layaw, lobo-lobohan, lobolobohan, palpaltoog, paltak vaka, paltu-paltukan, paltuk paltukan, paputukan, paria-aso, parol-parolan, parparia, parul-parolan, paspalya, purpuraok

in Thailand: kok kra om, luupleep khruea, pho om

in Tibet: ka ke da

in Vietnam: ch[uf]m phong, t[aaf]m phong

in Fiji: vo niu, wa niu

in Hawaii: haleakai’a, ‘inalua, pohuehue uka, poniu

Carduus L. Asteraceae

Latin cardu(u)s, i ‘the thistle’ (Vergilius, Plinius, Iulius Capitolinus); see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 2: 820–826. 1753, Genera Plantarum Ed. 5. 358. 1754 and Kew Bulletin 22: 107–140. 1968, Taxon 24: 367–372. 1975, Taxon 25: 483–500. 1976, Acta Fac. Rerum Nat. Univ. Comenianae, Bot. 25: 1–18. 1976, Watsonia 11: 211–223. 1977, Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Comenianae, Botanica 26: 1–42. 1978, Bot. Zhurn. 64 (2): 227–232. 1979, Taxon 29: 538–542. 1980, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 5: 1–552. 1981, Fitologija 39: 3–22. 1991, Preslia 64: 193–206. 1992, Journal of Plant Biology 39: 15–22. 1996, Opera Botanica 137: 1–42. 1999, Willdenowia, Bd. 29, H. 1/2 (Dec. 10, 1999): 27–39. 1999.

Carduus acanthoides L. (Carduus acanthoides Gren. & Godr.; Carduus acanthoides Hornem.; Carduus acanthoides d’Urv.; Carduus acanthoides Huds.; Carduus acanthoides Pall. ex M. Bieb.; Carduus fortior Klokov)

Europe.

See Species Plantarum 2: 821. 1753, Fl. Angl. (Hudson), ed. 2. 2: 351. 1778, Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 361. 1822

(Antitumor.)

in English: plumeless thistle, spiny plumeless thistle

Carduus crispus L. (Carduus crispus Gouan; Carduus crispus Huds.; Carduus crispus Guirao ex Nyman)

Europe to Asia. Herb, biennial

See Sp. Pl. 2: 821–822. 1753, Fl. Angl.(Hudson), ed. 2. 2: 350. 1778, Consp. Fl. Eur. 2: 413. 1879 and Tetrahedron 58(34): 6795–6798. 2002

(Cytotoxic, isoquinoline alkaloids. Root alterative, diuretic and anodyne, in the treatment of rheumatism, headache, vertigo, itch, boils.)

in English: curl bristle thistle, curly plumeless-thistle, welted thistle

Carduus leptacanthus Fresen. (Carduus abyssinicus Sch. Bip.; Carduus semiensis (K. Schum.) Garcia; Carduus semiensis Pic. Serm.; Carduus stolzii R.E. Fr.)

Uganda, Tanzania. Herb, perennial, erect, single-stemmed, thorny, spiny wings, outer inflorescence bracts green at base, inner bracts purple at tip, florets light purple

See Museum Senckenbergianum 3: 70. 1840, Linnaea 19: 332. 1846 and Acta Horti Bergiani 8: 23. 1923, Miss. Stud.

Lago Tana, vii. Ricerche Bot., Pt. 1, 234. 1951, J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 400–409. 1962, J. Arnold Arbor. 46: 68–73. 1965, Fl. Rwanda 3: 676. 1985

(Plant sap, local application on wounds.)

in Congo: cigembegembe

in Rwanda: ikigéembégéembe, umugabudásuumírwa

Carduus nutans L. (Carduus armenus Boiss.; Carduus coloratus Tamamsch.; Carduus macrocephalus Desf.; Carduus macrolepis Peterm.; Carduus nutans Boiss. ex Nyman; Carduus nutans subsp. leiophyllus (Petrovič) Stoj. & Stef.; Carduus nutans subsp. macrocephalus (Desf.) Nyman; Carduus nutans subsp. macrolepis (Peterm.) Kazmi; Carduus nutans subsp. nutans; Carduus nutans var. armenus Boiss.; Carduus nutans var. leiophyllus (Petrovic) Arènes; Carduus nutans var. macrocephalus (Desf.) B. Boivin; Carduus nutans var. songaricus C.G.A. Winkl. ex O. Fedtsch. & B. Fedtsch.; Carduus nutans var. vestitus (Hallier) B. Boivin; Carduus schischkinii Tamamsch.; Carduus songaricus (C.G.A. Winkl. ex O. Fedtsch. & B. Fedtsch.) Tamamsch.; Carduus thoermeri Weinm.)

Eurasia. Herbaceous, biennial or perennial, erect, multi-branched, stems winged, wings with spiny margins, painful spiny stems and leaves, red-purple to dark pink sweet scented flowers, large disk-shaped flower heads, single flower head terminating stem, flowers usually bend over and nod at a 90-degree angle, silky pappus, large number of achenes produced by each plant, very aggressive noxious weed, invasive

See Species Plantarum 2: 821. 1753, Flora 27: 492. 1844, Flora Orientalis 3: 516. 1875, Consp. Fl. Eur. 2: 411. 1879 and Conspectus Florae Graecae 2: 102. 1902, Consp. Fl. Turkest. 4: 277. 1911, The Canadian Field-Naturalist 68: 35. 1954, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 5: 226, 323. 1964, Le Naturaliste Canadien 94: 654. 1967, Phytologia 23(1): 111. 1972

(Flowers febrifuge, for dizziness, blood purifier, for stimulating liver function.)

in English: false boneset, musk thistle, nodding plumeless thistle, nodding thistle, plumeless thistle, Scotch thistle

Carduus nyassanus (S. Moore) R.E. Fr. (Carduus leptacanthus var. nyassanus S. Moore; Carduus leptacanthus var. steudneri Engl.; Carduus nyassanus R.E. Fr.; Carduus steudneri (Engl.) R.E. Fr.)

Tropical Africa, Malawi. Herb, biennial or perennial, erect, spiny, sweet scented flowers purple-white with brown hairs, food for mountain gorillas

See Über die Hochgebirgsflora des tropischen Afrika 450. 1892 and Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 37: 326. 1906, Acta Horti Bergiani 8: 23, 25, 27, t. 3. 1923, Mitt. Bot. Staatss. Münch. 5: 158. 1963, Fl. Rwanda 3: 696. 1985, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 112(1): 55–70. 2007

(Leaves for abscesses, tachycardia, pain; leaves and roots decoction analgesic, antiemetic, for pregnant women. Veterinary medicine, for snakebite, to prevent abortion. Magic, against bad spirits.)

in Burundi: igihandambwa

in Congo: ikigembegembe, mugabudasumikwa, mwigembyegembye

in Rwanda: ikigéembégéembe, umugabudásuumírwa

Cardwellia F. Muell. Proteaceae

After the Right Honorable Edward T. Cardwell, 1813–1886, between 1864–1866 was Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, in 1874 raised to peerage as Viscount Cardwell of Ellerbeck. See Genera Plantarum 78. 1789, Ferdinand von Mueller, Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. 5(31): 23, 24, 38, 73. 1865, [Cardwell and Darling], The Crisis. Despatches of Mr. Cardwell and Sir Charles Darling. Melbourne 1866, [Edward Cardwell], Mr. Secretary Cardwell and the Right of Petition. (Correspondence between the London Committe of the Northern Association of New Zealand and the Right Hon. E. Cardwell, afterwards Viscount Cardwell, Secretary of State for the Colonies.) [1866] and Sir Robert Biddulph, Lord Cardwell at the War Office. A history of his administration, 1868–1874. London 1904, H.G. Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria. Melbourne 1904.

Cardwellia sublimis F. Muell.

Australia, northeast Queensland. Canopy tree, aluminum accumulator

(Cyanogenic, irritant, dermatitis.)

in English: bull-oak, bull silky oak, golden spangle-wood, golden spanglewood, lacewood, northern bull-oak, northern silky oak, oongaary, silky oak

Carex L. Cyperaceae

Latin classical name carex, icis (Vergilius) for a sedge, reed-grass or rush; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 972. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 420. 1754 and Acta Biol. Cracov., Ser. Bot. 22: 37–69. 1980, Bot. Zhurn. 65(1): 51–59. 1980, Bot. Zhurn. 65(5): 651–659. 1980, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 17: 91–123. 1980, Rhodora 83: 461–464. 1981, Acta Bot. Fenn. 116: 1–51. 1981, Taxon 30: 845–851. 1981, J. Ethnopharmacology 37: 213–223. 1992, Fitologija 43: 77–78. 1992, Willdenowia 22: 149–165. 1992, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 19: 97–136. 1993, Canad. J. Bot. 72: 587– 596. 1994, Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. Newslett. (Zurich). 24: 11–14. 1995, Sida 17(1): 251–258. 1996, Sida 18(2): 587–592. 1998, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 22: 105–119. 1999, Opera Bot. 137: 1–42. 1999, Kew Bulletin 56(2): 257–360. 2001.

Carex aquatilis Wahlenb. (Carex aquatilis Ten., nom. illeg.; Carex aquatilis var. genuina Syme, nom. inval.; Neskiza aquatilis (Wahlenb.) Raf.; Vignea aquatilis Rchb.; Vignea aquatilis (Wahlenb.) Rchb.)

Europe to Siberia, North America. Evergreen perennial herb, edible stems

See Moessl. Handb. ed. II. iii. 1624, Species Plantarum 2: 972–979. 1753, Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 24: 165. 1803, Flora Napolitana 4: 133. 1830, Handb. Gewächsk. ed. 2, 3: 1624. 1830, Good Book 27. 1840, Engl. Bot., ed. 3, 10: 113. 1870 and E.D. Merrill, Index Rafinesquianus 78. 1949

(Tonic.)

in English: aquatic sedge, leafy tussock sedge, water sedge

Carex arenaria L. (Carex arenaria Dubois ex Steud.; Carex arenaria Mohr. ex Boott; Carex arenaria Leers; Carex arenaria Lapeyr. ex Kunth; Carex arenaria f. pallida Lackow.; Carex arenaria f. pumila Lackow.; Carex arenaria var. adjunta Merino; Carex arenaria var. prostrata De Langhe; Carex arenaria var. pseudoarenaria T. Marsson; Carex arenaria var. remota T. Marsson; Carex arenaria var. spiralis Asch. & Graebn.; Carex arenaria var. tenuis Asch. & Graebn.; Carex intermedia d’Urv., nom. illeg.; Carex sabuletorum M. Bieb. ex Boot; Carex schreberi Desv.; Carex spadicea Gilib.; Carex witheringii Gray; Vignea arenaria (L.) Rchb.)

Russia, Europe. Perennial, long creeping rootstock

See Species Plantarum 2: 973. 1753, Flora Herbornensis 195, t. 14. f. 2. 1775, Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 378. 1822, Handb. Gewächsk. ed. 2, 3: 1618. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus [Steudel], ed. 2. 1: 286. 1840, Ill. Gen. Carex 4: 210. 1867 and Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(2): 30. 1902, Fl. Galicia 3: 163. 1909, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 104(1): 15. 1971

(Root diuretic, diaphoretic, for arthritis, rheumatism, eczema, liver complaints, abdominal and stomach disorders, bronchitis, catarrhs.)

in English: sand sedge

Carex atherodes Spreng. (Carex amurensis var. mandschurica Kük.; Carex aristata R.Br., nom. illeg.; Carex aristata subsp. orostachys (C.A. Mey.) Kük.; Carex aristata var. cujavica Asch. & Sprib.; Carex aristata var. glabra Uechtr.; Carex aristata var. hirtiformis H. Lév. & Vaniot; Carex aristata var. imberbis A. Gray; Carex aristata var. kirschsteiniana Asch., Graebn. & Kük.; Carex aristata var. kirschsteinii Asch. & Graebn.; Carex aristata var. lanceisquama Hand.-Mazz.; Carex aristata var. longilanceolata Dewey; Carex aristata var. longo-lanceolata Dewey; Carex aristata var. maxima (Kük.) Kük.; Carex aristata var. orostachys (C.A. Mey.) C.B. Clarke; Carex aristata var. subaristata Kük.; Carex aristata var. vix-vaginans Kük.; Carex atherodes Frank ex Kunth; Carex atherodes f. glabra (Uechtr.) Lepage; Carex atherodes f. imberbis (A. Gray) B. Boivin; Carex atherodes var. cujavica (Asch. & Sprib.) Rauschert; Carex atherodes var. cujavica (Asch. & Sprib. ex Asch.) Rauschert; Carex atherodes var. glabra (Uechtr. ex Garcke) Rauschert; Carex atherodes var. glabra (Uechtr.) Rauschert; Carex atherodes var. kirschsteinii (Asch., Graebn. & Kük.) Rauschert; Carex atherodes var. kirschsteinii (Asch. & Graebn.) Rauschert; Carex atherodes var. longilanceolata (Dewey) Gilly; Carex atherodes var. longo-lanceolata (Dewey) Gilly; Carex atherodes var. maxima (Kük.) A.E. Kozhevn.; Carex atherodes var. orthostachys (C.A. Mey.) A.E. Kozhevn.; Carex atherodes var. siegertiana (Uechtr. ex Garcke) Rauschert; Carex atherodes var. siegertiana (Uechtr.) Rauschert; Carex atherodes var. vix-vaginans (Kük.) A.E. Kozhevn.; Carex eriophylla (Kük.) Kom.; Carex frankii Steud., nom. illeg.; Carex fuscifructus C.B. Clarke; Carex glaberrima Meinsh.; Carex hirta subsp. siegertiana (Uechtr. ex Garcke) Nyman; Carex lanceisquama (Hand.-Mazz.) V.I. Krecz.; Carex mirata Dewey; Carex mirata var. minor Dewey; Carex orostachys C.A. Mey.; Carex orthostachys C.A. Mey.; Carex orthostachys var. spuria Y.L. Chang & Y.L. Yang; Carex pergrandis V.I. Krecz. & Luchnik; Carex siegertiana Uechtr. ex Garcke; Carex siegertiana var. glabra Uechtr. ex Garcke; Carex similigena V.I. Krecz.; Carex trichocarpa var. aristata L.H. Bailey; Carex trichocarpa var. deweyi L.H. Bailey; Carex trichocarpa var. imberbis A. Gray; Carex trichocarpa var. laeviconica Hitchc.; Carex trichocarpa var. maxima Kük.; Carex trichocarpa var. orostachys (C.A. Mey.) Kük.; Carex trichocarpa var. turbinata Dewey)

Northern America. Fodder

See Botanical Appendix to Captain Franklin’s Narrative 751. 1823, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta [Sprengel] 3: 828. 1826, Flora Altaica 4: 231, pl. 324. 1833, Amer. J. Sci. ser. 2, 18: 102. 1854, Fl. N. Mitt.-Deutschland, ed. 8 435. 1867, Botanical Gazette 10(6): 294. 1885 and Das Pflanzenreich 38(IV, 20): 753, 755, pl. 128, f. F. 1909, Malayan Orchid Review 135. 1925, Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 21: 128. 1946, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae Bor.-Or. 11: 204. 1976, Phytologia 43(1): 99. 1979, Taxon 30: 845–851. 1981, Feddes Repert. 93(1–2): 16. 1982, Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 38(1): 47. 1993

(Antibacterial.)

in English: awned sedge, slough sedge, sugar-grass sedge

in China: mao ye tai cao, zhi sui tai cao

Carex atrata L. (Carex atrata Banks ex Boott, nom. inval.; Carex atrata var. japonalpina T. Koyama; Carex bigelowii Torr. ex Schwein. subsp. paishanensis (Nakai) Vorosch.; Carex japonalpina Koyama; Carex japonalpina (T. Koyama) T. Koyama; Carex paishanensis Nakai; Carex perfusca V.I. Krecz. var. japonoalpina (T. Koyama) Kitag.)

China.

See Sp. Pl. 2: 976 (-977). 1753, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 1: 67. 1824, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 1: 257. 1845, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 549. 1848, Ill. Gen. Carex 4: 166. 1867, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de Belgique 24: 15. 1885[1886] and Botanical Magazine 28: 301. 1914, Journal of Japanese Botany 30: 313. 1955, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. xvi. 154. 1956, Journal of Japanese Botany 31: 192. 1956, Neo-Lineamenta Florae Manshuricae 134. 1979, Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. Newslett. (Zurich) 24: 11–14. 1995

(Plant infusion taken against indigestion.)

Carex baccans Nees (Carex baccans f. aurantiaca Kuntze; Carex baccans f. nigra Kuntze; Carex baccans f. normalis Kuntze, nom. inval.; Carex baccans f. recurvirostris Kuntze; Carex baccans var. siccifructus C.B. Clarke; Carex curvirostris Kunze; Carex javanica Boeckeler; Carex recurvirostra Kunze)

Trop. & Subtrop. Asia.

See Contr. Bot. India: 122. 1834, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 747. 1891, Fl. Brit. India 6: 723. 1894 and Edinburgh J. Bot. 50(2): 185– 206. 1993

(Root paste applied in boils.)

in India: mutha

Carex bebbii Olney ex Britton (Carex bebbii Olney ex Fernald; Carex bebbii Olney; Carex bebbii (L.H. Bailey) Olney ex Fernald; Carex tribuloides Herb. var. bebbii L.H. Bailey; Carex tribuloides var. bebbii (Olney ex Britton) L.H. Bailey)

Northern America.

See Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 1(1): 55–56. 1889 and Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 37(17): 478. 1902, Canadian Field-Naturalist 119: 417–436. 2005

(Astringent, antibiotic.)

Carex brevior (Dewey) Mack. ex Lunell (Carex brevior (Dewey) Mack.; Carex festucacea var. brevior (Dewey) Fernald; Carex straminea Willd. ex Schkuhr var. brevior Dewey; Carex straminea var. brevior L.H. Bailey, nom. illeg.)

North America, Mexico.

See Beschr. Riedgräs. 1: 49. 1801, Amer. J. Science, and Arts 11(1): 158. 1826, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 1: 22. 1889 and Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 37: 477. 1902, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4(6): 235. 1915

(For women’s ailments.)

in English: short-beak sedge

Carex canescens L. (Carex canescens Host; Carex canescens Huds., nom. illeg.; Carex canescens Leers, non L.; Carex canescens L.H. Bailey, nom. nud.; Carex canescens Pollich; Carex cinerea Pollich; Carex curta Gooden.; Carex richardii Thuill.; Caricina canescens St.-Lag.; Caricina canescens (L.) St.-Lag.; Vignea canescens (L.) Rchb.; Vignea cinerea (Pollich) Dostál)

Reg. temp. bor. et austr.

See Fl. Prussica: 117, pl. 32. 1703, Species Plantarum 2: 974–975. 1753, Hist. Pl. Palat. 2: 571. 1777, Flora Anglica (Hudson), ed. 2. 2: 405. 1778, Fl. Herborn.: 712, t. 14. f. 3. 1789, Fl. Env. Paris: 482. 1790, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 2: 145. 1792, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2: 145. 1794, Icon. Descr. Gram. Austriac. 1: t. 57. 1801, Handb. Gewächsk. ed. 2, 3: 1612. 1830, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 22(1): 144. 1886[1887], Étude des Fleurs [A. Cariot] ed. 8 2: 877–878. 1889 and Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 1899: 185. 1900 [1899 publ. 1900], Flore de France 13: 413. 1912, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 18: 94. 1981, Folia Musei Rerum Naturalium Bohemiae Occidentalis, Bot. 21: 16. 1984

(Antibacterial.)

in English: short sedge, silvery sedge

in China: bai shan tai cao

Carex capillaris L. (Carex capillaris Leers; Carex capillaris Willd. ex Kunth; Carex capillaris f. typica B. Boivin, nom. inval.; Carex capillaris subsp. chlorostachys (Steven) Á. Löve, D. Löve & Raymond; Carex capillaris var. chlorostachys (Steven) Grossh.; Carex chlorostachys Steven; Carex fuscidula V.I. Krecz. ex T.V. Egorova; Carex plena Clairv., nom. superfl.; Loxotrema capillaris (L.) Raf.; Trasus capillaris (L.) Gray)

Reg. bor. temp. et arct., Europe.

See Sp. Pl. 2: 977. 1753, Manuel d’Herborisation en Suisse et en Valais 292. 1811, Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 4: 68. 1813, A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 66. 1821, Good Book: 25. 1840 and Das Pflanzenreich 38(IV. 20): 620. 1909, Naturaliste Canad. 75: 203. 1948, Canadian Journal of Botany 35: 749. 1957, Novosti Sistematiki Vysshchikh Rastenii 1964: 36. 1964, Botaniska Notiser 128(4): 504. 1975[1976]

(Tonic, stimulant.)

in English: hair-like sedge

in China: lu sui tai cao, xi gan tai cao

Carex crawfordii Fernald (Carex crawfordii f. vigens (Fernald) Kük.; Carex crawfordii var. vigens Fernald; Carex scoparia Willd. var. minor Boott)

North America.

See Sp. Pl. 4: 230. 1805, Ill. Gen. Carex pt. 3: 116. 1862 and Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 37(17): 469–471, pl. 1, f. 12–14. 1902, Pflanzenr., IV, 20(38): 203. 1909

(For respiratory ailments.)

Carex deweyana Schwein. (Vignea deweyana (Schwein.) Raf.; Vignea deweyi Raf.)

Japan, North America.

See Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 1: 65, 310. 1824, Good Book: 27. 1840 and An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States 1: 352. 1913, Amer. Midl. Nat. 3: Append. 1913, North American Flora 18(3): 114. 1931, Ind. Rafin. 79. 1949

(For stomachache.)

in English: Dewey’s sedge

Carex dimorpholepis Steud. (Carex cernua Boott, nom. illeg.; Carex cernua var. minor Boott; Carex rubescens Boeckeler; Carex schkuhriana H. Lév. & Vaniot)

Pakistan, India.

See Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2: 214. 1855, Boott, Francis M.B. (1792– 1863), Illustrations of the Genus Carex 4: 171. London, W. Pamplin, 1858–1867, Flora 65: 60. 1882 and Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot. 11: 59. 1902

(Veterinary medicine, whole plant for nervous disorders.)

in China: er xing lin tai cao

Carex gracillima Schwein. (Carex digitalis Schwein. & Torr, nom. illeg.; Carex gracillima Hoppe ex Nyman; Carex gracillima Steud. & Hochst. ex Steud.; Carex gracillima Steud. & Hochst.; Carex gracillima f. humilis Kük.; Carex gracillima f. humilis L.H. Bailey; Carex gracillima var. humile L.H. Bailey; Carex gracillima var. humilis (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey; Carex gracillima var. macerrima Fernald & Wiegand; Loxanisa gracillima (Schwein.) Raf.)

North America. Plant with a red-to-purple base

See Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 1(1): 66, 324. 1824, Good Book: 25–26. 1840, Nomenclator Botanicus [Steudel] ed. 2, 1: 290. 1840, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 552. 1848, Consp. Fl. Eur. 4: 775. 1882, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 1: 71. 1889 and Pflanzenr. (Engler) 4, Fam. 20: 584. 1909, Rhodora 15: 133. 1913

(Hypotensive.)

in English: graceful sedge, purple-sheathed graceful sedge, slender sedge

Carex gynocrates Wormsk. (Carex alascana Boeck.; Carex chordorrhiza subsp. gynocrates (Wormsk.) Nyman; Carex cobresiiformis A.I. Baranov & Skvortsov; Carex dioica subsp. gynocrates (Wormsk. ex Drejer) Hultén; Carex dioica subsp. gynocrates (Wormsk.) Hultén; Carex dioica var. gynocrates (Wormsk. ex Drejer) Ostenf.; Carex dioica var. gynocrates (Wormsk.) Ostenf.; Carex gynocrates Wormsk. ex Drejer; Carex gynocrates var. substaminata Peck; Vignea gynocrates (Wormsk.) Soják)

Siberia, Japan, North America.

See Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift 3: 434. 1841, Rev. Crit. Caric. Bot. 16. 1841, Conspectus florae europaeae: seu Enumeratio methodica plantarum phanerogamarum Europae indigenarum, indicatio distributionis geographicae singularum etc. 782. 1882, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 7: 277. 1885, Rep. (Annual) Regents Univ. State New York New York State Mus. 48: 148. 1896 and Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl., IV, 8(5): 170. 1962, Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. 18: 224. 1965

(Hemostatic.)

in English: Northern bog sedge, yellow bog sedge

in China: yi zhu tai cao

Carex hirta L. (Carex aristata Siegert ex Wimm., nom. illeg.; Carex hirta f. glabrata Peterm.; Carex hirta f. hirtiformis (Pers.) Kunth; Carex hirta f. latifolia Waisb. ex Kük.; Carex hirta f. major Peterm.; Carex hirta f. paludosa A. Winkl. ex Asch. & Graebn.; Carex hirta f. pseudohirta Schur; Carex hirta f. spinosa H. Mort.; Carex hirta f. subhirtiformis Kneuck.; Carex hirta f. villosa Peterm.; Carex hirta subsp. hirtiformis K. Richt.; Carex hirta var. aquatica Waisb.; Carex hirta var. glabra Gaudin; Carex hirta var. glabra (Pers.) Gaudin; Carex hirta var. glabrescens Cariot; Carex hirta var. hirtiformis (Pers.) Lej.; Carex hirta var. humilis Peterm.; Carex hirta var. pilosa Celak.; Carex hirta var. pusilla Merino; Carex hirta var. repens F. Nyl.; Carex hirta var. subglabra Celak.; Carex hirta var. sublaevis Hornem.; Carex hirta var. vera Neilr.; Carex hirtiformis Pers.; Carex orthostachys Trevir. ex Nyman, nom. inval.; Carex villosa Stokes; Trasus hirtus (L.) Gray)

Turkey, Iran. Perennial, root cooked

See Species Plantarum 2: 975. 1753, Synopsis Plantarum 2: 547. 1807, Flore des Environs de Spa 2: 230. 1813, A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 58. 1821, Flora Helvetica 6: 128. 1830, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... 2: 485. 1837, Botanisk Tidsskrift II, 1: 94. 1872, Plantae Europeae 1: 168. 1890, Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 4: 165. 1898 and Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(2): 223. 1903, Magyar Bot. Lapok 4: 76. 1905, Pflanzenr., IV, 20(38): 751. 1909, Taxon 41: 559. 1992

(Diuretic.)

Carex indica L. (Carex indica Koen. ex Willd.; Carex indica F. Muell. ex Benth., nom. illeg.; Carex indica Schkuhr, nom. illeg.; Carex indica Wahlenb., nom. illeg.)

India, Pacific, Vietnam. Terrestrial sedge, young inflorescences light green

See Mant. Pl. 2: 574. 1771, Rickia 1: 37. 1801, Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 24: 149. 1803, Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4(1): 315. 1805, Enumeratio Methodica Caricum Quarundam 10. 1843, Flora Australiensis 7: 441. 1878

(Roots included in a complex decoction taken for jaundice with abdominal pain.)

in China: in du tai cao zu

Carex inops L.H. Bailey subsp. heliophila (Mack.) Crins (Carex erxlebeniana Kelso; Carex heliophila Mack.; Carex pensylvanica subsp. heliophila (Mack.) W.A. Weber; Carex pensylvanica var. digyna Boeckeler)

North America.

See Supplemente zu Schkuhr’s Riedgräsern 131–132. 1844, Linnaea 41: 220. 1877, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 22(1): 126. 1886[1887] and Torreya 13(1): 15–16. 1913, Brittonia 33(3): 325. 1981, Canad. J. Bot. 61(6): 1709–1710. 1983

(Disinfectant, stomachic.)

in English: sun sedge

Carex intumescens Rudge (Carex folliculata Wahlenb., nom. illeg.; Carex folliculata var. major Pursh; Carex intumescens f. ventriosa Fernald; Carex intumescens var. fernaldii L.H. Bailey)

North America.

See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 7: 97–98, pl. 9, f. 3. 1804, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 20(11): 418. 1893 and Rhodora 44(525): 321–322, pl. 713, f. 19–21. 1942

(Antidepressant.)

in English: bladder sedge, greater bladder sedge, shining bur sedge, swollen sedge

Carex lacustris Willd. (Anithista lacustris (Willd.) Raf.; Anithista riparia Raf.; Carex lacustris Balb. ex Kunth; Carex lacustris Schkuhr; Carex riparia Muhl., nom. illeg.; Carex riparia var. lacustris (Willd.) Kük.)

North America. Coarse, rhizomatous sedge, bluish foliage

See Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4(1): 306. 1805, Riedgr. ii. 84. t. 600. f. 152. 1806, Good Book 26. 1840, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 561. 1848 and Pflanzenr., IV, 20(38): 736. 1909, Can. J. Bot. 57: 2140–2144. 1979

(For fertility.)

in English: lake sedge, lake shore sedge, rip-gut sedge

Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. var. americana Fernald (Carex filiformis var. lanuginosa (Michx.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.; Carex lanuginosa Michx.; Carex lanuginosa var. americana (Fernald) Boivin; Carex lanuginosa var. kansana Britton; Carex lanuginosa var. oriens Raymond; Carex lasiocarpa f. kansana (Britton) Kük.; Carex lasiocarpa subsp. americana (Fernald) Á. Löve & J.-P. Bernard; Carex lasiocarpa subsp. lanuginosa (Michx.) R.T. Clausen & Wahl; Carex lasiocarpa var. lanuginosa (Michx.) Kük.)

North America, Mexico.

See Hannover. Mag. 9: 132. 1784, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 175. 1803, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. 1: 305. 1896 and Pflanzenr., IV, 20(38): 748. 1909, Rhodora 44(525): 304–305, pl. 712, f. 10–11. 1942, Naturaliste Canad. 77: 59. 1950, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 53(4): 381. 1959[1960], Naturaliste Canad. 94(4): 523. 1967

(Antibacterial.)

in English: woolly sedge

Carex microptera Mack. (Carex festivella Mack.; Carex limnophila F.J. Herm.; Carex macloviana subsp. festivella (Mack.) Á. Löve & D. Löve; Carex macloviana var. microptera (Mack.) B. Boivin; Carex microptera var. crassinervia F.J. Herm.; Carex microptera var. limnophila (F.J. Herm.) Dorn)

North America, Mexico. Forage

See Muhlenbergia; a journal of botany 5(4): 56–57. 1909, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 42(11): 609–614. 1915, Leaflets of Western Botany 8(2): 28–29. 1956, Le Naturaliste Canadien 94(4): 523. 1967, Rhodora 70(783): 420. 1968, Taxon 30(4): 847. 1981, Vascular Plants of Wyoming 296. 1988

(Emetic. Ceremonial.)

in English: smallwing sedge

Carex muricata L. (Carex astracanica Willd. ex Kunth; Carex cuprina Th. Nendtv. ex A. Kerner; Carex cuprina (I. Sándor ex Heuff.) Nendtv. ex A. Kern.; Carex divulsa Gaudin, nom. illeg.; Carex intermedia Retz.; Carex muricata Jungh., nom. illeg.; Carex muricata Desf., nom. illeg.; Carex muricata Huds., nom. illeg.; Carex muricata Jungh. ex Schltdl.; Carex muricata Schltdl., nom. illeg.; Carex muricata Leers, nom. illeg.; Carex muricata f. arcuata P. Silva; Carex muricata subsp. orsiniana (Ten.) Nyman; Carex muricata var. nemorosa Nyman; Carex nemorosa Lumn. ex Honck., nom. illeg.; Carex orsiniana Ten.; Carex pairae subsp. borealis Hyl.; Carex pairae var. javanica Nelmes; Carex serotina Ten., nom. illeg.; Carex stellulata M. Bieb., nom. illeg.; Carex tenuissima Schur, nom. illeg.; Carex tergestina Hoppe ex Boott; Carex vulpina Hohen., nom. illeg.; Carex vulpina subsp. nemorosa (Nyman) O. Schwartz, nom. illeg.; Caricina muricata (L.) St.-Lag.; Vignea altissima Schur; Vignea cuprina (I. Sándor ex Heuff.) Soják; Vignea muricata (L.) Rchb.; Vignea tenuissima (Schur) Schur; Vignea virens Rchb.)

Europe to Caucasus.

See Species Plantarum 2: 974. 1753, Flora Anglica 349. 1762, Flora Herbornensis t. 13, f. 8. 1775, Flora Atlantica 2: 335. 1799, Handb. Gewächsk. ed. 2, 3: 1611. 1830, Linnaea 6: 29. 1831, Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13: 566. 1863, Consp. Fl. Eur. 781. 1882, Étude des fleurs éd. 8, 2: 875. 1889 and Kew Bulletin 5: 208. 1950, Bol. Soc. Brot., II, 54: 240. 1980–1981[1981]

(Wound healing.)

in English: inland sedge, lesser prickly sedge, muricate sedge, prickly sedge, rough sedge

Carex nebrascensis Dewey (Carex jamesii Torr., nom. illeg.; Carex jamesii var. nebrascensis (Dewey) L.H. Bailey; Carex jamesii var. nebraskensis (Dewey) L.H. Bailey; Carex jamesii var. ultriformis (L.H. Bailey) Kük.; Carex nebrascensis var. eruciformis Suksd.; Carex nebrascensis var. praevia L.H. Bailey; Carex nebrascensis var. ultriformis L.H. Bailey; Carex nebraskensis Dewey; Carex nebraskensis var. eruciformis Suksd.; Carex nebraskensis var. praevia L.H. Bailey; Carex nebraskensis var. ultriformis L.H. Bailey)

North America. Forage

See Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 1(1): 67. 1824, Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 3: 398–399. 1836, Amer. J. Sci. Arts, II, 18(1): 102– 103. 1854, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 22: 84. 1886, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 1(1): 49. 1889, Botanical Gazette 21(1): 8. 1896 and Das Pflanzenreich IV. 20(Heft 38): 318. 1909, Werdenda 1(2): 5. 1923, Amer. Midl. Natur. 126: 30–43. 1991

(Emetic. Ceremonial.)

in English: Nebraska sedge

Carex notha Kunth

India, Himalaya.

See Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 2: 421. 1833–1850

(Magico-religious beliefs, roots as talisman to prevent snakebites.)

Carex nubigena D. Don ex Tilloch & Taylor (Carex nubigena D. Don; Carex nubigena fo. viridans Kük.; Carex pleistogyna V.I. Krecz.; Vignea nubigena (D. Don ex Tilloch & Taylor) Soják)

India, Himalaya, Nepal. Perennial, root cooked

See Philos. Mag. J. 62: 455. 1823, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14(2): 326. 1824 and Bulletin de l’Académie Internationale de Géographie, Botanique 22: 250. 1912

(Decoction taken as astringent and emetic.)

in China: yun wu tai cao

in India: giwaria jhar

Carex oligosperma Michx. (Carex despreauxii Steud.; Carex oakesiana Torr.; Carex okesiana Dewey; Carex okesii Eaton; Carex oligosperma var. churchilliana Raymond; Carex oligosperma var. tsuishikarensis (Koidz. & Ohwi) B. Boivin; Carex tsuishikarensis Koidz. & Ohwi; Olamblis oakesiana (Torr.) Raf.)

Japan, North America.

See Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux) 2: 174. 1803, Amer. J. Sci. Arts 14: 351. 1828, Man. Bot., ed. 5: 157. 1829, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 3: 421. 1836, Good Book 26. 1840, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2: 237. 1855 and J. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Univ. 26: 273. 1931, Canad. J. Bot. 34: 292. 1956, Phytologia 43(1): 104. 1979

(Emetic.)

in English: few-seeded sedge, fewseed sedge

Carex pedunculata Muhl. ex Willd. (Carex pedunculata Muhl. ex Schkuhr; Carex pedunculata Willd. ex Roxb.)

North America.

See Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4(1): 222–223. 1805, Riedgr. ii. 39. 1806, St. Helena Tracts: 302. 1816, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 2: 238. 1855

(Diaphoretic.)

in English: long-stalk sedge, long-stalked sedge, stalked sedge

Carex pensylvanica Lam. (Carex marginata Muhl. ex Willd., nom. illeg.; Carex pennsylvanica Torr.; Carex pensylvanica Torr., nom. illeg.; Carex pensylvanica f. androgyna C.F. Wheeler ex F.J. Herm.; Carex pensylvanica f. bracteata Peck; Carex pensylvanica f. glumabunda (Peck) Kük.; Carex pensylvanica f. gracilifolia (Peck) Kük.; Carex pensylvanica f. latifolia Kük.; Carex pensylvanica f. paleacea Peck; Carex pensylvanica f. separans (Peck) Kük.; Carex pensylvanica var. angustifolia Peck; Carex pensylvanica var. glumabunda Peck; Carex pensylvanica var. gracilifolia Peck; Carex pensylvanica var. livoniensis Farw.; Carex pensylvanica var. marginata Dewey; Carex pensylvanica var. marginata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Dewey; Carex pensylvanica var. pinicola M.E. Jones; Carex subbiflora Steud.)

North America. Low, clump-forming graminoid with yellow-green foliage

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3(2): 388. 1792, Sp. Pl. Editio quarta 4(1): 261. 1805, Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 3: 410. 1836, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2: 234. 1855, Rep. (Annual) Regents Univ. State New York New York State Mus. 46: 131. 1893, Rep. (Annual) Regents Univ. State New York New York State Mus. 47: 174. 1894 and Pflanzenr., IV, 20(38): 445–446. 1909, Bull. Montana State Univ., Biol. Ser. 15: 21. 1910, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 26(1): 8. 1941, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 25(1): 33, map 72a. 1941

(Disinfectant, stomachic, for gastrointestinal troubles.)

in English: Pennsylvania sedge

Carex pilulifera L. (Bitteria pilulifera (L.) Fedde & J. Schust.; Carex pilulifera Geners. ex Boott, nom. illeg.; Carex pilulifera Willd. ex Kunth; Trasus piluliferus (L.) Gray)

Mediterranean, Europe.

See Species Plantarum 976. 1753, A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 58. 1821, Ill. Gen. Carex 4: 216. 1867 and Just’s Bot. Jahresber. 41(2): 7. 1913 (publ. 1918)

(Antibacterial, wound healing.)

Carex plantaginea Lam. (Anithista latifolia (Moench) Raf.; Carex latifolia Moench, nom. illeg.; Carex plantaginea Muhl., nom. illeg.; Deweya plantaginea (Lam.) Raf.)

North America.

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3(2): 392. 1792, Methodus 324. 1794, Descriptio uberior Graminum (Muhlenberg) 235. 1817, Good Book 26. 1840, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 554. 1848

(Chewed root on snakebite. Magic, charm.)

in English: plantain-leaved sedge, plantainleaf sedge

Carex platyphylla J. Carey (Carex platyphylla Franch., nom. illeg.; Carex platyphylla var. longepedunculata Kük.; Carex platyphylla var. longipedunculata Kük.)

North America.

See Amer. J. Sci. Arts, II, 4(10): 23–24. 1847, Bulletin de la Société Philomatique de Paris VIII, 7: 50. 1895 and Pflanzenr., IV, 20(38): 529. 1909

(For snakebite.)

in English: broadleaf sedge, thicket sedge

Carex prasina Wahlenb. (Carex miliacea Muhl. ex Willd., nom. illeg.; Carex subcompressa Steud.; Olamblis miliacea Raf.)

North America.

See Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. (1803) 161. 1803, Sp. Pl. 4: 290. 1805, Good Book 26. 1840, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2: 221. 1855

(Plant decoction disinfectant, stomachic, emetic, for gastrointestinal troubles. Veterinary medicine.)

in English: drooping sedge

Carex projecta Mack. (Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. var. reducta Bailey)

North America. Perennial, densely cespitose, difficult to identify

See Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35(5): 264–265. 1908

(Lactogenic, abortifacient.)

in English: loose-headed oval sedge, necklace sedge

Carex retrorsa Schwein. (Carex lupulina Muhl. ex Willd. var. gigantoidea Dewey; Carex retrorsa Nees, nom. illeg.; Carex retrorsa var. gigantoidea (Dewey) Farw.; Carex retrorsa var. gigantoides Farw.; Carex retrorsa var. gigantoides (Dewey) Farw.; Carex retrorsa var. multispicula Lepage; Carex retrorsa var. robinsonii Fernald; Carex reversa Spreng.)

North America. Clump forming sedge, reflexed flower spikes

See Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 1(1): 71. 1824, Syst. Veg. 3: 827. 1826, Linnaea 10: 204. 1835, Amer. J. Sci. Arts, II, 41(123): 328–329. 1866 and Rhodora 8(94): 201–202. 1906, Rhodora 23(268): 87. 1921, Naturaliste Canad. 86(3– 4): 68–69. 1959

(Veterinary medicine. Ceremonial.)

in English: deflexed bottlebrush sedge, knotsheath sedge, retrorse sedge

Carex sabulosa Turcz. ex Kunth (Carex leiophylla Mack.; Carex melanantha var. moorcroftii (Falc. ex Boott) Kük.; Carex melanantha var. sabulosa (Turcz. ex Kunth) Kük.; Carex moorcroftii Falc.; Carex moorcroftii Falc. ex Boott; Carex sabulosa subsp. leiophylla (Mack.) A.E. Porsild)

China, Himalaya.

See Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum [Kunth] 2: 432–433. 1837, Proc. Linn. Soc. i. (1846) 288. 1846, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 20: 140. 1846 and North American Flora 18(6): 365. 1935, National Museums of Canada Bulletin 216: 20. 1966

(Poultice.)

in China: qing zang tai cao, sha di tai cao

in India: longma

Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd. (Carex lagopodioides var. scoparia (Schkuhr ex Willd.) Boeck.; Carex scoparia Schkuhr; Carex scoparia Torr., nom. illeg.; Carex scoparia Willd.; Carex scoparia f. condensa (Fernald) Kük.; Carex scoparia f. moniliformis (Tuck.) Kük.; Carex scoparia var. condensa Fernald; Carex scoparia var. moniliformis Tuck.; Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. var. moniliformis (Tuck.) Britton; Loncoperis scoparia (Willd.) Raf.; Loncoperis scoparia (Schkuhr ex Willd.) Raf.; Vignea scoparia (Willd.) Rchb.)

North America. Clump forming sedge, fast-growing species

See Species Plantarum. Editio quarta [Willdenow] 4(1): 230–231. 1805, Riedgr. ii. 20. 1806, Handb. Gewachsk. (ed. 2) 3: 1613. 1830, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York iii. (1836) 394. 1836, Good Book 27. 1840, Linnaea 39: 114. 1875 and Taxon 30: 845–851. 1981

(Stimulant, tonic.)

in English: broom sedge, lance fruit oval sedge, lance-fruited oval sedge, pointed broom-sedge

Carex setigera D. Don

Himalaya.

See Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14: 330. 1824, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 43. 1825 and Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien: Serie B: für Botanik und Zoologie 98B(Suppl.): 92. 1996

(Leaf infusion taken to check bowels.)

in China: chang jing tai cao

Carex stipata Muhl. ex Willd. (Carex stipata Muhl. ex Schkuhr; Vignea stipata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Rchb.; Vignea stipata Rchb.)

North America, Russia. Coarse clump forming sedge, perennial, densely tufted herb, stout triangular stems, short fibrous roots, pyramidal flower clusters, fast grower, food and cover for birds

See Species Plantarum. Editio quarta [Willdenow] 4(1): 233. 1805, Riedgr. ii. 20. 1806, Handb. Gewachsk. (ed. 2) 3: 1620. 1830 and Taxon 30: 845–851. 1981

(Antibacterial.)

in English: awl-fruited sedge, awn-fruited sedge, common fox sedge, owl-fruit sedge, sawbeak sedge

in China: hai mian ji tai cao

Carex supina Willd. ex Wahlenb. (Carex nitida var. supina (Willd. ex Wahlenb.) Fiori; Carex obtusata var. supina (Willd. ex Wahlenb.) Garcke; Carex supina Wahlenb.; Edritria supina (Willd. ex Wahlenb.) Raf.)

Canada, Greenland, Alaska.

See Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar 24: 158. 1803, Good Book 26. 1840, Flora von Nord- und MittelDeutschland ed. 16: 469. 1890 and Nuova Flora Analitica d’Italia 1: 194. 1923

(Magic, ceremonial.)

in English: weak arctic sedge, weak sedge

Carex tenuiflora Wahlenb. (Carex arrhyncha Franch.; Carex leucolepis Turcz. ex Steud.; Carex tenuiflora Hartm. ex Kunth, nom. illeg.; Carex tenuiflora var. arrhyncha (Franch.) Kük.; Carex tenuiflora var. setacea Kük.; Vignea tenuiflora (Wahlenb.) Soják)

Japan, North America, Europe.

See Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar 24: 147. 1803, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... 2: 405. 1837, Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 292. 1840, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, VIII, 7: 30. 1895 and Pflanzenr., IV, 20(38): 224. 1909

(Antibacterial.)

in English: small-head bog sedge, sparse-flowered sedge, thin-flowered sedge

in China: xi hua tai cao

Carex xerantica L.H. Bailey (Carex foenea Willd. var. xerantica (L.H. Bailey) Kük.)

North America.

See Bot. Gaz. 17(5): 151. 1892 and Pflanzenr., IV, 20(38): 205. 1909

(Emollient.)

in English: dry sedge, white-scaled sedge, whitescale sedge

Careya Roxburgh Lecythidaceae (Barringtoniaceae)

Dedicated to the British plant collector Rev. William Carey, 1761–1834 (Serampore, India), Baptist missionary, orientalist, 1794 in India, founded the Botanic Garden at Serampore (generally known as Dr. Carey’s Garden!), 1823 Fellow of the Linnean Society. See William Roxburgh (1751–1815), Plants of the Coast of Coromandel. 3: 13, t. 217, 218. 1811, Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 9: 259. 1825, William Roxburgh, Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian plants, etc. [Edited by William Carey] Serampore 1832, A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845 and Samuel Pearce Carey, William Carey, D.D., Fellow of Linnean Society. London [1934], H.N. Clokie, Account of the Herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford. 143. Oxford 1964, John H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 1: 110. 1965, Isaac Henry Burkill (1870–1965), Chapters on the History of Botany in India. Delhi 1965, R. Desmond, The European Discovery of the Indian Flora. Oxford 1992.

Careya arborea Roxb. (Barringtonia arborea (Roxb.) F. Muell.; Careya arborea Roxb. & Roxb.)

India. Tree, deciduous, black flaky bark, white wood, leaves clustered at the apex of branches, yellowish white-green flowers, red purple stamens, fleshy fibrous capsular fruit, persistent calyx, ripe fruits eaten

See Pl. Corom. 3: 14, t. 218. 1811, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 52. 1814, Flora Indica ii. 636, 638. 1832, Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae (Mueller) 5(39): 184. 1866 and Fitoterapia 74(1–2): 116–118. 2003, Bangladesh J. Pharmacol. 3: 36–43. 2008

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Stembark antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, demulcent, sedative, tonic and antidepressant, CNS depressant, antidiarrheal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, analgesic, astringent, anthelmintic, leech repellent, fish poison, antivenin, for colds, coughs, tumors, liver disorders; bark paste applied all over the body of children as a tonic and a stimulant and for healthy growth; fibrous bark applied for body swellings; bark pounded in water, the red decoction given to cure diarrhea, dysentery, and also for washing the eyes for eye complaints; bark rubbed on legs to repel leeches; pounded bark and root in water used in stomach disorders; flowers and bark juice given with honey as demulcent and in cough and colds; bark and fruits astringent, demulcent. Flower taken as tonic after delivery; dried calyx to cure colds and coughs; fruits and flowers in dysentery, indigestion, colic, flatulence, worms. Fruit pulp in cholera; fruits as botanical pesticides for fungal infection; fruit believed to be a snake repellent. Veterinary medicine, bark crushed with curd and administered orally for debility in cattle; fruit infusion in fever and dysentery, for bloated stomach in cattle or when cattle stop feeding. Fresh root bark, stem bark, dried leaf powder or roots used as fish poison. Medico-religious beliefs, ritual, effective in curing eczema; contact therapy, stem fibre tied to the waist to cure diarrhea in infants.)

in English: Ceylon oak, patana oak, slow match tree, tummy wood, wild guava

in Burma: sangawn-gmawt

in India: aalagavvele, aima, alagavala, alagavvele, alam, araya, araya budada naedi, asanda, ashaundi, avima, ayma, bai-kumbhi, bai-kumbhi phool, baikumbha, bhadrendrani, bol dimbel, budaburija, budadadarini, budadadarvi, budadanedi, budadarini, budadarmee, budadarmi, budadurmi, budarnedi, budatadadimma, budatanavadi, budatanevadi, budatare, budathadaadimma, budathare, budda budusa, budda dharmi, buddaburija, buddadharmi, burdorcettu, daddal, daddala, darepi, dhaddaala mara, dhorkumbha, doddaale, doddala, doddalada, dolle mara, duddippa, dudeppa, dudeppi, dudippa, dudippi, gaadhava, gada, gadava, gadha, gadhava, gambel, ganjal, ganju, garva hannu, gaujala mara, gaul, gaulu mara, gavaale, gavagile, gavala, gavalu hannu mara, gavudlu, gavuldu, gavvahannu, gavvele, gavvele hannu, gawagilu, girikarnika, goddadayippe, godhajam, gongel, gongu, gonji, goujalu, gouju, govadi, guda-dhermi, guddada ippe, guddadaippa, guddadaippae, guddadaippe, handabhera, handbahera, hennu matthi, hennumatti, ka mahir, kaavale, kaidarya, kaitrya, kali-katbhi, kalindi, kalkambi, kalkampi, kaltekku, kamba, kambi, kampi, kampil, kampili, karekku, karrekku, katabhi, katambhara, kaulu, kaulumara, kaval, kavale, kavalu mara, kavana, kavane, kavne, kavulu, kavval, khumbi, kinihi, kolama, kshudrashyama, kuba, kum, kumari, kumbaara, kumbaro, kumbeng, kumbh, kumbha, kumbhasala, kumbher, kumbhi (kumbhi, jar, water pot), kumbhi phal, kumbhi phool, kumbhika, kumbhor, kumbi, kumbia, kumbiamara, kumbika, kumboya, kumbya, kumbyo, kumhi, kumodi, kumpi, kumrenga, kumudikaa, lauring, madhurenu, mahakatabi, mahashwata, nabhika, paer, pailacputatammi, panibhela, patali, peelam, peithaandri, pela, peloa, pelou, pelu, per, pera, peria, peru, perzha, petrashing, pevoo, pevu, peya, pezha, pezhu, pilam, pilu, poyu, pudattanri, putattanri, puttatanni, savana, shatapada, shaundi, shirishapatri, shwetakinihi, shyamala, sitakatabhi, soh kundur, styngkrain, svadupushpa, udu, uka, ukamaram, vaai kumba, vaakumba, vaakumbha, vakamba, vakumbha, vakumbhi, vishaghnika, wai-kumbha

in Laos: ka don

Malayan name: putat kedang

in Nepal: kumbhi, kumh, tatar

in Thailand: kra don, kradon

Careya herbacea Roxb. (Careya herbacea Roxb. & Roxb.)

India.

See Pl. Corom. 3: 13, t. 217. 1811, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 52. 1814, Flora Indica ii. 638. 1832, Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 510. 1879 and Enum. Flow. Pl. Nep. 2: 169. 1979

(Used in Ayurveda. Stembark hepatoprotective, demulcent, sedative, antidepressant, antidiarrheal, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, astringent, anthelmintic, leech repellent, fish poison, antivenin, for colds, coughs, tumors, liver disorders.)

in India: kumbhaadu-lataa, kumbhata

Careya sphaerica Roxb.

India. Deciduous tree, big clusters of leathery leaves and winged leaf stalk, solitary flowers, corolla light green with pinkish margins, filaments red, flowers open in night

See Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 52. 1814, Flora Indica ii. 636. 1832 and Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 38: 241– 246. 2004

(Leaves antioxidant, wound healing and tonic. Stem bark astringent, fibrinolytic, for wounds, relieves sprains, anti-inflammation from snakebite. Flower, tonic for post-labor. Fruit promotes digestion. Caution, not recommended for poisonous snakebite.)

in Thailand: kra don bok, kradon, kradonbok

Carica L. Caricaceae

Latin carica, ae ‘a kind of fig, dry fig’ (Cicero, Ovidius and Plinius), caricus ‘Carian’, Greek karike and karikos; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 2: 1036. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 458. 1754, The Gardeners Dictionary ... Abridged ... fourth edition. 1754, Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 327, 587. 1763, Analyse des Familles de Plantes 37, 42. 1829 and Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isles, 3: 434. 1913, [Enc. It.], Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. XXVI: 247. Roma 1935, Badillo, V.M. Monografía de la Familia Caricaceae 1–221. 1971, Fl. Veracruz 10: 1–17. 1980, Flora of Ecuador 20: 26–48. 1983, Flora del Paraguay 1–18. 1987, National Research Council, Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1989, Flore des Mascareignes: la Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues 100: 1–4. 1991.

Carica papaya L. (Carica bourgeaei Solms; Carica bourgeaui Solms; Carica citriformis Jacq.; Carica cubensis Solms; Carica hermaphrodita Blanco; Carica jamaicensis Urb.; Carica jimenezii (Bertoni) Bertoni; Carica jimenezii Bertoni; Carica mamaya Vell.; Carica papaya fo. mamaya Stellfeld; Carica papaya fo. portoricensis Solms; Carica papaya var. bady Aké Assi; Carica papaya var. jimenezii Bertoni; Carica peltata Hook. & Arn.; Carica pinnatifida Heilborn; Carica portoricensis (Solms) Urb.; Carica posopora L.; Carica rochefortii Solms; Carica sativa Tussac; Papaya bourgeaei (Solms) Kuntze; Papaya bourgeaui Kuntze; Papaya carica Gaertn.; Papaya cimarrona Sint. ex Kuntze; Papaya citriformis (Jacq.) A. DC.; Papaya citriformis A. DC.; Papaya communis Noronha; Papaya cubensis (Solms) Kuntze; Papaya cubensis Kuntze; Papaya cucumerina Noronha; Papaya edulis Bojer; Papaya edulis var. macrocarpa Bojer; Papaya edulis var. pyriformis Bojer; Papaya papaya (L.) H. Karst.; Papaya papaya H. Karst.; Papaya peltata (Hook. & Arn.) Kuntze; Papaya rochefortii (Solms) Kuntze; Papaya rochefortii Kuntze; Papaya vulgaris A. DC., nom. illeg.; Vasconcellea peltata (Hook. & Arn.) A. DC.; Vasconcellea peltata A. DC.)

Tropical America. Monocaulous tree or a big herb, weak, soft-wooded, usually unbranched, stems with milky white latex, large leaves, leaves and unripe fruit contain a milky juice rich in proteolytic enzymes, corollas creamy white, yellow to orange fleshy ripe fruit edible, small black seeds with fleshy aril

See Verhandelingen van het bataviaasch genootschap van kunsten en wetenschappen 5(Art. 4): 23. 1790, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 2: 191, pl. 122, f. 2. 1790, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique (Lamarck) 5: 2. 1804, Eclogae Plantarum Rariorum ... 1: 101, t. 68–69. 1811–1816, Flore des Antilles 3: 45. 1824, Florae Fluminensis Icones 10: t. 131. 1825, Deuxiéme Mémoire sur les Résédacées 12–13. 1837, Hortus Mauritianus 277. 1837, Flora de Filipinas [F.M. Blanco] 205. 1837, The Botany of Captain Beechey’s Voyage 425, t. 98. 1840, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 15(1): 414, 416. 1864, Flora de Filipinas 3: 212. 1879, Deutsche Flora. Pharmaceutischmedicinische Botanik... (Karsten) 894. 1882, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 47: 764, 774, 797. 1889, Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) 13(3): 178. 1889, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 253. 1891, Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] iii. 6 a. (1894) 98. 1894 and Symbolae Antillarum 6: 20. 1909, Symbolae Antillarum 4: 428. 1910, Agronomía (Puerto Bertoni) 5(7): 259. 1913, Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 30: 224. 1936, Tribuna Farmacéutica 15: 185. 1947, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État 21: 307. 1961, Saussurea 12: 157–164. 1981, Cytologia 47: 471–480. 1982, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. Additional Series, 12, pp. 367–372. 1996

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Milky sap caustic, allergic reaction, dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, severe inflammation of the eye. Milky juice for skin diseases, horny excrescence, for inducing abortion. Leaves, roots and seeds pesticide, against insects, fungi. Fresh fruits carminative, astringent, diuretic, antiseptic, stomachic, taken in dysentery; green fruit on ringworm; green papaya used as contraceptive and abortifacient, unripened fruit taken before three months of pregnancy; latex from fruit applied over scorpion bite. Leaves decoction taken for malaria; crushed leaves used externally for headaches, cuts and a swollen groin; leaves and seeds for the treatment of amebiasis and as an anthelmintic. Seeds oxytocic, antiinflammatory, anthelmintic, analgesic, stomachic and antifungal; immature seeds swallowed to treat diarrhea. Extract from boiled stem bark given in urinary troubles; inner bark decoction drunk for toothache; stem bark paste applied to boils, cuts and wounds. Fresh roots rubefacient, analgesic, poultice of roots used for centipede bites, wounds, snakebite. Leaves, roots and seedlings used as a vermifuge. Magico-religious beliefs, superstitions, plantation of the plant near the house is restricted.)

in English: common papaya, melon tree, papau, papaya, pawpaw, tree melon

in Arabic: fafy, pawpaw

African names: anbah hindi, babaya, babog fruta bomba, etighi-mbakara, gwandu, ibepe, okworo-beke, papayu, sayinbo

in Burkina Faso: mandé, nassara krou, papai

in Congo: ipapayo, malulo, mapapayo, mululo

in Ivory Coast: m’bomou, manguiè iri, oflè, oloko

in Mali: manayi, maye

in Nigeria: gbegbere, gonda, gwadda, gwanda, gwauda, ibepe, ibepe dudu, isigun, ojo, sheyinbo, shigun, sigu

in Senegal: papayo

in Tanzania: ebabayo, mgosi, mpapaya

in West Africa: an papai, fakai laa

in Burma: thimbaw

in Cambodia: doeum lahong, lhong

in China: fan kua (= foreign melon), fan mu gua, mu kua, shu kua, wan shou kuo (= longevity fruit)

in India: aanabahe-hindi, akka thangi hannu, amba-hindi, amita, amritobonda, anda karbhooja, andakharbuja, apappaya-pazham, arand kharbuza, arandkharbuza, awathabi, bapaipundoo, bappangaayi, bappangayi, bappayi, bappayya, barangi, bobbasi, booppamkaya, boppaayi, boppai, boppasa, boppayi, boppayi-hannu, boppayi-pandu, boppayya, boppe, brahmairandah, chakma, chirbhita, chirbita, cittamukkicam, cittamukkikamaram, conkarikam, conkarikamaram, erandachirbhata, erandachirbhita, erandakarakati, erandakarkati, goppe, goppe hannu, goppen, kaniyamanakku, kapalam, kaplam, kappalam, kariyamanakku, karmmatti, karmmos, karmmosu, karmmusu, karmosu, karpakkini, karpakkinimaram, karumusa, karutha, kogiagiula, lan fut, madana anapa chettu, madana-anapakaya, madanaanapa, madananaba, madhukarkati, madhurnakam, madhurnakamu, mangchupi-alau, maniyamanakku, mewa, nalikadala, nam-chapi, nuh-nun, nuhnun, omita, ommai, ommal, pacalai, pangi, papaaya, papajamaram, papal, papay, papaya, papeeta, papeya, papita, papita desi, papitha, papiya, pappai, pappaiya, pappali, pappali-pazham, pappalikaimaram, pappalippal, pappangaye, pappangayi, pappay, pappaya, pappaya-pazham, pappayam, pappayambalam, pappayampazham, pappayi, pappayi-pazham, pappita, parangi, parangi chakke, parangi hannu, parangi hannu mara, parangi mara, parangiyamanakku, parankiyamanakku, parinda, parindhi, paringi, pasalai, pepiya, peragi, perinji, pharangi-hannu, piranji, popai, popaiya, popaiyab, popaiyah, poppaya, poppayi, poppoia, puppali pullum, thing-fang-hma, thingfanghma, thing-fanghana, umbalay

in Indonesia: asawa, bala, betik, botik, embetik, gedang, ghedang, hango, kabaleo, kalailu, kaliki nikanre, kaliki rianre, kalilki, kalujawa, kampaja, kapala, kapalay, kapaya, kasi, katela gantung, kates, katuka, kaut, ketes, manjan, menam, muku jawa, muu jawa, nikanre, padu, palaki, pancene, panya, papae, papaen, papaino, papaipapaya, papau, papaya, pastelo, patuka, paya, pepaya, papayu, peute, pisang, pisang patuka, pisang pelo, punti kayu, ralempaya, sampain, sempawa, si kailo, siberani, sumoyori, tangan-tangan, tapaya, tele, unit jawa

in Japan: manjui, papaia

in Laos: houng

in Lepcha: mayaapaot

in Malaysia: beteh, betek, betik, ketalah, ketelah, papaw

in Nepal: mewa

in Papua New Guinea: bambusi, kowai, loku, mamioko, papae, pawpau, pawpaw, popo, tapeka, wayoye

in Philippines: apayas, capaya, kapaya, kapayas, lapaya, papaya, papayas, papaye, papyas, pawpaw, tapayas

in Thailand: kuai-la, lo-ko, loko, ma kuai thet, ma-la-ko, mak-hung, ma-te, malakor, taeng-ton

in Vietnam: du du

in Hawaii: he’i, mikana, milikana

in Paraguay: namona

Carissa L. Apocynaceae

In Sanskrit kryshina means dark blue or black, because of the ripe fruits; the shrub is called krishnaphala; in Malayam it is called karimulla, possibly from kari ‘dark, black’ and mullu ‘thorny, thorns’, referring to the fruits and thorns; see C. Linnaeus, Systema Naturae. ed. 12. 2: 135, 189. Vindobonae [Wien] 1767–1770, Mantissa Plantarum. 1: 7, 52. Holmiae [Stockholm] 1767 [-1771] and George H.M. Lawrence, “The cultivated species of Carissa.” Baileya. 7(3): 87–90. 1959, Cytologia 42: 723–729. 1977, Taxon 28: 636– 637. 1979, Taxon 30: 508–509, 855–856. 1981, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1): 116–132. 2001, Darwiniana 44(2): 453–489. 2006, Journal of East African Natural History 96(2):149–186. 2007.

Carissa bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex Brenan (Arduina acuminata E. Meyer; Arduina bispinosa L.; Arduina erythrocarpa Ecklon; Arduina ferox E. Mey., nom. illeg.; Arduina haematocarpa Eckl.; Arduina megaphylla Gand.; Carandas arduina S. Moore, nom. illeg.; Carissa acuminata (E. Mey.) A. DC.; Carissa arduina Lam., nom. illeg.; Carissa bispinosa Desf.; Carissa bispinosa Desf. ex Brenan; Carissa bispinosa (L.) Brenan; Carissa bispinosa (L.) Merxm.; Carissa bispinosa subsp. zambesiensis Kupicha; Carissa bispinosa var. acuminata (E. Meyer) Codd; Carissa cordata Dinter; Carissa cordata Fourc., nom. illeg.; Carissa cordata (Mill.) Fourc.; Carissa dinteri Markgf., nom. illeg.; Carissa erythrocarpa (Eckl.) A. DC.; Carissa ferox (E. Mey.) A. DC., nom. illeg.; Carissa haematocarpa (Eckl.) A. DC.; Carissa myrtoides Desf.; Carissa sessiliflora Brongn. ex Pichon; Carissa sessiliflora var. grandifolia Markgr.; Carissa sessiliflora var. meridionalis Pichon; Carissa sessiliflora var. orientalis Pichon; Carissa wyliei N.E. Br.; Jasminonerium acuminatum (E. Mey.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium acuminatum Kuntze; Jasminonerium bispinosum (L.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium bispinosum Kuntze; Jasminonerium erythrocarpum Kuntze; Jasminonerium erythrocarpum (Eckl.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium ferox Kuntze; Jasminonerium ferox (E. Mey.) Kuntze, nom. illeg.; Jasminonerium haematocarpum Kuntze; Jasminonerium haematocarpum (Eckl.) Kuntze)

Kenya, South Africa. Shrubby evergreen treelet, rambling, thorny with Y-shaped thorns, forked branches, milky sap, small sweetly scented white flowers, small edible red berries

See Prodr. 8: 335–336. 1844, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 414. 1891 and Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 165. 1906, Trans. Roy. Soc. South Africa 21: 82. 1932, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 15: 758. 1942, Mém. Inst. Sci. Madagascar, Sér. B, Biol. Vég. 2: 138–139. 1949, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 8: 502. 1954, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München ii. 399. 1957, Bothalia 7: 451. 1961, Adansonia, n.s., 10: 25. 1970, Bol. Soc. Brot., II, 53: 321. 1980

(Bitter and poisonous glucoside in the bark. Roots to treat toothache. Ceremonial, ritual.)

in English: common num-num, forest num-num, hedge thorn, num-num, red num-num, small amatungulu, y-thorned carissa, yum-yum

in Southern Africa: beta-umtunzi, bosnoemnoem, isi-Bethankunzi, isiVusankunzi, lemoenbessieboom, lemoenbessiebos, lemoendoring, morokolo, murabamungu, muRawangombe, muRayangombe, murungulu, noemnoembessie, noem-noembos, noemnoem, nulu, rooi noemnoem, serokolo, simboka, umBethankunzi, umBlabinkunzi, umHlabinkunzi, umShayankunzi, umVusankunzi

Carissa boiviniana (Baill.) Leeuwenb. (Leioclusia boiviniana Baill.)

Madagascar.

See Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 244. 1880 and Wageningen Univ. Pap. 2001(1): 17. 2001

(Stomachic, antihelmintic.)

Carissa carandas L. (Arduina carandas (L.) K. Schum.; Arduina carandas (L.) Baill.; Carissa carandas Lodd.; Carissa carandas Lour.; Carissa salicina Lam.; Damnacanthus esquirolii H. Lév.; Echites spinosus Burm.f.; Jasminonerium carandas (L.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium salicinum (Lam.) Kuntze)

India, Bangladesh. Evergreen shrub, milky latex, thorny, spines bifurcate, white fragrant flowers

See Mantissa Plantarum 1: 52. 1767, Systema Naturae, ed. 12 2: 135–136. 180, 189. 1767, Fl. Cochinch.: 155. 1790, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 3: 18, pl. 182, f. 7. 1805, Bot. Cab. 7: t. 663. 1822, Histoire des Plantes 10: 170. 1888, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 414. 1891, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4(2): 127. 1895 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 10(260–262): 435. 1912, Indian J. Med. Res. 51: 937–940. 1963, Japanese J. Pharmacol. 20(3): 367–372. 1970, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 9. 1973, Cell and Chromosome Research 9: 4–6. 1986, Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 6(1): 97–99. 1993, Nat. Prod. Res. 17(3): 153–158. 2003

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. This thorny shrub has irritant latex. Ripe fruit purgative, expectorant, carminative, stomachic, antihelmintic and antidote for snakebite and poisons; unripe fruit mucolytic; fruit sap applied over gums to stop bleeding. Cardiotonic activity found in the root; roots for pruritus, indigestion, chronic ulcer. Oil from the seeds to treat itches. Leaf juice with honey used in whooping cough. Veterinary medicine, roots crushed and applied on wounds infested with maggots.)

in English: Bengal currants, carunda, Christ’s thorn, karanda, spiny yellow fruit

in China: ci huang guo, tz’u huang kuo

in Burma: hkän-ping

in India: aintarikam, aintarikamaram, alarukam, alarukamaram, avighna, avighnah, avinga, bahudala, bainchi, bolekarambuka, boranda, boronda, cenkala, cirapalam, cirukala, dimdima, dodda kalaa, dodda kavali, doddakavale, doddakavali, dridhakantaka, garacha, garaja, garchinakai, garinga, garji, gotho, guchhi, haradundi, harikalivi, heggarichige, heggaricige, heggarjige, hirikavali, jalipushpa, kala, kalaagida, kalaaha, kalaka, kalakai, kalakka, kalakkay, kalar, kalarva, kalavige, kalavu, kalay, kali, kali-kai, kalikai, kaliva, kalive, kalivi, kalla, kalli, kallia, kalumi, kaluva, kamarika, kamrdepuli, kanachuka, kantaki, kantakregi, karakka, karamarda, karamardaka, karamcha, karamla, karamlaka, karanda, karande, karande pli, karandi, karando, karanta, karaunda, karaunta, karavadi, karavanad, karavanda, karavandi, karavintai, karekai, karekayi, kareki, karenja, karevati, kari, karice, kariche, karichi, karichina kaayi, karichinakayi, karicinakayi, karinda, karinkara, karmoha, karndepuli, karonda, karondi, karonti, karounda, karrona, karumcha, karunda, karvand, karwand-karanja, karwando, kauligida, kavale, kavali, kavali gida, kavila, kawliballi, keelay, khan, kila, kilai, kilakkai, kilakki, kilamaram, kilatti, kilay, kirusnapakapalam, kirusnapalai, kiruttinapakapalam, klavu, korada, korinda, krishna-pakphula, krishna-pala, krishnapakaphala, krishnaphala, krisnapakaphala, kshiraphala, kshiri, ksiraphala, kulay, kurumia, malekalaavu, oka, okalive, pakakrishna, pakaphala, panimarda, pedda kalive, peddakalavi, peddakalive, peddakalivi, peddakalivipandu, peddavaaka kaaya, peddavaka, peddavakakaya, perinkalak periyakala, perukala, phalam, perumkla, perumklavu, perungala, perungila-maram, perungkala, perunikila, perunkala, perunkala ver, perunkila, phalakrishna, supushpa, susena, sushena, timukha, timukhia, vaaka chettu, vaaklive, vaka, vakalive, vakalivi, vakalvi, vakudu, vanalaya, vanekshudra, vasha, waaka, waka, wakay, wyaka, yaakudu, yokatumacceti, yokatumam

in Indomalesia: karandas

in Japan: karissa

Malayan names: berenda, kerenda, kerandang, kerendak

in Pakistan: gerna, karanda, kakronda

in Philippines: caramba

in Thailand: nam phrom, namdaeng

Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A. DC. (Arduina grandiflora E. Meyer, nom. illeg.; Arduina macrocarpa Ecklon; Carissa africana A. DC.; Carissa carandas Lour.; Carissa grandiflora (E. Meyer) A. DC.; Carissa praetermissa Kupicha; Jasminonerium africanum (A. DC.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium grandiflorum (E. Mey.) Kuntze, nom. illeg.; Jasminonerium macrocarpum (Eckl.) Kuntze)

Kenya, South Africa. Shrub or small tree, evergreen, spreading, many-branched, glossy dark green foliage, thorny, forked spines, sharp Y-shaped thorns, white milky non-toxic latex, white scented flowers, red edible fruits, fast-growing

See South African Quarterly Journal 1: 372. 1830, Commentariorum de Plantis Africae Australioris 190. 1835, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr. 190. 1838, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 8: 332, 335–336. 1844, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 414. 1891 and Kew Bulletin 36: 47. 1981

(All parts of Natal plum are poisonous except for the ripe fruits. Even the seeds within the fruits are said to be poisonous.)

in English: big fruit carissa, big num-num, large-flowered Crown of thorns, large num-num, Natal plum

in Southern Africa: amaTungula (= fruit of the umThungula), amatungulu, grootnoem-noem, grootnoemnoem, umThungula, umThungulu (= fruit of the Thungula)

in China: da hua jia hu ci, ta hua chia hu tz’u

Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines

India, Himalaya.

See Indian Forester 47: 378. 1921, Forest Fl. Punjab, ed. 2, 330. 1924

(Roots contraceptive. Veterinary medicine, ground roots on broken horns of cattle infested by worms.)

in India: jangali karaunda, karanda, karande, karaunda, karaundha, karavada, karekayi, karice, karimanjil, karinkaara, karmada, karmarda, karmda, karona, karonda, karondaa, karondhu, karoundi, karunda, karvand, karvanda, karvandi, karwan, karwand, karwant

Carissa spinarum L. (Antura edules Forssk.; Antura edulis Forssk.; Antura hadiensis J.F. Gmel., nom. illeg.; Antura paucinervia A. DC.; Arduina brownii K. Schum.; Arduina campenonii Drake; Arduina edulis (Forssk.) Spreng.; Arduina inermis (Vahl) K. Schum.; Arduina laxiflora (Benth.) K. Schum.; Arduina xylopicron (Thouars) Baill.; Azima pubescens Suess. (Salvadoraceae); Cabucala brachyantha Pichon; Carandas edulis (Forssk.) Hiern; Carissa abyssinica R. Br.; Carissa africana A. DC.; Carissa axillaris Roxb.; Carissa brownii F. Muell., nom. illeg.; Carissa brownii var. angustifolia Kempe; Carissa brownii var. ovata (R. Br.) Maiden & Betche, nom. inval.; Carissa campenonii (Drake) Palacky; Carissa candolleana Jaub. & Spach; Carissa carandas Lodd., sensu auct.; Carissa carandas var. congesta (Wight) Bedd.; Carissa carandas var. paucinervia (A. DC.) Bedd.; Carissa cochinchinensis Pierre ex Pit.; Carissa comorensis (Pichon) Markgr.; Carissa congesta Wight; Carissa coriacea Wall.; Carissa coriacea Wall. ex G. Don; Carissa cornifolia Jaub. & Spach; Carissa dalzellii Bedd.; Carissa densiflora Baker; Carissa densiflora var. microphylla Danguy ex Lecomte; Carissa diffusa Roxburgh; Carissa dulcis Schumach. & Thonn.; Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl; Carissa edulis auct.; Carissa edulis Vahl; Carissa edulis f. continentalis; Carissa edulis f. nummularis (Pichon) Markgr.; Carissa edulis f. pubescens (A. DC.) Pichon; Carissa edulis f. revoluta; Carissa edulis f. typica Pichon; Carissa edulis subsp. continentalis Pichon; Carissa edulis subsp. madagascariensis (Thouars) Pichon; Carissa edulis subsp. madagascariensis (Thouars ex Poir.) Pichon; Carissa edulis var. ambungana Pichon; Carissa edulis var. comorensis Pichon; Carissa edulis var. densiflora (Baker) Pichon; Carissa edulis var. edulis; Carissa edulis var. horrida (Pichon) Markgr.; Carissa edulis var. lucubea Pichon; Carissa edulis var. major Stapf; Carissa edulis var. microphylla Pichon; Carissa edulis var. microphylla (Danguy ex Lecomte) Pichon; Carissa edulis var. nummularis Pichon; Carissa edulis var. revoluta (Scott-Elliot) Markgr.; Carissa edulis var. sechellensis (Baker) Pichon; Carissa edulis var. septentrionalis Pichon; Carissa edulis var. subtrinervia Pichon; Carissa edulis var. tomentosa (A. Rich.) Stapf; Carissa gangetica Stapf ex Gamble; Carissa hirsuta Roth; Carissa horrida Pichon; Carissa inermis Vahl; Carissa lanceolata R. Br.; Carissa lanceolata Dalzell, nom. illeg.; Carissa laotica Pit.; Carissa laotica var. ferruginea Kerr; Carissa laxiflora Benth.; Carissa macrophylla Wall.; Carissa macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don; Carissa madagascariensis Thouars; Carissa madagascariensis Thouars ex Poir.; Carissa mitis Heynh. ex A. DC.; Carissa obovata Markgr.; Carissa oleoides Markgr.; Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines; Carissa opaca Stapf; Carissa ovata R. Br.; Carissa ovata var. pubescens F.M. Bailey; Carissa ovata var. stolonifera F.M. Bailey; Carissa papuana Markgr.; Carissa paucinervia A. DC.; Carissa pilosa Schinz, nom. illeg.; Carissa pubescens A. DC.; Carissa revoluta Scott-Elliot; Carissa richardiana Jaub. & Spach; Carissa scabra R. Br.; Carissa sechellensis Baker; Carissa septentrionalis (Pichon) Markgr.; Carissa spinarum Lodd. ex A. DC., nom. illeg.; Carissa stolonifera (F.M. Bailey) F.M. Bailey ex Perrot & Vogt, nom. inval.; Carissa suavissima Bedd. ex Hook. f.; Carissa tomentosa A. Rich., nom. illeg.; Carissa velutina Domin; Carissa villosa Roxb.; Carissa xylopicron Thouars; Carissa yunnanensis Tsiang & P.T. Li; Chapelieria madagascariensis A. Rich.; Damnacanthus esquirolii H. Lév.; Jasminonerium africanum (A. DC.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium densiflorum (Baker) Kuntze; Jasminonerium densiflorum Kuntze; Jasminonerium dulce (Schumach. & Thonn.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium dulce Kuntze; Jasminonerium edule (Forssk.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium edule Kuntze; Jasminonerium inerme (Vahl) Kuntze; Jasminonerium inerme Kuntze; Jasminonerium laxiflorum (Benth.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium laxiflorum Kuntze; Jasminonerium madagascariense Kuntze; Jasminonerium madagascariense (Thouars) Kuntze; Jasminonerium madagascariense (Thouars ex Poir.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium ovatum (R.Br.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium ovatum Kuntze; Jasminonerium pubescens (A. DC.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium pubescens Kuntze; Jasminonerium sechellense (Baker) Kuntze; Jasminonerium sechellense Kuntze; Jasminonerium suavissimum (Bedd. ex Hook.f.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium suavissimum Kuntze; Jasminonerium tomentosum (A. Rich.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium tomentosum Kuntze; Jasminonerium xylopicron Kuntze; Jasminonerium xylopicron (Thouars) Kuntze; Strychnos pungens Gagnep.; Strychnos pungens Soler.)

Africa, Indochina, Australia. Shrub, evergreen, thorny, erect, scrambling, straight woody spines often in pairs, milky latex, leathery shiny dark green leaves, sweet scented white edible flowers, red to purple edible berries, goat fodder, very hardy and highly drought-resistant, goat fodder

See Mantissa Plantarum 1: 52. 1767, Systema Naturae, ed. 12 2: 135–136. 180, 189. 1767, Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 63. 1775 [Genus descr. on p. 63, sp. name on p. cvi.], Genera Plantarum 57. 1776, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1: 343. 1783, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 1: 22. 1790, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 405. 1791, Symb. Bot. (Vahl) iii. 43. 1794, Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique ... Supplément 2: 18. 1811, Hort. Bengal. 19. 1814, A Voyage to Abyssinia, and travels into the ... App.: 64. 1816, Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants 1: 689. 1820, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 669. 1824, Beskrivelse af Guineeiske planter 146–147. 1827, Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Naturvidensk. Math. Afh. 3: 166–167. 1828, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 4: 389. 1830, Mémoires de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 5: 253. 1834, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 8: 332–333, 336. 1844, The Flora Sylvatica for Southern India 156. 1872, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 20: 204. 1883, Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins für die Provinz Brandenburg und die Angrenzenden Länder 30: 258. 1888, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 414–415. 1891, Catalogue of the African Plants collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853—61 3: 664. 1898 and Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (1): 90. 1902, Indian forester 47: 378. 1921, Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 3: 1112–1113, f. 128(3–6). 1933, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1937: 87. 1937, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 13: 205. 1948, Mémoires de l’Institut Scientifique de Madagascar, Série B, Biologie Végétale 2(1): 45–140. 1949, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 14: 23. 1950, Indian J. Med. Res. 51: 937–40. 1963, Adansonia, n.s., 10: 25–26. 1970, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 11(4): 347–349, pl. 36. 1973, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores 169: 1–317. 1976, Taxon 27: 375–392. 1978, J. Nat. Prod. 47(6): 1056–7. 1984, J. Ethnopharmacol. 12: 35–74. 1984, Genetica 68: 3–35. 1985, J. Ethnopharmacol. 14: 159–172. 1985, J. Ethnopharmacol. 18: 147–165. 1986, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 40(3): 167–80. 1993, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 46: 17–23. 1995, J. Ethnopharmacol. 50(1): 43–47. 1996, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 83: 39–54. 2002, J. Ethnopharmacol. 88: 19–44, 279–286. 2003, J. Ethnopharmacol. 95(1): 57–61. 2004, J. Ethnopharmacol. 104(1–2): 92–99. 2004, Nat. Prod. Res. 19(8): 763–769. 2005, J. Ethnopharmacol. 106(3): 403– 407. 2006, J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine 2: 1–9, 22, 35. 2006, J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine 3: 12. 2007, J. Ethnopharmacol. 111: 271–283. 2007, J. Ethnopharmacol. 112: 152–161. 2007, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113: 521–540. 2007, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4: 10–11, 14. 2008, J. Ethnopharmacol. 116: 33–42. 2008

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Diuretic, purgative, antiviral, antibacterial, antiplasmodial, febrifuge, hypotensive, antioxidant, cardiotonic. Branches and leaves decoction used for breast cancer, headache, chest pains, rheumatism, syphilis, dysentery, rabies; leaves decoction for fever. Leaves, root and latex aphrodisiac, tonic, for toothache. Boiled root extract drunk for chest pain, indigestion, diarrhea, typhoid fever, nose bleeding, lower abdominal pains in pregnant mothers, headache and fever in children; root decoction of Plumbago zeylanica with bark of Oroxylum indicum and roots of Carissa congesta given for jaundice; bark decoction of Hymenodictyon orixense with barks of Sterculia urens and Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia and root of Carissa congesta given as analgesic and to facilitate delivery; roots decoction used as a painkiller, to increase lactation in women and to treat malaria in children; roots boiled and taken with soup to strengthen bones, for general fitness and for gonorrhea, to treat hepatitis and rheumatoid arthritis; root juice of Carissa inermis put into the nose to cure hemicrania, headache; roots also act as a repellent in the case of snakes and insects. Exhibited remarkable anti-herpes simplex virus activity. Veterinary medicine, roots ground and put into the wounds of cattle to kill worms; stem bark for ephemeral fevers; stem bark of Deccania pubescens ground with those of Carissa spinarum, Chloroxylon swietenia and tubers of Withania somnifera given in anthrax.)

in English: Arabian num-num, Bengal currant, Christ’s thorn, conkerberry, Egyptian carissa, simple-spined carissa, spiny carissa

in Angola: mungongono, ngongono, njingongono, omunyongolo, uyangolo

in Benin: ahanzo, bwétchou, hanzo

in Central Africa: umunyonza, umuyonza

in Guinea: kamboro

in Kenya: adishawel, burwa, dagams, echuoga, emuriei, godhoom-boor, gurura, ilamuriak, kaka-mchangani, kamasai, kamuria, kikawa, kikawam mukawa, kirimba, kumurwa, lakatetwa, lamriai, lamuriai, lamurie, lamuriei, legatetwa, legetetiot, legetetue, legetetwa, legetetyet, legetiet, leketeet, leketetwa, leketetwo, lokotetwo, lukotetwo, manka, mngomangoma (ngoma = drum), mokalakala, mtandamboo, mtandamboo, mtandomboo, mufumbwe, mukawa, mulowe, mungomangoma, munyoke, mutote, muyonza, ndandangoma, ndote, ngawa, nkamuriaki, nkawa-mwimbi, nzunu, oburwa, ochuoga, ochuoka, olamuriaki, omonyangateti, tamuryekiat

in Madagascar: fatsinako, voakandrina

in Malawi: mpambulu, mkolokolo

in Mali: kabon, kabvon, kumakuma, suruku ntombolo, tumboroba

in Senegal: gubé

in Southern Africa: amaTungulu, muJubvare, muRambara, muRaramombe, muRuguru, murungulu, muSamviringwa, muTsamviringwa, muZambara, muZambilingwe, umLugulu

in Sudan: allali, hernab

in Tanzania: kamasai, kikawam mukawa, lamuriake, lamuriei, machame, manka, mbaghao, mdeha, mfumba, mkanga onza, mkangayonza, moyonzaki, msuuku, mtanda mboo, mufumbwe, mukambaku, munyore, muyanza, muyonza, ngamryaga, ochuoga, olamuriaki, qach, rinyore, titiwi, titiyo, umuyonza

in Togo: mugulu, mugulugu, onatchémuli, palg

in Uganda: acuga, mutwoga, mutwooga, muyunza, nyonza

in China: jia hu ci, tian jia hu ci

in India: avighna, baghjhata, ban karamcha, benchi, channakalavi, chikka kaavali, chikka kalavi, chikka-kavili, chikka kavili, chikkakavali, chikkakavili, chikkalla, chiru, chiru kila, chirukila, chirukila chiru, cikkakavali, cinnakala, cinnatti, cinnattikam, cinnattikamaram, ciru kala, cirukala, cirukalaver, cirunavvukicceti, garji, garna, garnaa, garuhada, garuna, hukapaka, jal, jangali karonda, jangali karondaa, jangli-tondi, kalaakkaai, kalachedi, kalakkai, kalakkay, kalakke, kalarikamaram, kalavuni, kalavunimaram, kale, kale kaaya, kalimi, kalive, kalivi, kalli, kamda, kantam, karamacha, karamadika, karamarda, karamardakaa, karamardika, karamardikaa, karamcha-ba, karampai, karampari, karamparicceti, karanda, karande, karaunda, karaundha, karavada, karekayi, karice, karimanjil, karinkaara, karmada, karmarda, karmda, karona, karonda, karondaa, karondhu, karounda, karoundi, karunda, karvand, karvanda, karvandi, karwan, karwand, karwant, kavali, keredha, kerenda, kharnu, khunti, krishnapaakphal, kshirphena, naayi kalame gida, naayi kalavi, naayi kavali, narikkala, perunkilla, sanokoronda, sirukazha, sirukila, sushena, tirakkaravanci, tirakkaravancimaram, vaaka kaaya, vaka, vattakkila, vattakkilacceti, waakoyloo, waka, wakirlu, wakoilu, wyaka

Carissa tetramera (Sacleux) Stapf (Arduina tetramera Sacleux; Carissa tetramera Stapf)

Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique. Multi-stemmed shrub or tree, spines usually forking, strongly scented white flowers in terminal clusters or in the axils of the spines, red to purple-black edible fruit

See J. Bot. (Morot) 7: 312. 1893 and Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 4(1.1): 91. 1902

(Roots boiled and taken with soup to strengthen bones, for general fitness, gonorrhea; boiled root extract drunk for chest pain, fever in children, indigestion, headache, lower abdominal pains in pregnant mothers.)

in English: sand forest num-num, sand num-num

in Kenya: gurura, mtandamboo, mzambiribiri

in Southern Africa: uQondo

in Swaziland: lucondvo, umVusankunzi

in Tanzania: mkalakala

Carludovica Ruíz & Pav. Cyclanthaceae

Named in honor of Charles IV of Spain (1748–1819) and his wife Maria Luisa (1751–1819), the Queen; see Florae Peruvianae, et Chilensis Prodromus 146, t. 31. 1794 and Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(1/3): 421–428. 1936, Acta Horti Berg. 17: 40. 1954, Acta Horti Berg. 18: 1–428. 1958, Botanical Museum Leaflets—Harvard University 19(9): 183–189. 1961, Fl. Ecuador 1: 1–48. 1973.

Carludovica palmata Ruíz & Pav. (Carludovica gigantea Kuntze; Carludovica humilis (Wawra & Bermann) Kuntze, nom. illeg.; Carludovica incisa H. Wendl.; Carludovica jamaicensis Lodd. ex Fawcett & Harris, nom. nud.; Carludovica palmata Griseb.; Carludovica palmata var. humilis Wawra & Bermann; Carludovica serrata Hort.; Carludovica serrata Wawra & Bermann; Ludovia palmata Pers.; Ludovia palmata (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; Salmia jamaicensis Steud., nom. nud.; Salmia palmata (Ruiz & Pav.) Willd.; Salmia palmata Willd.)

Mexico, Bolivia. Palm-like plant, unopened leaf buds and the fruits are edible

See Systema Vegetabilium Florae Peruvianae et Chilensis 291–292. 1798, Synopsis Plantarum (Persoon) 2(2): 576. 1807, Der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neuesten Entdeckungen in der Gesammten Naturkunde 5: 399, 401. 1811, Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle 5: 221–222. 1824, Nomenclator Botanicus ed. 2, 2: 501. 1841, Index Palmarum 67. 1854, Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 7: 259. 1857, Flora Brasiliensis 233. 1881, Wiener Ill. Gart.-Zeitung 10: 76. 1885, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 737–738. 1891 and Bulletin of the Botanical Dept., Jamaica n.s. 9: 145. 1902, Lexikon Generum Phanerogamarum 496. 1903, Acta Horti Berg. 18(1): 127–131. 1958, Economic Botany 46(3): 233–240. 1992

(For skin diseases, bruises, stings, sores.)

in English: hat palm, iraca palm, Panama hat palm

in Latin America: alagua, bombanaje, jipi japa, paja toquilla, toquilla, yaco sisa, yacu caspi

Carmona Cav. Boraginaceae

Named for the Spanish painter Bruno S. Carmona, from 1754 to 1756 companion of the Swedish botanist and explorer Pehr Loefling [Löfling] (1729–1756) on his travels in northern South America. See The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica in Three Parts 168, pl. 16, f. 1. 1756, Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... [Cavanilles] 5: 22. 1799, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 9: 509. 1845, Miguel Colmeiro y Penido (1816–1901), La Botánica y los Botánicos de la Peninsula Hispano-Lusitana. Estudios bibliograficos y biograficos. Madrid 1858, P. Loefling Iter hispanicum. Stockholm 1758, and Plantae americanae. [Facsimile ed. of botanical part edited by Stig Rydén] Madrid 1957, John H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 1: 396. 1965, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76(4): 1050–1076. 1989, Taiwania 43: 124. 1998. Some confusion with genus Ehretia, Carmona is sometimes placed in the family Cordiaceae, most authors have included Carmona in Ehretia.

Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G. Don (Carmona heterophylla Cav.; Carmona microphylla G. Don; Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam.; Cordia retusa Vahl; Ehretia buxifolia Roxburgh; Ehretia buxifolia var. latisepala Gagnepain; Ehretia buxifolia var. microphylla (Lam.) DC.; Ehretia dentata Courchet; Ehretia heterophylla Spreng.; Ehretia microphylla Lam.; Ehretia monopyrena (Vahl) Gottschling & Hilger; Ehretia retusa Vahl)

India, SE Asia. Tree or shrub, undershrub, many-branched, leaves white-glandular above, small green glossy leaves, small white or slightly reddish flowers, red fleshy fruits

See Encycl. Meth. 1: 425. 1783, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 2: 42. 1791, Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique ... Botanique 1: 425. 1792, Plants of the Coast of Coromandel 1: 42, pl. 57. 1795, Icon. [Cavanilles] v. 22. t. 23. 1799, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 391. 1838, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 9: 509. 1845 and Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 4: 206. 1914, Transactions of the Natural History Society of Taiwan 30: 61. 1940 [Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa.], Fitoterapia 68(1): 85–86. 1997, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 123: 263. 2001, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92(1): 53–56. 2004

(Used in Sidha. Antidote, febrifuge, tonic, for cough, colic, fevers, stomachache. Leaves antiinflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, antiallergic, alterative, febrifuge, infusion against diarrhea, dysentery and cough, antidote against plant-based poisoning and viper bite; decoction for cough and stomachache; dried leaves stomachic and pectic. Leaves used a substitute for betel leaves. Veterinary medicine.)

in English: Fujian tea, Fukien tea, Fukien tea tree, Philippine tea, scorpionbush, small leaf carmona, wild tea

in China: ji ji shu

in India: baapanaburi, bapana buri, bapanaburi, barranki, boote, bupanaburi, buri, bute, chepaku, eleadike soppu, enne budige, ennebutige, doddakalla, doddakavale, gulpole, guvva aaku, karuvingi, kattu-vellilai, kattu vetrilai, kattuvellilai, kattuverrilai, kattuvettilai, kodikarai, korakkuvethalai, kujjikoronda, kurangu vethilai, kuruviccai, kuruvicci, kuruvichchi, kuruvincai, kuruvinci, kuruvingi, malaiverrilai, marutkarai, mete, munamuntha, nakkatoka, narasakkuchi, numae munta, nomu chettu, pala, piccaka, pichaka, pichakaburi, pisniki, pitta, pitta pisinika, pittapisunakaayi, veralchedi, yenne bootige, yenne budiga

in Indonesia: kinangan, pinaan, serut lanang

in Japan: fuku-man-gi, fukumangi

in Philippines: alangit, alangit mara mara, alangitngit, balingsaa, buntatai, buyo-buyo, cha, chaang-bundok, chaang-gubat, chang-gubat, gari, icha-nga-atap, icha-ti-bakir, itsa, kalamoga, kalimomog, kalimumog, mangit, mara-mara, maratia, muramara, palupo, putputai, santing, tsa, tsaang gubat

in Thailand: chaa, chaa yeepunì, khoi cheen

in Vietnam: b[uf]m r[uj]n, c[uf]m r[uj]n, kim li[ee]n

Carnegiea Britton & Rose Cactaceae

For the American (b. in Scotland) philantropist Andrew Carnegie, 1835–1919, steel industrialist; see Allg. Gartenzeitung (Otto & Dietrich) 6: 142. 1838, Cact. Gen. Sp. Nov. 6. 1839 and Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 9(107): 187–188, f. 32, pl. 48–52. 1908, Pflanzenr. IV. 101 (Heft 49): 36. 1911, Gordon Douglas Rowley, A History of Succulent Plants. Strawberry Press, California 1997, Gibson, A.C. and K.E. Horak. “Systematic anatomy and phylogeny of Mexican columnar cacti.” Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 999–1057. 1978, Ecology 61: 1–7. 1980, Vegetatio 78: 125– 140. 1988, Bradleya; Yearbook of the British Cactus and Succulent Society 10: 18. 1992, Haseltonia 6: 32–41. 1998.

Carnegiea gigantea (Engelmann) Britton & Rose (Carnegia gigantea (Engelm.) Britton & Rose; Cereus giganteus Engelmann; Pilocereus engelmannii Lem.; Pilocereus giganteus Lemaire ex Foerst.-Ruempl.; Pilocereus giganteus (Engelmann) Rümpler; Pilocereus giganteus Rumpler)

North America. Perennial, tall thick fluted columnar stem, trunk and stems have stout spines clustered on their ribs, shallow root system, very slow growth, night-blooming creamy-white flowers with yellow centers, sweet nectar, bright-red pulpy flesh of the tasty fruits edible, can be fertilized only by cross-pollination, great capacity to store water

See The Gardeners Dictionary ... Abridged ... fourth edition 1754, Not. Milit. Reconn., 158. 1848, American Journal of Science, and Arts, ser. 2, 14(42): 336–337. 1852, L’illustration horticole 9 (Misc.): 97. 1862, Handbuch der Cacteenkunde 662, fig. 88. 1885 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 415, 420. 1909

(Fresh slice for rheumatism and aching parts of the body. Alkaloids present. Ceremonial, psychoactive.)

in North America: Arizona-giant, giant cactus, giant saguaro, saguaro, saguaro cactus, sahuaro

Carpesium L. Asteraceae

Greek karpesion ‘an aromatic wood, an aromatic plant, a species of Valeriana’; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 2: 859. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 369. 1754 and H. Genaust, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Botanischen Pflanzennamen. 130. Basel 1996.

Carpesium abrotanoides L. (Carpesium thunbergianum Siebold & Zucc.)

China, India.

See Species Plantarum 2: 860. 1753, Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 4(3): 187. 1846 and J. Hokkaido Univ. Educ., Sect. 2B 35: 31–42. 1984, J. Jap. Bot. 66: 26–34. 1991, Invest. Stud. Nat. 12: 48–65. 1992

(Seeds diuretic.)

in India: wotiangil

Carpesium cernuum L.

Himalaya, China, India.

See Species Plantarum 2: 859–860. 1753 and Nucleus 18: 6–19. 1975, Fitologija 31: 71–74. 1986, J. Jap. Bot. 66: 26–34. 1991

(Herb astringent and anthelmintic. Seeds diuretic and laxative.)

in India: wotiangil

Carphephorus Cass. Asteraceae

Greek karpho ‘dry up, wither’, karphos ‘any small dry body’, karphe ‘hay’ and phoros ‘bearing, carrying’; Latin carphos and Greek karphos for a plant, faenum Graecum, goat’s thorn, fenugreek (Plinius), see Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1816: 198. 1816, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles 16: 10. 1820, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 632. 1873, Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1: 179. 1885 and Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 51(9): 392. 1924.

Carphephorus odoratissimus (J.F. Gmel.) H.J.-C. Hebert (Chrysocoma odoratissima J.F. Gmel.; Liatris odoratissima (J.F. Gmel.) Michx.; Liatris odoratissima (J.F. Gmel.) Willd., nom. illeg., non Liatris odoratissima (J.F. Gmel.)

Michx.; Trilisa odoratissima (J.F. Gmel.) Cass.) (Trilisa (Cass.) Cass., probably an anagram of the genus Liatris Gaertner ex Schreber.)

North America. Herb, rhizome not tuberous, radical leaves obovate-spatulate, stem leaves oblong and clasping, flower-heads in a panicle or corymb

See Species Plantarum 2: 840. 1753, Genera Plantarum 2: 542. 1791, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2: 1204. 1792, Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 93. 1803, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 3(3): 1637. 1803, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1816: 198. 1816, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1818: 140. 1818, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles 16: 10. 1820 and Rhodora 70(784): 483. 1968

(Coumarin-like can be toxic when used at high doses for a long period. Herb stimulant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, fungicidal, demulcent, febrifuge, diaphoretic, applied locally for sore throats and gonorrhea, a tonic in treating malaria.)

in English: deers tongue, vanilla leaf, wild vanilla

Carpinus L. Corylaceae (Betulaceae, Carpinaceae)

From the classical Latin name for hornbeam, carpinus, i, Akkadian karru ‘mountain range’, karu ‘embankment’ and pinnu, Hebrew pinna ‘pinnacle, pillar’, see Sp. Pl. 2: 998. 1753 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(3): 359–369. 1952, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 21: 70, 84. 1979, Fl. Veracruz 20: 1–20. 1981, Fl. Yunnan. 5: 182. 1991, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1): 402–403. 2001, Ceiba 44(2): 105–268. 2003 [2005].

Carpinus caroliniana Walter (Carpinus americana Michaux; Carpinus americana var. tropicalis Donn. Sm.; Carpinus betulus var. virginiana Marshall; Carpinus caroliniana subsp. virginiana (Marshall) Furlow; Carpinus caroliniana var. tropicalis (Donn. Sm.) Standl.; Carpinus caroliniana var. virginiana (Marshall) Fernald; Carpinus caroliniana var. virginiana Fernald; Carpinus tropicalis (Donn. Sm.) Lundell; Carpinus tropicalis subsp. tropicalis)

North America. Tree or shrub, perennial

See Arbustrum Americanum 25. 1785, Fl. Carol. [Walter] 236. 1788, Flora Boreali-Americana (Michaux) 2: 201. 1803, Botanical Gazette 15(2): 28. 1890, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 20(2): 43. 1893 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 23(1): 169. 1920, Rhodora 37(444): 425. 1935, Lloydia 2(2): 79–80. 1939, Systematic Botany 12(3): 416–434. 1987

(Bark astringent, tonic, antiperiodic, to treat cloudy urine, itch, diarrhea, constipation, fever, loss of appetite, to facilitate childbirth.)

in English: American hornbeam, blue beech, hornbeam, ironwood, muscle-wood, water beech

Carpobrotus N.E. Br. Aizoaceae (Mesembryanthemaceae)

Greek karpobrotos ‘with edible fruits’ (the Old Testament, Deuteronomium 20.20), karpos ‘fruit’ and broteos, brotos ‘edible’, brotus ‘food’ (brosko, bibrosko, bibroskein ‘to eat, to devour’); see N.E. Brown, in The Gardeners’ Chronicle. Ser. 3, 78: 433. (Nov.) 1925, Gen. S. Afr. Fl. pl. 249. 1926, Flora of Australia 19–62. 1984, Harold Norman Moldenke & Alma L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible. New York 1986, Contribution, Boletim Herbage 15: 76–107. 1993, Fl. Ecuador 55: 14–27. 1996.

Carpobrotus acinaciformis L. Bolus (Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L.) L. Bolus; Carpobrotus concavus L. Bolus; Carpobrotus vanzijliae L. Bolus)

South Africa. Mat-like succulent perennial, trailing stems, robust short greyish green curved scimitar-shaped leaves, magenta-pink-purple flowers, tasty edible fruits

See Flowering Plants of South Africa 7: sub pl. 247. 1927

(Fresh leaf juice diuretic, antiseptic, antimicrobial, used externally as a mouthwash, gargle, lotion and antiseptic wash; leaf juice styptic, applied to sores or burn/scald wounds. Preparations of the fruit taken internally for the treatment of tuberculosis and other pulmonary infections, applied to the skin or used as a mouthwash, gargle. Preparations of both leaf and fruit taken internally to treat heart conditions and used as a mouthwash or gargle for sore throat and sores in the mouth.)

in English: Hottentot fig, sour fig

in South Africa: elandsvy, ghaukum, ghoenavy, ghounavy, goenavy, gouna, Hotnotsvy, strandvy, suurvy

Carpobrotus chilensis (Molina) N.E. Br. (Mesembry anthemum aequilaterale Willd., nom. illeg.; Mesembryanthemum aequilaterale Haw.; Mes embryanthemum aequilaterale var. chiloense Haw. ex Salm-Dyck; Mesembryanthemum aequilaterum Haw.; Mes embryanthemum chilense Molina)

Chile. Decumbent branches, triangular leaves, bright purple flowers, sweet yellowish fruit

See Systema Plantarum 2: 1051. 1799, Miscellanea Naturalia 77. 1803, Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chili 133. 1810 and Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 66(791): 324. 1928, Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 56: 40. 1932

(Leaf sap taken as a soothening agent against burns or stings.)

in English: sea fig

Carpobrotus dimidiatus (Haw.) L. Bolus (Carpobrotus dimidiatus L. Bolus; Mesembryanthemum dimidiatum Haw.; Mesembryanthemum juritzii L. Bolus)

South Africa. Trailing succulent, creeping, robust, winged branches, fleshy three-angled leaves, petals reddish violet, edible fruits with slimy sourish pulp

See Notes Mesembryanthemum [H.M.L. Bolus] 3: 235. 1950

(Leaf juice for sore throat, oral and vaginal thrush, skin problems, sores, rashes, digestive troubles, diarrhea and dysentery, for dressing burns. Fruit laxative.)

in English: Natal sour fig

in South Africa: ikhambi lamabulawo, Natalse suurvy, strandvy, umgongozi

Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E. Br. (Carpobrotus edulis N.E. Br.; Carpobrotus edulis (L.) L. Bolus; Mesembryanthemum edule L.; Mesembryanthemum edule var. flavum (L.) Moss, nom. illeg.)

South Africa. Succulent, robust, trailing, perennial, rooting at nodes, winged branches, fleshy three-angled leaves, yellow solitary flowers, edible fleshy indehiscent fragrant fruits with a strong astringent salty sour taste, seeds embedded in the sticky sweet jelly-like mucilage

See Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 1060. 1759 and Gen. S. Afr. Fl. Pl. 249. 1926, Flowering Plants of South Africa 7: pl. 247. 1927, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 76(1): 87–91. 2001

(Fruit eaten for constipation, diabetes; fruit infusion taken during pregnancy. Leaf juice astringent, antibacterial, mildly antiseptic, to treat diarrhea, dysentery, stomachache, a gargle to relieve laryngitis, sore throat, mouth infections, a soothing cure for blue-bottle stings/jellyfish stings, itch, spider bites, burns, bruises, cuts, sunburn, ringworm, eczema, dermatitis, herpes, cold sores, cracked lips, allergies.)

in English: Cape fig, highway ice plant, Hotnotsfig, Hottentot fig, pigface, sour fig

in South Africa: ghaukum, ghoenavy, ghounavy, gouna, Hotnotsvy, Hottentotsvy, ikhambi-lamabulawo, Kaapsevy, Natal dune vygie, perdevy, rankvy, strandvy, suurvy, umgongozi, vyerank, wilde vijg

Carpobrotus mellei L. Bolus

South Africa, Western Cape. Pink or purple flowers, narrow small leaves and a small club-shaped fruit

See Annals of the Bolus Herbarium 4: 109. 1927, African Journal of Biotechnology 5(13): 1289–1293. 2006

(Dried leaves antimicrobial.)

in English: mountain sour fig

in South Africa: berg-rankvy, berg-suurvy

Carpobrotus muirii L. Bolus (for the Scottish (b. Castle Douglas) naturalist John Muir, 1874–1947 (d. Riversdale, C.P., South Africa), physician, plant collector at the Cape, his wife née Susanna Steyn; see Mary Gunn and Leslie E. Codd, Botanical Exploration of Southern Africa. 256. Cape Town 1981, Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic Literature. 3: 658. 1981, Ray Desmond, Dictionary of British & Irish Botanists and Horticulturists. 506. London 1994, Gordon Douglas Rowley, A History of Succulent Plants. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California 1997.)

South Africa, Western Cape. Purple, pink or white flowers, almost straight reddish green leaves, similar to Carpobrotus deliciosus

See Annals of the Bolus Herbarium 4: 109. 1927, Phytomedicine 10(5): 434–439. 2003

(Leaf juice astringent, antimicrobial, antiseptic, to treat chronic infections.)

in English: dwarf sour fig

in South Africa: dwergsuurvy

Carpobrotus quadrifidus L. Bolus

South Africa. Succulent, straight grey leaves, large violet-pink, pale pink or white flowers

See S. African Gard. 18: 279. 1928, Notes Mesembr. Pt. 2, 15. 1928, Phytomedicine 10(5): 434–439. 2003

(Antimicrobial, antiseptic, to treat chronic infections.)

in English: West Coast sour fig

in South Africa: elandsvy, Weskus suurvy

Carpodinus R. Br. ex G. Don Apocynaceae

Greek karpos ‘fruit’ and dineo ‘twist, to turn round’, see Trans. Hort. Soc. v. (1823) 455. 1823, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 71, 101. 1837.

Carpodinus rufescens De Wild. (Landolphia rufescens (De Wild.) Pichon)

Tropical Africa.

See Notices sur des Plantes Utiles ou Intéressantes de la Flore du Congo 2: 241. 1908, Mémoires de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (Monogr. Landolph.) 35: 161. 1953

(Roots and leaves for malaria and fevers.)

Carpolobia G. Don Polygalaceae

From the Greek karpos ‘fruit’ and lobos ‘a pod, lobe’, see A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 1: 370. 1831 and The Known Plants of Liberia 578. 1906, Nat. Malgache 9: 176. 1957, Taxon 28: 636–637. 1979, Enum. Pl. Fleurs Afrique Trop. 1: 1–249. 1991, J. Nat. Prod., 65(4): 553–557. 2002.

Carpolobia alba G. Don (Carpolobia delvauxii E.M.A. Petit; Carpolobia glabrescens Hutch. & Dalziel)

Tropical Africa. Shrub or small tree, lower petals white, upper petals purple, fruits green or orange

See Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 135. 1868 and Flora of West Tropical Africa [Hutchinson & Dalziel] 1: 99. 1927, Kew Bulletin 1928, 26. 1928, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État 25: 335. 1955

(Bark for arthritis, rheumatism; leaves for stomachache. Saponins. Cattle stick.)

in English: Hausa stick, poor man’s candle

in Cameroon: essa, fesha, nyerem-mbe, okah, sanda

in Guinea: bontanhe

in Liberia: pleehn

in Sierra Leone: bofi, borokofunjambe, fofi, fufu, fuvwe, gibofoyo, luxure

Carpolobia lutea G. Don

Cameroon, Ghana. Shrub or small tree, white petals, lower petals with purple marks, shiny orange-yellow pendulous fruit with sweet whitish pulp, fruits said to be edible

See Gen. Hist. 1: 370. 1831 and Taxon 28: 636–637. 1979, Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources 2(2): 116–119. 2005, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111(3): 619–624. 2007, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 122(3): 439–444. 2009, African Journal of Biotechnology 8(1): 12–19. 2009

(Roots and fruits general tonic, antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, gastroprotective, anti-diarrheal, antiulcerogenic, treatment of peptic ulcer, infectious diseases, cough, indigestion, pains. Saponins. Cattle stick.)

in English: Hausa stick

in Cameroon: essa, fesha, inta, nyerem-mbe, okah, sanda

in Ghana: kinkin

Carpotroche Endl. Flacourtiaceae (Achariaceae)

Greek karpos ‘fruit’ and trochos ‘a wheel’, see Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 2: 921–922, t. 352. 1775, Stirpes Novae aut Minus Cognitae 3: 59. 1786, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1: 255. 1824, Genera Plantarum [Endlicher] 918. 1839 and Economic Botany 26(3): 221–237. 1972, Economic Botany 47(4): 358–370. 1993.

Carpotroche brasiliensis (Raddi) Endl. (Carpotroche brasiliensis (Raddi) A. Gray, isonym; Carpotroche brasiliensis Endl.; Mayna brasiliensis Raddi)

Brazil. Tree, white-yellow fragrant flowers

See Quar. Piant. Brasil Nuov. (Mem. Moderna 18): 402) 23, f. 1a-b. 1820, United States Exploring Expedition ... Atlas. Botany. Phanerogamia 1: 72. 1854 and Journal of the American Chemical Society 60: 614–617. 1938, Brazilian J. Med. Biol. Res., 38(7): 1095–1103. 2005, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105(1–2): 137–147. 2006

(Antiinflammatory, analgesic, parasiticidal, anti-leprotic, anti-nociceptive, antibiotic, antifungal, for asthma, arthritis, leprosy, immune inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis.)

in English: chaulmoogra oil

in South America: canudeiro, mata-piolho, papo de anjo, pau de anjo, pau de cachimbo, pau de cotia, pau de lepra, ruchuchu, same, sapucainha, sawe, yarayará, warabash

Carpotroche grandiflora Spruce ex Benth. (Carpotroche amazonica Mart. ex Eichler; Carpotroche amazonica Mart.; Carpotroche grandiflora Spruce ex Eichler; Carpotroche mollis J.F. Macbr.; Mayna amazonica J.F. Macbr.; Mayna amazonica (Mart. ex Eichler) J.F. Macbr.; Mayna grandiflora (Spruce ex Benth.) R.E. Schult.; Mayna grandiflora (Spruce ex Eichler) R.E. Schult.; Mayna toxica R.E. Schult.)

Brazil, Peru. Treelet, white flowers, green fruit

See Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 2: 921–922, t. 352. 1775, Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society 5(Suppl. 2): 81. 1861, Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) 13(1): 437. 1871 and Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 13(4/1): 16. 1941, Botanical Museum Leaflets 15: 69. 1951

(Dried powdered seeds used as vermifuge. Antiinflammatory, for asthma; bark used as a caustic. The kapukiri, a substance that comes from rotten leaves, something that has decomposed from a living thing in order to give strength to other lives, produced by the huairacaspi, Carpotroche grandiflora, evil shamans use it to bring harm. Used as a bait to poison armadillos.)

in English: babado fruit, comona fruit, cotia fruit, leprosy fruit, monkey fruit

Carthamus L. Asteraceae

Arabian quartom, qurtum or qurtom ‘to paint’, in allusion to the colours of the flowers or to a dye extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L.; see Yuhanna ibn Sarabiyun [Joannes Serapion], Liber aggregatus in medicinis simplicibus. Venetijs, 1479, Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 2: 830–831. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 361. 1754, Synopsis plantarum in flora gallica descriptarum. 1806, Annales du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 16: 158. 1810, Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de (1778–1841), Botanicon gallicum; seu Synopsis plantarum in Flora gallica descriptarum. Paris, Desray, 1828–1830 [Ed. 2. Ex herbariis et schedis candollianis propriisque digestum a J.E. Duby.] and Serapiom, El libro agregà de Serapiom. A cura di G. Ineichen. Venezia-Roma 1962–1966, G.B. Pellegrini, Gli arabismi nelle lingue neolatine con speciale riguardo all’Italia. Brescia 1972, Amer. J. Bot. 63: 771–782. 1976, Nucleus 19: 8–12. 1976, Acta Botanica Neerlandica 26: 239–249. 1977, Taxon 29: 726– 727. 1980, J. Palynol. 16: 85–105. 1980, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 31(2): 139–144. 1996, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 134: 425–438. 2000, Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 147: 375–383. 2005.

Carthamus lanatus L. (Carthamus lanatus subsp. turkestanicus Hanelt; Carthamus lanatus subsp. turkestanicus Hamet; Carthamus tauricus M. Bieb.; Kentrophyllum lanatum (L.) DC.; Kentrophyllum lanatum (DC.) Duby; Kentrophyllum lanatum DC. & Duby; Kentrophyllum tauricum (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey.; Kentrophyllum tauricum C.A. Mey.)

China, India, Himalaya.

See Species Plantarum 2: 830. 1753, Flora TauricoCaucasica 2: 285. 1808, Verz. Pfl. Casp. Meer. (C.A. von Meyer). 66. 1831 and Amer. J. Bot. 63: 771–782. 1976, Taxon 25: 483–500. 1976, Taxon 26: 577–585. 1976, Nucleus 19: 8–12. 1976, Candollea 48(2): 437–448. 1993, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 134: 425–438. 2000

(Plant extract applied to the eyes to cure conjunctivitis.)

in English: distaff thistle, saffron thistle, woolly distaff thistle, woolly safflower, woolly star thistle

in South Africa: disseldoring, makdissel, woldissel, wollerige verfblom

Carthamus oxyacantha M. Bieb. (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb.)

India. Spiny-leaved annual herb, many-branched, florets orange-yellow, achene obovate or elliptic, noxious pernicious weed, not eaten by livestock

See Flora Taurico-Caucasica 2: 283. 1808

(Plant diuretic, plant or flowers decoction anthelmintic for children. Seed oil a dressing for bad ulcers, itch, joint pains, liver diseases.)

in English: carthamus, jeweled distaff thistle, wild safflower

in India: guladaud, kaadu kusabi gida, mullu shaavanthi

Carthamus tinctorius L.

India, Middle East, China. Annual herb, many-branched, erect, glabrous, spiny, stiff, flowers orange-red solitary terminal, fruit a white achene 4-angled, pungent odour, seeds yield edible oil, flowers used for extracting a red pigment used as dye

See Species Plantarum 2: 830–831. 1753 and Journal of Cytology and Genetic 7–8: 17–23. 1973, Fl. Iran. 139b: 434. 1980, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 68(Sect. vi): 87. 1981, Crop Science (Madison) 22: 809–811. 1982, Cell and Chromosome Research 7: 26–28. 1984, Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 5: 149–154. 1985, Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research 3(4): 459–460. 1985, Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 7: 246–251. 1987, Iranian Journal of Botany 4: 189–196. 1989, Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 68: 395–396. 1990, Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences 19: 734–744. 1997, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 45(12): 1910–1914. 1997, The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 30(1): 95–108. 2002, Life Sci. 76: 191–200. 2004, Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 23(4): 543–548. 2008

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Roots antiinflammatory. Leaf used for women’s problems. Seeds laxative, analgesic, diaphoretic, local anesthetics, abortifacient, antithrombotic, widely used to improve blood circulation, useful for the treatment of diseases associated with elevated bone loss; oil applied to treat scabies; fresh seed juice given as diuretic. Flowers used to treat blood disorders, lung and skin diseases, for fevers, jaundice, swelling, male sterility, rheumatism, bronchitis, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, measles, angina pectoris, injuries, to induce labor, and as a wash after confinement.)

in English: American saffron, bastard saffron, cultivated safflower, dyer’s saffron, false saffron, Mexican saffron, safflower, safflowers, saffron thistle

in Tanzania: alizeti ya miba, kartamu

in China: hong hua, honghua, huang lan, hung hua, hung lan hua, yao hua

in India: agni-sikha, agnishikha, agnisikha, akkinicekaram, araniyakukampam, ayattira, ayattiracceti, barre, cantirakam, cantirikam, centirikkam, centirukkam, centirukku, centurakam, centurukkai, centurukkam, centurukku, chen-durakam, cilacayacceti, cilacayam, cusumbha, gramyakunkuma, hab qurtum, irattakam, kadaya, kajirah, kamalottara, kamalottaram, kamlottama, kar, kar ke bijun ki giri, karadayi, karadi, karar-ke-bij, kararhi, kardai, kardi, karh, karrah, kasakdanah, kasdi, kasembar, kasube, kasumba, kazhirah, kentakakkoli, kentakakkolicceti, khasakdanah, khazirah, kooshumba chettu, kooslambha, koosumbha, kucumpa, kukkutashikha, kuntumanikkacceti, kuntumanikkam, kurdi, kurthum, kurtum, kusam phool, kusamba, kusambabijam, kusambe, kusambi-bija, kusamphul, kusbo, kushibe, kushumba, kushumba-virai, kushumlei, kusibe, kusmbe chettu, kussum, kusubbi, kusube, kusube enne kaalu, kusubeegida, kusubi, kusum, kusum phool, kusuma, kusuma chettu, kusumba, kusumba-vittulu, kusumbah, kusumbai, kusumbar, kusumbavirai, kusumbe, kusumbha, kusumbhah, kusumbhi, kusume, kusume kaalu, kusumphul, kusumphool naya, kuyimpu, lohita, maghz-i-qurtum, maghz tukhm qurtum, maharajana, muasfir, padmottara, paicacattumpili, paicacattumpilicceti, papaka, phool kusum, pita, qirtum, qurtum, rakta, roghan-i-qurtum, roghan-i-usfar, sadhi, send-oorkum, sendurakam, sendurgam, sendurkam, sendurukkai, senturakam, tukhm kar, tukhme qartum, tumpuravali, usfar, vanishikha, vasraranjana

in Japan: beni-bana, benibana, kûkwa

Malayan name: bunga kasumba, kesumba

in Nepal: kusum

in Thailand: dok kham, kham, kham foi, kham yong

in Tibetan: balpo gurgum, le brgan rtsi, le ra na tsi

Carum L. Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)

From Caryae (Karuai), town of Laconia near the Arcadian border, Dioscorides used karo, karon for caraway; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 263. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 127. 1754 and Botaničeskij Žurnal (Moscow & Leningrad). 61(1): 93–99. 1976, Taxon 26: 443–452. 1977, Acta Biol. Cracov., Ser. Bot. 21: 31–63. 1978, Lagascalia 7: 163–172. 1978, Taxon 28: 400–401. 1979, Taxon 29: 543. 1980, Taxon 30: 857–860. 1981, Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. Newslett. (Zürich). 23: 11–12. 1994, Cytologia 61: 19–25. 1996, Opera Bot. 137: 1–42. 1999.

Carum bulbocastanum W.D.J. Koch (Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Fedts.)

India. Small herb, solitary pale blue flowers, fragrant black seeds

See Novorum Actorum Academiae Caesareae LeopoldinaeCarolinae Naturae Curiosorum 12(1): 121. 1824 and Indian Journal of Pharmacy 27(6): 176–178. 1965

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Seeds astringent, febrifuge, cardiac stimulant, for chronic fever, puerperal fever, edema, diseases of the digestive system, flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhea, vomiting, diseases of the eyes, and as a galactagogue for nursing mothers; seeds decoction given in postpartum period, as it is said to stimulate uterine contractions.)

in English: black caraway

in India: cimaiccirakam, jarana, jiraa siyaah, jiraka, jiraka dvyam, kaashmira jirak, kalajira, kalajirah, kamoon-armani, karavi, kasmira jiraka, kasmirajiraka, kavarcirakam, kevalika, krishna jiraka, krsnajaji, krsnajiraka, nilakana, pilappushiragam, pilappuccirakam, pilappucirakam, pilavucirakam, piriyacirakam, piriyakam, seema jeelahara, shah-zerah, shemai-shiragam, shiajira, shimayi-shombu, siyajira, vantisodhini, zeera, zira, zirah siah

Carum buriaticum Turczaninow (Bunium buriaticum (Turczaninow) Drude; Carum angustissimum Kitagawa; Carum buriaticum f. angustissimum (Kitagawa) H. Wolff; Carum buriaticum fo. angustissimum (Kitag.) Shan & F.T. Pu; Carum curvatum C.B. Clarke ex H. Wolff; Carum furcatum H. Wolff; Carum pseudoburiaticum H. Wolff)

China, Mongolia. Herb, petals white

See Species Plantarum 1: 243. 1753, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 17(4): 713. 1844, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(8): 194. 1898 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 27(9–15): 183. 1929, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 27(734– 740): 187–188. 1929, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 27(741–750): 302–303. 1930, Journal of Japanese Botany 20(6–7): 311. 1944, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 55(2): 28. 1985

(Seeds ground, mixed with butter and made into a paste used as an analgesic against headache.)

in China: tian ge lü zi

Carum carvi L. (Carum carvi f. rubriflorum H. Wolff; Carum carvi var. gracile (Lindley) H. Wolff; Carum gracile Lindley; Carum gracile Boiss.; Carum rosellum Woronow)

Mediterranean, Eurasia. Herb, annual or perennial, annual or biennial, glabrous, erect, terete, hollow, branching in upper part, strong thick fleshy taproot, compound alternate leaves, inflorescence a compound umbel terminal, bracts and bracteoles absent or few, flowers bisexual, calyx absent, petals with short inflexed apex, styles recurved, stigma capitate, fruit a schizocarp splitting into 2 mericarps, roots cooked as vegetable, weed

See Sp. Pl. 1: 263. 1753, Flora Taurico-Caucasica 1: 211. 1808, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 1: 284. 1821, Illustrations of the Botany ... of the Himalayan Mountains ... [Royle] 232. 1835, Fl. Orient. [Boissier] Suppl. 258, in syn. 1888 [Oct 1888] and Acta Horti Gothoburgensis 2(7): 306. 1926, Das Pflanzenreich IV 228(Heft 90): 148. 1927, Regnum Veg. 127: 30. 1993

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Whole plant used in gonorrhea. Seeds and oil expectorant, digestive, antiseptic, diuretic, astringent, anthelmintic, galactagogue, antibacterial, antifungal, carminative, stomachic, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, emmenagogue, for dyspepsia, bloating, stomach disorders, fullness, nausea, giddiness, headache, cold, cough, fever, rheumatism, scabies, high blood pressure, eye diseases, also promotes the onset of menstruation. Fruit and oil carminative, tonic and stomachic. Consumption of caraway enhances lactation of breast-feeding women. Parasiticide.)

in English: caraway, caraway seed, common caraway, kummel, seedcake

in Bhutan: go-snyod

in China: ge lü zi, zang hui xiang

in India: appakacaccompucceti, appakacam, asita jiraka, asitajiraka, bahugandha, bhedanika, bhedini, cimai compu, cimai peruncirakam, cimaiccirakam, cimaiccompu, cimaivitai, go-nyod, gonyod, gonyorog, go-snyod, hridya, jangi dhania, jarana, jeerka, jeero, jira, jiraa, jiraka, kaaravi, kaashmira jiraka, kala zira, kalajeera, kalajiraka, kalameshi, kalazera, kalazira, kalazird, kamoon, kamoon-roomi, karamjiragam, karavi, karawiyah, karimjeerakam, karuncirakam, karunjiraka, kekku vitai, kekkuvirai, kekkuvitai, keturuvirai, kosnyot, krishna, krishna jiraka, krishnajaji, krishnajeeraka, krishnajiraka, krsnajiraka, kumblik, malaiccompu, mashmirajiraka, mita zerah, nila, nilakana, omum, patu, pilappu-chirakam, prithvikaa, raka, ruchya, sa-jire, seema jeeraka, seemai sompu, semai seeragam, shahajire, shahjeera, shahjeera asli, shahjeera badkashani, shahjeera khar, shahjira, shia-jira, shiajira, shimai-shembu, shimaishiragam, shimaisapu, shimayi-shombu, shingoo, shodhana, shyah jeera, sima-jilakara, simaishembu, siya jeera, siyah jeera asli, siyah jeera kashmiri, siyah-jira, sugandha, sugandha udgaar, sushavi, syah zira, syahajira, udgarashodhini, umbu, upakunchika, upakunchikaa, vantishodhini, varshakali, zeera siyah, zeeraa siyaah, zira, zira siyah

Malayan name: jintan

in Nepal: chhonyo, chir

in Thailand: hom-pom

in Tibetan: agar go-snyod, go-snyod, sgo-snyod, shia-jira, zira nag po

in Arabic: karawiya, karouia

Carum copticum (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. (Carum copticum (L.) Sprague ex Turrill; Carum copticum (L.) C.B. Clarke; Carum copticum (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex C.B. Clarke; Carum copticum Benth. & Hook.f.; Carum copticum H. Karst.)

Tropical Africa, Egypt.

See Mantissa Plantarum 56. 1767, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1: 635. 1785, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 1: 267. 1821, Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 12. 1877, The Flora of British India 2: 683. 1879 and Journal of Ethnopharmacology 69: 217–227. 2000, Phytotherapy Research 17: 1145–1149. 2003, Phytotherapy Research 18(8): 670–673. 2004, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 98(1–2): 127–135. 2005, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 109(2): 226– 228. 2007, World Applied Sciences Journal 3(2): 215–219. 2008, Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 2(1): 75–78. 2009

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Antimicrobial, carminative, antifungal, astringent, antihypertensive, analgesic, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, anticholinergic, antihistaminic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective, to treat headache, joint pains, enteric diseases, dysfunction of gastrointestinal tracts, flatulence, indigestion, colic, dyspepsia and diarrhea. Veterinary medicine, crushed seeds given for tympany and indigestion.)

in India: acam, acamam, acamatakam, acamatam, acamotai, acamotakam, acamotam, acatti, agnivardhini, agniverdhana, ajamo, ajamoda, ajamodika, ajmada, ajmodum, ajowan, ajwain, akkinicantam, amam, arampai, arampaikkani, ariyavaciyam, asamadam, attimai, bhukadambaka, bhumikadambaka, bhutika, bhutikah, brahmadarbha, catakuppi, cirani, cirati, ciraticceti, deepyaka, dipani, dipya, dipyaka, dipyakah, emanacacceti, emanacam, emanakam, erivakal, evakanam, evani, evankacceti, evankam, evankanam, hridya, ilacamattakam, incikaicceti, iyavani, javani, jawain, kamue muluki, karavi, kharahva, kiruminacam, komari, komarimotam, kshetrayavanika, kuros niomam, kuruvacam, mancil, mari, motakam, motam, nankhwah, navalukam, navanakam, navancam, okkam, oma, omam, omami, omamu, oman, omu, omattuvayam, onkan, owa, pantukam, pariyacam, shulahantri, talib-el-khubz, tattilam, ticakam, tikacam, tikaccam, tikshnagandha, tipani, tipini, tippiyacceti, tippiyakam, tippiyam, tirikipokki, tivragandha, ugra, ugragandha, ukkirakantai, ukkirakantam, ulocamattakam, ulokamattam, vani, vatari, vitipali, yamani, yamanika, yavagraja, yavajadipaniya, yavanaka, yavani, yavanika, yavanikai, yavanikam, yavasavha, yavavha, yevani, yevanicceti, yupam, zinian

in Philippines: damoro, lamudio

Carum khasianum C.B. Clarke

Himalaya.

See The Flora of British India 2: 682. 1879

(Leaf juice to stop bleeding.)

Carya Nutt. Juglandaceae

From the Greek karya ‘a walnut tree’, karyon ‘a nut’, see Species Plantarum 2: 997. 1753, The Genera of North American Plants 2: 220–221. 1818, Versuch über die Arzneikräfte der Pflanzen 143. 1818, Alsographia Americana 65. 1838 and J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 425–432. 1949, Fl. Veracruz 31: 1–30. 1983.

Carya alba Nutt. ex Elliott (Carya alba (L.) Nutt.; Carya alba Britton, Sterns and Poggenb.; Carya tomentosa (Lam.) Nutt.; Carya tomentosa var. subcoriacea (Sarg.) Palmer & Steyerm.; Hicoria tomentosa (Lam.) Raf.; Hicorius alba Britton; Juglans alba L. p.p.)

North America. Perennial tree, female flowers very small in clusters near the tip of the twig, male flowers yellow-green drooping catkins

See The Genera of North American Plants 2: 221. 1818

(Abortifacient, analgesic, astringent, diaphoretic, emetic, tonic, stomachic, used for colds, liver problems, female disorders. Inner bark used as a dressing for cuts, chewed for sore mouth. Insecticide.)

in English: mockernut hickory

Carya cordiformis (Wangenheim) K. Koch (Carya amara Nutt.; Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch var. latifolia Sarg.; Carya minima Britt.; Hicoria cordiformis (Wangenheim) Britton; Hicoria minima (Marshall) Britton; Hicorius minima Britton; Juglans cordiformis Wangenheim)

North America. Perennial tree

See Beytr. Teut. Forstwiss. 25, pl. 10, f. 25. 1787, Dendrologie 1: 597. 1869, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 15(11): 284. 1888 and North American Trees 228. 1908

(Bark infusion diuretic, laxative. Insecticide.)

in English: bitternut, bitternut hickory, pig-nut, swamp hickory

Carya illinoinensis (Wangenheim) K. Koch (Carya diguetii Dode; Carya olivaeformis Nutt.; Carya oliviformis (Michx. f.) Nutt.; Carya pecan (Marshall) Engl. & Graebn.; Carya pecan Engl. & Graebn.; Carya tetraptera Liebm.; Hicoria olivaeformis (Michaux) Nuttall; Hicoria pecan (Marshall) Britton; Hicorius oliviformis (Michx.) Nutt.; Juglans illinoinensis Wangenheim; Juglans oliviformis Michx.; Juglans pecan Marshall)

North America. Perennial tree

See Arbustrum Americanum 69. 1785, Beytrag zur Teuteschen Holzgrechten Forstwissenschaft 54–55, f. 43. 1787, Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 192. 1803, Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn 1850(5): 80. 1850, Dendrologie 1: 593. 1869, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 15(11): 282. 1888 and Notizblatt des Königlichen botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin 3(App. 9): 19. 1902, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 55: 470. 1908, Taxon 35: 174. 1986, Taxon 37: 448. 1988, Flora Taxonómica Mexicana ed. 3, 1: 673. 1988, Taxon 42: 441. 1993, Taxon 43: 461. 1994

(Bark decoction for tuberculosis; leaves rubbed for ring-worm. Leaves and bark piscicide.)

in English: pecan

in China: mei guo shan he tao, pecan

in Japan: pekan

Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) G. Don (Carya sulcata Pursh; Hicoria laciniosa (Michx. f.) Sargent; Juglans laciniosa F. Michaux)

North America. Perennial tree

See Histoire des Arbres Forestiers de l’Amérique Septentrionale 1(2): 199, pl. 8. 1811, Loudon’s Hortus Britannicus. A catalogue ... 384. 1830, The Silva of North America 7: 157. 1895

(Analgesic, stomachic, abortifacient, diaphoretic, astringent, emetic, for colds, sore mouth, dressing for cuts.)

in English: big shellbark, kingnut, shellbark hickory

Carya ovata (Miller) K. Koch (Carya alba Nutt. non K. Koch; Carya mexicana Engelm.; Carya mexicana Engelm. ex Hemsl.; Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch var. fraxinifolia Sarg.; Carya ovata var. mexicana (Engelm.) W.E. Manning; Carya ovata var. nuttallii Sarg.; Carya ovata var. pubescens Sarg.; Hicoria alba Britton p.p.; Hicoria borealis Ashe; Hicoria ovata (Miller) Britton; Juglans ovata Britton)

North America. Perennial tree

See Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Juglans no. 6. 1768, Dendrologie 1: 598. 1869, Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 3(15): 162– 163. 1883, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 15(11): 283. 1888 and Bull. Charleston Mus. 14: 12. 1918, Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 30(4): 431–432. 1949, Phytologia 19: 188. 1969, M.R. Gilmore, Uses of Plants by the Indians ... 22. 1991

(Antirheumatic, anthelmintic, tonic, analgesic, tonic, for female disorders, arthritis, headache. Insecticide.)

in English: hickory nut, little shellbark hickory, shagbark hickory, shellbark hickory

Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn. (Carya pallida (Ashe) Sarg., nom. illeg.; Hicoria pallida Ashe)

North America. Perennial tree

See Garden & Forest 10(493): 304–306, f. 39. 1897 and Notizblatt des Königlichen botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin App. 9: 19. 1902, Botanical Gazette 66(3): 241. 1918

(Analgesic, stomachic, abortifacient, diaphoretic, astringent, emetic, for colds, sore mouth, dressing for cuts.)

in English: pale hickory, sand hickory

Carya tomentosa (Poiret) Nuttall (Carya alba Nutt. ex Elliott; Carya alba K. Koch; Hicorius alba Britton; Juglans tomentosa Poiret; Juglans tomentosa Michx., nom. illeg.)

North America. Perennial tree, deciduous, male flowers in drooping clusters

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 4(2): 504. 1798, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 221. 1818, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 15(11): 283. 1888

(Abortifacient, analgesic, astringent, diaphoretic, emetic, tonic, stomachic, used for colds, liver problems, female disorders. Inner bark used as a dressing for cuts, chewed for sore mouth. Insecticide, repellent.)

in English: big bud hickory, bullnut, hognut, mockernut, mockernut hickory, square-nut hickory, white heart hickory, white hickory

Caryocar L. Caryocaraceae

Greek karyon ‘nut’ and kare ‘the head, crest’, referring to the nature of the fruit; see Mantissa Plantarum 2: 154, 247. 1771, Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 594, 599, t. 238, 240. 1775, Genera Plantarum 1: 369. 1789, Hortus Suburbanus Calcuttensis 88. 1845, A. Lofgren, “Ensayo para uma synonimia dos nomes populares das plantas indigenas do estado de São Paulo.” B. da Commissão Geographica e Geologica do estado de São Paulo. São Paulo 10: 3–115. 1894 and Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(3A/2): 697–703. 1956, Economic Botany 26: 3221–3237. 1972, Fl. Neotrop. 12: 1–77. 1973, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63(3): 541–546. 1976 [1977], Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 2: 2141–2167. 1986, Opera Bot. 92: 179–183. 1987, Advances in Economic Botany 4:1–68. 1987, H. Genaust, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen. 131. 1996, Editor(s): Derek J. Chadwick, Joan Marsh, Ciba Foundation Symposium 185—Ethnobotany and the Search for New Drugs. Novartis Foundation Symposia. 1994, Economic Botany 58(2):135–160. 2004.

Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocar brasiliense St. Hil.)

Brazil.

See Flora Brasiliae Meridionalis (quarto ed.) 1: 249, 322, t. 67 bis. 1828 and Food Chemistry 110(3): 711–717. 2008

(Antioxidant. Veterinary medicine, anticancer.)

in Brazil: amêndoa de espinho, grão de cavalo, o pequizeiro, pequi, pequí, piguiá, piquí, piqui

Caryocar glabrum (Aubl.) Pers. (Caryocar amydaliforme Ruiz & Pav. ex G. Don; Caryocar amygdaliforme Ruiz & Pav. ex Walpers; Caryocar coccineum Pilg.; Caryocar glabrum Pers.; Caryocar tessmannii Pilg.; Caryocar toxiferum Barb. Rodr.; Pekea ternata Poir., nom. illeg.; Rhizobolus glaber (Aubl.) Corrêa ex Steud., nom. illeg.; Rhizobolus saouvari Corrêa, nom. illeg.; Rhizobolus souari Steud., nom. illeg.; Saouari glabra Aubl.)

Brazil, Peru.

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 5: 148. 1804, Annales du muséum national d’histoire naturelle 8: 394, t. 5, f. 2. 1806, Synopsis Plantarum (Persoon) 2(1): 84. 1806, Nomenclator Botanicus 688. 1824, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 1: 654. 1831, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 449. 1841, Repertorium Botanices Systematicae 1: 410. 1842, Vellosia 1(1): 11, t. 6. 1888 and Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 10: 126–127. 1927, J. Nat. Prod., 69(2): 196–205. 2006, Phytochemistry 68(19): 2439–2443. 2007, Journal of Natural Products 71(5): 914–917. 2008

(Seeds eaten for dysmenorrhea. Inner bark caustic; ash from burned bark used for dysentery and to wash hair. Unripe fruit mesocarp used as a fish poison; saponins from the fruits.)

in English: bats’ souari, soapwood

in South America: almendra, almendro, almendro colorado, almendron, barbasco, batsouari, biqui, cagui, chawari, jigua, kassagnan, kawai, kula, kwailu, pequea, pequi, pequiarana, pikia, piquia, piquia bravo, piquiarana, pursh, pûrsh, sawari, sopo-oedoe, tararongye, uranà, walgo, waruko, water sawari

Caryocar gracile Wittm. (Caryocar krukovii Gilly)

South America. Tree, spicy pink fragrant flowers

See Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) 12(1): 350. 1886 and Tropical Woods 72: 17. 1942

(Oil from the seeds to rub on swollen joints.)

Caryocar microcarpum Ducke (Caryocar glabrum var. edule Wittm.; Caryocar glabrum var. pilosum Wittm.; Caryocar riparium A.C. Sm.)

Guianas, northern Amazonia.

See Flora Brasiliensis 12(1): 349. 1886 and Archivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 4: 133. 1925, Lloydia 2: 195. 1939, Journal of Natural Products 49(6): 1167–1168. 1986, Fitoterapia 78(3): 223–226. 2007

(Cytotoxic. Bark for mycoses. Ant repellent, fish poison.)

in South America: almendro blanco, almendro colorado, bats sawari, chawari de l’eau, watari sawari

Caryocar nuciferum L. (Caryocar tomentosum Willd., nom. illeg.; Caryocar tuberculosum (Aubl.) Baill.; Pekea tuberculosa Aubl.; Rhizobolus pekea Gaertn., nom. illeg.; Rhizobolus tuberculosus (Aubl.) J.F. Gmel.)

South America. Evergreen tree

See Mantissa Plantarum 2: 247. 1771, Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 537, t. 239. 1775, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2(1): 840. 1789, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 2: 92, t. 98. 1790, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 2: 1244. 1799, Allgemeine Naturgeschichte 3(2): 1324. 1841, Histoire des Plantes 4: 251. 1872

(Bark diuretic, febrifuge.)

in English: butter nut of Guiana, butternut, sawari nut, souari nut

in South America: alokomali, hoera, hora, imba, imbo, ingi-noto, nuez souari, pékéa tata-youba, pewui, porte-noix, sawari, sawarinoot, soeari, tata-youba

Caryocar villosum (Aubl.) Pers. (Caryocar butyrosum (Aubl.) Willd.; Caryocar villosum var. aesculifolium Wittm.; Caryocar villosum var. macrophyllum Wittm.; Pekea butyrosa Aubl.; Pekea villosa (Aubl.) Poir.; Rhizobolus butyrosus (Aubl.) J.F. Gmel.; Saouari villosa Aubl.)

Brazil. Timber species with edible fruits

See Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 601, t. 241. 1775, Systema Naturae, ed. 13 2(1): 840. 1789, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 2: 1243. 1799, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 5: 148. 1804, Synopsis Plantarum 2: 84. 1806, Flora Brasiliensis 12(1): 354. 1886 and Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 54(1): 49–56. 2003, Journal of Natural Products 69(6): 919–926. 2006, Journal of Natural Products 71(5): 914–917. 2008

(Bark antimicrobial, diuretic and febrifuge; leaves and bark reported to induce sweating. Saponin compounds in the fruit could potentially have pesticidal and antitumoral effects.)

in English: butternut

in South America: ají, almendrillo, alméndro, almendrón, cagüí, manteiga de piquia, pekea, pekia, piquí, piquiá, sawarie

Caryopteris Bunge Lamiaceae (Labiatae, Verbenaceae)

From the Greek karyon ‘nut’ and pteron ‘wing’, referring to the winged fruits, see Species Plantarum 2: 570–572. 1753 and Acta Botanica Sinica 10: 247. 1962, Taxon 30: 843. 1981, Chinese Science Bulletin 48(15): 1576–1580. 2003.

Caryopteris bicolor (Roxb. ex Hardw.) Mabb. (Caryopteris odorata (D. Don) B.L. Rob.; Caryopteris odorata f. albiflora (Voigt) Moldenke; Caryopteris odorata var. integrifolia Moldenke; Caryopteris wallichiana Schauer; Clerodendrum odoratum D. Don; Clerodendrum odoratum var. albiflorum Voigt; Pseudocaryopteris bicolor (Roxb. ex Hardw.) P.D. Cantino; Volkameria bicolor Roxb. ex Hardw.)

China, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Shrub, spreading, fragrant flowers purple bluish, fodder

See Asiatic Researches 6: 366. 1799, Prodromus Florae Nepalensis 102. 1825, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 11: 625. 1847 and Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 51: 531. 1916, Phytologia 22: 6. 1971, Phytologia 23: 453. 1972, Taxon 29(5–6): 605. 1980, Botany and History of Hortus Malabaricus 83. 1980, Syst. Bot. 23(3): 380–381. 1998 (publ. 1999)

in English: fragrant bluebeard

in China: xiang you

in India: ban-basuti, ban basuti

in Nepal: dhyapinu, mhyuni, munge pati, nilo ghusure, siman, thyaule

Caryopteris foetida (D. Don) Thell. (Caryopteris foetida Thell.; Caryopteris grata (Wall. ex Walp.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex C.B. Clarke; Caryopteris grata (Wall. ex Walp.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke; Caryopteris grata Benth. & Hook.f.; Clerodendrum foetidum D. Don; Clerodendrum foetidum Bunge; Clerodendrum foetidum Hort. Par. ex Planch.; Clerodendrum gratum Wall. ex Walp.; Clerodendrum gratum Wall.; Clerodendrum gratum Kurz; Pseudocaryopteris foetida (D. Don) P.D. Cantino; Vitex sex-dentata Wall. ex Schauer; Vitex sexdentata Wall. ex Schauer; Volkameria buchanani Roxb.)

Himalaya, Nepal, India. Rambling shrub, purplish or white flowers in axillary cymes, fodder

See Prodromus Florae Nepalensis 103. 1825, Numer. List [Wallich] n. 1813. 1829, Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor. 52. 1833, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 108. 1845, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 11: 696. 1847, Gen. Pl. [Bentham & Hooker f.] 2(2): 1158. 1876, Fl. Brit. India 4: 596. 1885 and Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 64: 782. 1919, Syst. Bot. 23(3): 381. 1999 [1998 publ. 1999]

(Root juice given for diarrhea and dysentery.)

in Nepal: mohini

Caryopteris incana (Thunb. ex Houtt.) Miq. var. incana (Barbula sinensis Lour.; Caryopteris incana (Thunberg ex Houttuyn) Miquel; Caryopteris incana Miquel; Caryopteris ovata Miq.; Caryopteris sinensis (Lour.) Dippel; Mastacanthus sinensis (Lour.) Endl. ex Walp.; Nepeta incana Thunb. ex Houtt.; Nepeta incana Sol., nom. illeg.; Nepeta incana M. Bieb., nom. illeg.; Nepeta incana Willd., nom. illeg.)

China, Korea, Japan. Perennial herb

See Natuurlijke Historie 2(9): 307. 1778, Fl. Jap. 244, 1784, Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... 2: 285. 1789, Species Plantarum 3: 52. 1800, Flora Taurico-Caucasica 2: 40. 1808, Labiatarum Genera et Species 478. 1834, Nomenclator Botanicus ed. 2, 2: 105. 1841, Journal de Botanique Néerlandaise 1: 144. 1861, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 97. 1865, Handbuch der Laubholzkunde 1: 59, f. 24. 1889 and Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 65(1): 213. 1982, Phytochemistry 44(4): 759–761. 1997, Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 63(6): 983–988. 1999, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 48(7): 1075–1078. 2000

(Cytotoxic, radical scavenger, antioxidant.)

in English: common bluebeard

in China: lan xiang cao

Caryopteris nepetifolia (Bentham) Maximowicz (Caryopteris nepetaefolia (Benth.) Maxim.; Caryopteris nepetifolia Maximowicz; Caryopteris nepetifolia f. brevipes C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li; Schnabelia nepetifolia (Benth.) P.D. Cantino; Schnabelia nepetifolium (Benth.) P.D. Cantino; Teucrium nepetifolium Bentham)

China. Perennial herb

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 12: 580. 1848, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23(2): 390. 1877 and Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathmematische-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. Wien 58: 92. 1924, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 1(1): 22, pl. 6. 1951, Fl. Yunnanica 1: 483. 1977, Syst. Bot. 23(3): 381. 1998 (publ. 1999)

(Astringent, tonic.)

in English: one-flowered bluebeard

in China: dan hua you

Caryopteris terniflora Maximowicz (Caryopteris terniflora f. brevipedunculata P’ei & S.L. Chen; Schnabelia terniflora (Maxim.) P.D. Cantino)

China.

See Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 54(1): 40. 1879 and Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. 65(1): 213. 1982, Syst. Bot. 23: 382. 1998 (publ. 1999), Chinese Chemical Letters 15(12): 1445– 1447, 2004, Pharmazie 60(7): 551–553. 2005

(Antibacterial and antitumour, antipyretic, detoxicant, expectorant, antiinflammatory, used for cold, scrofula and rheumatism.)

in English: three-flowered bluebeard

in China: san hua you

Caryota L. Arecaceae (Palmae)

Greek karyon ‘nut, any kind of nut’, karyotos ‘date-palm, date, Phoenix dactylifera’, karyotis, karyotidos is an ancient name used by Dioscorides and applied to the date, Latin caryota and caryotis for a kind of nut-shaped date; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 2: 1189. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 497. 1754, Historia Naturalis Palmarum 3: 195. 1838, Flora van Nederlandsch Indië 3: 41. 1855 and Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal. 32: 59–62. 1978, Plant Systematics and Evolution 189: 83–122. 1994, Botanica Acta 110: 79–89. 1997, Pooma, R. (ed.) A Preliminary Check-list of Threatened Plants in Thailand: 1–193. National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok 2005, Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. World Checklist of Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2005.

Caryota maxima Blume ex Mart. (Caryota aequatorialis Ridl.; Caryota aequatorialis (Becc.) Ridl.; Caryota furfuracea var. caudata Blume; Caryota furfuracea var. furcata Blume; Caryota macrantha Burret; Caryota obtusa var. aequatorialis Becc.; Caryota rumphiana var. javanica Becc.; Caryota rumphiana var. oxyodonta Becc.; Caryota rumphiana var. philippinensis Becc.)

China, Thailand.

See Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 195. 1838, Hist. Nat. Palm. 3(ed. 2): 195. 1845, Malesia 1: 74. 1877, Fl. Brit. India 6: 423. 1892 and Philipp. J. Sci. 14: 337. 1919, Fl. Malay Penins. 5: 20. 1925, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 15: 197. 1940

(Irritant crystals present in the plant tissues.)

Caryota mitis Lour. (Caryota furfuracea Blume ex Mart.; Caryota furfuracea Blume; Caryota griffithii Becc.; Caryota griffithii var. selebica Becc.; Caryota javanica Osbeck; Caryota javanica Zipp. ex Miq., nom. illeg.; Caryota nana Linden; Caryota nana Wall.; Caryota propinqua Blume; Caryota propinqua Blume ex Mart.; Caryota sobolifera Wall.; Caryota sobolifera Wall. ex Mart.; Caryota sobolifera Wall., nom. nud.; Caryota speciosa Linden; Drymophloeus zippellii Hassk.; Thuessinkia speciosa Korth.)

SE Asia, Vietnam. Stems solitary or clustered, conspicuous nodal rings, leaves bipinnate, scurfy axillary pendulous spadix, unisexual flowers in threes, tiny creamy flowers in tassel-like clusters, inflorescences a dense mass of hanging spikes bearing flowers in a spiral, red bluish-black round fruits, seeds edible after cooking

See Species Plantarum 2: 1189. 1753, Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 569–570. 1790, Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 194. t. 107. f. 2. 1838, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens n. 8594, 8595. 1848, Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 41. 1855 and Interpr. Rumph. Herb. Amboin. 47. 1917, Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Bengal 32: 59–62. 1978, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 48(2): 287–92. 1979

(Stinging crystals, raphides, needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate. Pericarp irritant to the skin, may cause burning, severe pain and swelling of the lips, buccal cavity and throat, redness and swelling of the eyes. Soft fibers at the base of the leaf sheath used for the cauterization of wounds. Fruit juice, mixed with bamboo hairs and extract of toad considered a potent poison. Ceremonial, flowers and stem center presented to God during worship; fruits, flowers and leaves used to decorate huts in certain ceremonies.)

in English: Burmese fishtail palm, clustered fishtail palm, clustering fishtail palm, fishtail palm, many-stemmed fishtail palm, tufted fishtail palm

in India: mari supari, mei-hle, meihle, phoroto

in Japan: kabu-dachi-kujaku-yashi

Malayan names: beredin, beridin, bredin, dudok, ibul, kabong, langkap, meredin, pinang, tukas, tukus

in Philippines: bato, pugahan

in Brazil: palmeira-rabo-de-peixe

Caryota urens L. (Caryota urens Jacq.; Caryota urens Blanco)

India, Sri Lanka. Solitary trunk, arching and pendulous leaves, greenish cream flowers, fruit dark red, powdered inner pith eaten, flesy toddy famine food

See Species Plantarum 2: 1189. 1753, Fragmenta Botanica. 20. t. 12. f. 1. 1800–1809, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 740. 1837 and Taxon 28: 70. 1979

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. The fruits contain irritant needle-like crystals, if eaten can cause stomatitis and dermatitis. Nuts acrid, cooling, useful to reduce thirst and fatigue; crushed nuts applied to the forehead in headache. Fresh toddy laxative, used in seminal weakness, urinary disorders and jaundice. Stem for increasing lactation. Toddy an auspicious alcoholic beverage; pounded root of Flemingia nana added in toddy of Caryota urens to enhance its intoxicating properties. A decoction of bark of Croton roxburghii N.P. Balakr. (Croton persimilis Müll.Arg.) with roots of Caryota urens given as purgative.)

in English: bastard sago, caryota, ceylon piassava, fishtail palm, ghat-palm, hill palm, jaggery palm, kittool, kittul, kitul tree, Malabar sago palm, sago palm, toddy fishtail palm, toddy palm, wine palm

in Brazil: banda de sargento, palmeira-rabo-de-peixe, palmeira-toddy

in Mexico: palma cola de pescado

in India: adam, anapa, anapana, anapanna, anapanne, anappana, ardhi-sopari, ardhimpari, ardhisupari, ataku, atakumaram, atam, bagane, bagani, bagani mara, bagini, bagni, baina, baine, bainemara, baini, bakini, ban-khajur, baroflawar, bauree, bayne, beina, benkhajur, berli, berlimad, berlimada, berlimhar, bherawa, bherlamuda, bherlimad, bhiralimada, bhirlimahad, bhyni, binay, birli, birlomad, bugani, byree, calopam, catapalam, catapalamaram, chang-kraum, chirugu, chirugu chettu, chundapana, chuntap-pana, chuntappana, cirugu, citalam, cuntappana, dhoajavriksha, dirgha, erimpana, gukatad, ind, indu, irambanai, irampana, irampanae, irampanai, irampanze, iran-pana, jeeluga, jeeluga chettu, jiluga, jilugu, jilugujattu, jirugu chettu, jirugudu chettu, jivalaggu, kalapana, kamuku, kannida, kannida konda, karumpanaikkanni, kavariyam, kavariyamaram, kittil, kittukil, kittul, konda, konda jeluga, konda-panei, kondaa-jilugu, kondaji-valaggu, kondajiluga, kondajivalaggu, kondapan, kondapauni, kontai-p-panai, kontaippanai, kontappanai, koondal panai, koondalpanai, koonthalpanai, koonthalpandi, kundal-panai, kundalpanai, kundapana, kundapanai, kundarbanai, kuntai panai, kuntal, kuntal panai, kuntalapanai, kuntar panai, kuntar panai vittu, kuntarpanai, kunthapanai, kunthar panai, kuranam, kuranappanaimaram, maare, mad, mada, madadruma, madyadru, madyadruma, malai-p-panai, malaippanai, mardi, mare, mari, mari ka jhat, marika-jhad, marikajhad, meihle, mhar, mohakari, olathi, paine, painey, pana, pane, pugam, pukam, pukamaram, rajju, ramguoah, salopa, salpo, schunda-pana, schundapana, shankarjata, shivajata, shundrapana, solapa, solopo, sritalah, surmadi, talam, talippanai, tar-mardi, teeroogoo, terooga, thippali, thippili panel, thippilipanei, thirugu, tippili, tippilippanai, tum, udalarbanan, utalarpanai, utalimpanai, utalippanai, utupatitamaram, vainava, vainavu, varankanai, varppanai, vazapana, vitanaka, yaathrakathaari, yadarikodari, yatrakatari, yedarigodari

Cascabela Raf. Apocynaceae

Spanish cascabel, cascabela for a small bell, jingle bell, tinkle bell, snake’s rattle, rattlesnake, possibly referring to the fruit or to the flowers of these plants; see C.S. Rafinesque (1783–1840), Sylva Telluriana. 162. 1838.

Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold (Cascabela peruviana (Pers.) Raf.; Cerbera linearifolia Stokes; Cerbera peruviana Pers.; Cerbera thevetia Linnaeus; Thevetia amazonica Ducke; Thevetia linearis Raf.; Thevetia linearis A. DC.; Thevetia neriifolia Jussieu ex Steudel; Thevetia neriifolia Jussieu ex A. DC., nom. illeg., non Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud.; Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.; Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Merr., nom. illeg., non Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.; Thevetia peruviana f. aurantiaca H. St. John; Thevetia thevetia (L.) Millspaugh, nom. inval., tautonym; Thevetia thevetia (L.) H. Karst., nom. inval.)

Tropical America. Shrubs or treelets, narrow leaves, yellow flowers, rounded two-lobed fruits

See Species Plantarum 1: 208–209. 1753, Syn. Pl. 1: 267. 1805, Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 490. 1812, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 680. 1821, Sylva Telluriana 91, 162. 1838, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 8: 343, 354. 1844, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4(2): 159. 1895 and Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 2(1): 83. 1900, Philippine Journal of Science 9(2): 130. 1914, Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 3: 247. 1922, Phytologia 34: 148. 1976, Feddes Repertorium 91(1–2): 52. 1980, Genetica 68: 3–35. 1985, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 32(2): 95–98. 1997, Govaerts, R. World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b). Continental Publishing, Deurne. 1999 [as Thevetia peruviana.], Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2003 [as Thevetia peruviana.], Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health. 36 Suppl 4: 167–175. 2005

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Poisonous, extremely toxic, all parts. Sap and seeds deadly poisonous to domestic animals. Latex reported to be irritant and vesicant in some individuals; milky juice highly toxic on account of its cardiac glycoside content, cardenolides are naturally occurring plant toxins which act primarily on the heart; latex applied directly on wounds, mumps, piles, muscle pain, swellings and cuts. Stem juice useful in diabetes. Kernel used in external application for skin infections; a decoction of crushed raw fruits in water used to wash boils. Bark a powerful antiperiodic and febrifuge. Molluscicidal, larvicidal, antifungal, piscicidal. An arrow or ordeal poison. Ceremonial, flowers used for religious worships, for ceremonial sacrifice.)

in English: be-still tree, bestill nut, exile oil tree, exile tree, lucky bean, lucky nut, milk bush, milk tree, thevetia, trumpet flower, yellow oleander

in India: ashvaha, bija-mara, cempon, cemponmaram, cimaialari, cimaiyalari cuttavacikam, cuttavacikamaram, gohai phul, hapusha, kanai, kaner, kaniari, kappatakam, kappatakamaran, karavirah, kolka-phul, kolkaphul, manjaalari, marang kanaili, paccha ganneru, pacchaganneru, pachaarali, pachaganeru, pachaiyalari, pachchaarali, pachchai-alari, pachchaganeru, pachcha-ganneru, pila kaner, pili-kaner, pivala-kanher, sangupoo, sherani, tankarali, tankaralimaram, thivati, tiruvacci, tiruvaccippu, tiruvatci, tittiravam, tittiravamaram, ucimiliraicceti

in Mexico: acitz, campanilla, chirca, naranjo amarillo, narciso amarillo, yoyote

in South America: ahoahai mirim, ahoui guacu, akits, amancay, amankay, árbol de Panamá, bellaco caspi, bellaquillo, camé, cabalonga, campanilla amarilla, cega-olho, chapéu de Napoleão, chilca, chilindrón, chirca, chirrto, cruceta real, ischacapa, jorro-jorro, lechero, louro rosa, maichil, maichill, narciso amarillo, siáticapájaro bobo, suche

in Venezuela: lengua de gato, retama

Casearia Jacq. Salicaceae (Flacourtiaceae)

After the Dutch clergyman Johannes Casearius, 1642–1678, missionary, church minister of Dutch East India Company and joint author (he wrote the Latin version) of the first two volumes of the Rheede’s Hortus Indicus Malabaricus ... adornatus per ... J. Casearium, etc. 1678–1679. See Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica 249. 1756, Nicolaus Joseph von Jacquin, Enumeratio systematica plantarum, quas in insulis Caribaeis ... 4, 21. 1760, Histoire Physique, Politique et Naturelle de l’Ile de Cuba ... Botanique. — Plantes Vasculaires 10: 33. 1845, Justus Carl Hasskarl (1811–1894), Horti malabarici Rheedeani clavis locupletissima. Dresden 1867, Genera Plantarum 1: 797. 1867, Alberto Lofgren, “Ensayo para uma synonimia dos nomes populares das plantas indigenas do estado de São Paulo.” B. da Commissão Geographica e Geologica do estado de São Paulo. São Paulo 10: 3–115. 1894 and Carlos Stellfeld (1900– 1970), “As drogas vegetais da farmacopéia brasileira em face do sistema taxonômico.” Tribuna Farmacêutica. 7(11): 221–237. Curitiba 1939, Eurico Teixeira da Fonseca, “Plantas medicinales brasileñas.” R. Flora Medicinal. 6(4): 221–236. 1940, Fl. Madagasc. 140: 1–125. 1946, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 41: 397–426. 1971, Johannes Heniger, Hendrik Adriaan van Reede tot Drakenstein (1636– 1691) and Hortus Malabaricus. A Contribution to the History of Dutch Colonial Botany. Rotterdam 1986, John Landwehr, VOC: A Bibliography of Publications Relating to the Dutch East India Company, 1602–1800. Ed. Peter van der Krogt. HES Publisher, Utrecht 1991, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(2): 1084–1105. 2001, Ceiba 44(2): 105–268. 2003[2005].

Casearia aculeata Jacq. (Casearia aculeata var. tafallana (Eichler) J.F. Macbr.; Casearia alba A.J. Richards; Casearia avellana Miq.; Casearia berberoidea Rusby; Casearia berteroana Turczaninov; Casearia boliviana Briq.; Casearia dentata DC.; Casearia guianensis (Aubl.) Urb.; Casearia guianensis var. rafflesioides Croat; Casearia guianensis var. stjohnii (I.M. Johnst.) Croat; Casearia hassleri Briq.; Casearia hirsuta var. glabrata A. DC.; Casearia hirta Sw.; Casearia microphylla Bertero ex Turcz.; Casearia nicoyensis Donn. Sm.; Casearia obovata Schltdl.; Casearia obtusifolia Rusby; Casearia odorata Macfadyen; Casearia platyphylla Briq.; Casearia ramiflora var. spinosa (Willd.) Griseb.; Casearia riparia S. Moore; Casearia rufidula Triana & Planch.; Casearia sericea L.O. Williams & Ant. Molina; Casearia spinescens (Sw.) Griseb.; Casearia spinosa Willd.; Casearia spinosa var. coriacifolia Kuntze; Casearia spinosa var. tafallana Eichler; Casearia stjohnii I.M. Johnst.; Casearia urbaniana Gand.; Chaetocrater hirtum (Sw.) Raf.; Guidonia alba (A.J. Richards) M. Gómez; Guidonia hirta (Sw.) Maza; Guidonia spinescens (Sw.) Griseb.; Samyda affinis Spreng.; Samyda enneandria Sessé & Moc.; Samyda multiflora Cav.; Samyda pubescens Desv. ex Ham.; Samyda spinescens Sw.; Samyda spinosa L.; Samyda tomentosa Sw.; Xylosma turrialbana Donn. Sm.)

West Indies, Mexico. Shrub

See Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 329, pl. 127. 1775, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 68. 1788, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 629. 1791, Flora Indiae Occidentalis 2: 756. 1798, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 37. 1825, Sylva Telluriana 149. 1838, Flora of the British West Indian Islands 24. 1859, Catalogus plantarum cubensium ... 10. 1866, Flora Brasiliensis 13(1): 464. 1871 and Symbolae Antillarum 3: 322. 1902, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 7: 307. 1927, Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 13(4/1): 40. 1941

(Antivenom. Spiny spurs.)

in English: thom prickle, wild coffee

Casearia borneensis Merr.

Indonesia. Understory tree, red bark

See Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 86: 333. 1922

(Red thin stem decoction drunk to relieve stomachache, fatigue and diarrhea. Leaves and bark decoction as a wash to treat toothache. Astringent fruit eaten to treat stomachache.)

in Indonesia: durie, sata

Casearia esculenta Roxb. (Casearia ovata Willd.; Casearia ovata (Lam.) Willd.; Casearia ovata Wall.; Casearia ovata Roxb.; Casearia zeylanica Thwaites; Casearia zeylanica (Gaertn.) Thwaites; Guidonia esculenta Baill.; Guidonia esculenta (Roxb.) Baill.)

India. Tree, glabrous leaves, axillary yellowish flowers, globose capsules, red aril, edible curry from leaves and shoots

See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1: 148. 1783, Species Plantarum ed. 4 [Willdenow] 2(1): 629. 1799, Hort. Bengal. 90. 1814, Numer. List [Wallich] n. 7192 E. 1832, Flora Indica or Descriptions of Indian plants. Vol 2 2: 420, 422. 1832, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. [Thwaites] 19. 1858, Baillon, Henri Ernest (1827–1895), Traité de Botanique Médicale Phanérogamique 2: 827. Paris, 1883–1884 and Bull. Bot. Surv. India 14(14): 184. 1972 (publ. 1975)

(Used in Ayurveda. Roots hypoglycemic, astringent, cathartic, antiperoxidative and antioxidant; root decoction in liver troubles, diabetes, piles, indigestion; root extract a remedy for diabetes mellitus.)

in English: wild cowrie fruit

in India: allehaniche, ana-vinga, bhurigandha, bhutagandha, bol duiagrang, cerukannan, cherukannan, daitya, dieng soh lormaw, divya, dodda haniche, doddahanice, doddahanise, ekanaathana baeru, ekanaayakana gida, gandhadhya, gandhakuti, gandhini, ghandhamadini, gutti, hillange, hillangi, hillechinch, hillehanice, hillehanige, hillehanise, kadalazhinjill, kakkai-palai, kakkaippilai, kilar, kolayayili, konda jungara, kondajunguru, kondapragara, kondadzzunguru, kotai aili, kottar kovai, kottargovai, kottarkovai, kraunaraung, kulkulta, kundajungura, kuti, kutti, malampavata, malampavatta, malampavetta, mori, mura, muramansi, pannimuranga, pannimurangam, pate, puragandhavati, sapta rangi, saptacakrah, saptarangi, satagan, surabhi, svarnamulah, talaparni, talaparnika, tsjerakanneli, vellakannan, vellakunnan, vellakunnam, venjanduvar

Casearia graveolens Dalzell (Casearia graveolens var. lint-sangensis S.Y. Bao)

India, China. Shrub or small tree, edible oil from the seeds

See Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 4: 107. 1852 and Acta Botanica Yunnanica 5(4): 378. 1983, Drug Development Research 19(1): 1–12. 1990

(Anticancer and antiviral. Roots paste applied to treat piles, the juice given for jaundice. Crushed stem bark, unripe fruit and leaves as fish poison.)

in China: xiang wei jiao gu cui

in India: anavananni, anavinga, bhokara, bhokoda, bokara, cerukannan, chilhi, chilla, chirakonna hanice, girivudi, hanise, kidihi, killangi konje, kirambara, kirchi, kirmira, mando, mori, phempri, pimpari, saptrangi, vaasanga, vasanga, veska

in Nepal: sano dedri

Casearia grewiaefolia Vent. (Casearia grewiifolia Vent.; Casearia hexagona Decne.; Casearia laurina Blume; Casearia leucolepis Turcz.)

India. Shrub or small deciduous tree, grey smooth bark, leaves with margins finely toothed covered with short translucent dashes, bright yellow fleshy fruits splitting into 3 sections

See J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16(3): 717. 1992, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20(3): 265–272. 2004

(Leaf extract given in dysentery, antimalarial, anti-tuberculosis, antiviral activity, cytotoxic. Crushed leaves of Casearia grewiaefolia and Tamarindus indica for swollen pancreas, pounded into paste and applied on the affected area.)

in India: kill tuong

in Sabah: salokdan

in Thailand: kruai paa

Casearia nigrescens Tul. (Casearia amplissima Tul.; Casearia elliptica Willd., nom. illeg.; Casearia elliptica Tul., nom. illeg.; Casearia elliptica Klotzsch, nom. nud.; Casearia elliptica fo. elongata H. Perrier; Casearia elliptica var. macrocarpa H. Perrier; Casearia nigrescens var. onivensis H. Perrier; Casearia nigrescens var. ovata H. Perrier; Casearia nigrescens var. subtrinervia H. Perrier; Guidonia amplissima (Tul.) Baill.; Guidonia elliptica (Tul.) Baill.; Guidonia nigrescens (Tul.) Baill.)

India, Madagascar. Shrub, small tree, branchlets tomentose, simple lanceolate alternate leaves, greenish yellow flowers in clusters, globose capsule

See The Gardeners Dictionary ... Abridged ... fourth edition. 1754, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta [Willdenow] 2: 628–629. 1799, Reisen in Britisch-Guiana [Ri. Schomburgk] 3: 1167. 1849 [1848 publ. 7–10 Mar 1849], Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 5, 9: 326–329. 1868, Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Paris 1: 567. 1886 and Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 13: 272–273. 1940, Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 41: 397– 426. 1971

(Used in Ayurveda. Intake of juice fruits with seeds is poisonous. Diuretic, hypotensive, spasmolytic, antiviral. Powdered bark soaked in water and applied on edema and snakebite. Fruits given in headache. Root juice given for dysentery. Seeds oil rubbed for sprain. Veterinary medicine, bark extract used for cattle and goats to control dysentery. Crushed or powdered fruits used as fish poison.)

in India: banjani, bheri, bili ubbina, bir churchu, biri, bogara, chilaka duddi, chilaka dudduga, chilakaya, chilata, chilla, chillak, chillaka, churchu, churchu daru, dantpada, gidugudu, gilagudu, girugudu, gotlu, gurugudu, haniche, hanise, hillangi, hlingi, kaalamisvari, kaalmaesara, kaami mosara, kadichai, kadiche, kal-karai, kampillaka, kanmesaram, kannubisiri, kanuvisiri, khaakara, khokra, konje, lenga, lenjo, mankurkur, modagi, mojal, monja, naai kadichchaan, pisiki, reede, vasang

in Nepal: thulo dedri

Casearia tomentosa Roxb. (Anavinga lanceolata Lam.; Casearia elliptica Willd.)

India.

See Familles des Plantes 2: 448. 1763, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique (Lamarck) 1(1): 148. 1783, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 68. 1788, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta [Willdenow] 2(1): 628– 629. 1799, Hort. Bengal. 90. 1814, Flora Indica; or descriptions of Indian Plants 2: 421. 1832

(Used in Sidha. Stem bark powder used in fever; powdered stem bark given with milk to cure spermatorrhea; stem bark juice applied to cure ringworm. Root bark tonic, in anemia. Veterinary medicine. Crushed stem bark and fruits as fish poison.)

in India: anakkarana, anavananni, anavinga, annakara, bedsi, bir churchu, biri, chalakasavara, chilla, churchu daru, gamgudu, gidugam, gidugum, gilugudu, giridi, girugudu, goela, gurugudu, hanchey, hanice, hlingi, jidumu, kakoli, kalamesara, kalamisvari, kamimesara, karajari, karei, katiccai, kona, konje, kottukkovai, kutti, lainja, massei, men, modgi, modi, mojal, monja, pimpla, pisiki, svarnmul, tsjerou-kanneli, vaparkonne, vappunnakannan, vasanga, veska, wasa

Casearia vareca Roxb.

India. Shrubs or small trees, oblong leaves closely serrate, grey flowers in dense axillary inflorescences, orange-yellow oval fruits, young shoots and leaves eaten cooked

See Hort. Bengal. 33. 1814, Flora Indica or Descriptions of Indian plants. 2(2): 418. 1832, FBI 2: 593. 1879

(Young stem poultice applied on blistering spots. Leaves infusion as a bath in fever. Fruit juice anthelmintic, anticancer, for earache.)

in India: akraun-araung, bon-jhalukia, chhagladoi, chhikramarg, dieng soh rang, han-anglaung-chu, sikraguli, sikrai, tauwm-akraun, tihau-akraun-araung

Casimiroa La Llave & Lex. Rutaceae

For the Spanish botanist Casimiro Gómez de Ortega, 1740– 1818, Madrid Botanical Garden 1771–1801, sent plants to Banks, his writings include Tratado de la naturaleza y virtudes de la cicuta. Madrid 1763, Tabulae Botanicae. Matriti 1773. See Novorum Vegetabilium Descriptiones [La Llave & Lexarza] 2: 2. 1825, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 25: 144. 1890 and G. Murray, History of the Collections Contained in the Natural History Departments of the British Museum. 1: 172. 1904, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(5): 398–425. 1946, J.H. Barnhart, Biographical Notes upon Botanists. 3: 33 and 2: 62. 1965, R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 759. 1993.

Casimiroa sapota Oerst. (Casimiroa edulis La Llave & Lex.; Casimiroa sapota fo. ovandoensis Martínez)

Mexico, Central America. Tree, fast growing, rough brown bark, leaves palmately compound, small flowers in bunches, hanging edible waxy fruit apple-shaped

See Novorum Vegetabilium Descriptiones 2: 2. 1825, Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn 1857: 187. 1857 and Anales del instituto de biología de la universidad nacional de México 22(1): 72–73, f. 30. 1951, Ceiba 44(2): 105–268. 2003 [2005]

(Leaves infusion sedative. The seeds used to induce sleep. Fruit for gastritis and boils. Bark piscicide.)

in English: Mexican apple, white zapote

in Latin America: ajachel, cochitzápotl, guia, matasán, matasano, quia, tzápotl, urata, zapote blanco, zapote dormilón

Cassia L. Fabaceae (Caesalpiniaceae, Cassieae)

From the ancient Greek name kasia (Herodotus, Theophrastus), or kassia of Semitic origin, used by Dioscorides and Strabo; akin to the Hebrew qase’ah, qesi’ah or quetsiah or quetsi’oth the Latin casia, ae (rarely cassia) was a shrub or a tree more or less aromatic and fragrant (Vergilius, Ovidius, Plinius); see Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), Species Plantarum. 1: 376–380. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 178. 1754, Flora Brasiliensis 15(2): 83, 92. 1870 and Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 38(1): 1–94. 1951, de Wit, H.C.D. “A revision of the genus Cassia (Caesalp.) as occurring in Malaysia.” Webbia 11: 197–292. 1956, Taxon 30(1):10. 1981, Taxon 37: 975, 1988, Taxon 42: 689. 1993.

Cassia abbreviata Oliv. (Cassia afrofistula Brenan)

Tropical Africa. Perennial non-climbing tree, many-branched shrub or small tree, rounded crown, cracked bark, leaves compound, inflorescence a terminal lax raceme, golden yellow strongly scented flowers, woody cylindrical pendulous dehiscent pods, seeds embedded in pulp, found in coastal areas, in dry bushland, in Acacia-Commiphora bushland

See Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 271. 1871

(Toxins. Powdered stem bark applied to abscesses; stem bark decoction as a purgative and to cure malaria and diarrhea. Root and bark used for stomach disorders and syphilis. Roots purgative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, abortifacient and vermifuge, a decoction for chest complaints, blackwater fever, gastrointestinal disorders, stomachache, bilharzia, schistosomiasis, venereal diseases, gonorrhea, pneumonia, malaria, snakebites.)

in English: cloth-of-gold, heart wood, long pod cassia, long-tail cassia, Sjambok pod

in East Africa: limulimuli, malandesi, mbaraka, mulimuli

in Southern Africa: muJaja, muNemenembe, muRemberembe, muVeneka, muZhazha

in Tanzania: mbaraka, mkakatika, mkwezenge, mulumba

Cassia abbreviata Oliv. subsp. beareana (Holmes) Brenan (Cassia beareana Holmes) (the subspecies named after Dr O’Sullivan Beare from the London Pharmaceutical Society.)

Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa. Perennial non-climbing tree, shrubby, leaves with short erect hairs, yellow flowers sweetly fragrant

See Fl. Pl. Africa 46: t. 1819 and Pharm. J. 68: 42. 1902, Kew Bulletin 13(2): 232. 1958

(Roots used for stomach problems, fever, headache, toothache, also as abortifacient, aphrodisiac.)

in English: cloth-of-gold, long-tail cassia, Sjambok pod

in Southern Africa: kersboom, peulbos, Sambokpeul; nnumanyama (Eastern Transvaal); monepenepe (Mangwato dialect, Botswana); monepenepe (North and north east Transvaal); muluma-nama, munembe-nembe (Venda); nshashanyana, nlembelembe (Kalanga: Northern Transvaal); mokwankusha, sifonkola (Kololo: Barotseland)

in Somalia: rabai, urme

in Tanzania: mzangaze

Cassia afrofistula Brenan (Cassia beareana sensu R.O. Williams; Cassia fistula sensu Brenan; Senna petersiana (Bolle) Lock)

Mozambique, Tanzania. Perennial non-climbing tree or shrub

See Kew Bulletin 13(2): 236–239. 1958

(Roots purgative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, abortifacient and vermifuge; boiled roots for stomach ailments, chest complaints, blackwater fever, gastrointestinal disorders, stomachache, bilharzia, schistosomiasis, venereal diseases, gonorrhea, pneumonia, malaria, snakebites.)

in Madagascar: tsiambaravatsy

Cassia angolensis Hiern (Cassia angolensis Welw. ex Hiern)

Mozambique, South Africa. Perennial non-climbing tree, inflorescence an axillary raceme, golden-yellow flowers, cylindrical indehiscent pod

See Catalogue of the African Plants collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853—61 1: 291. 1896

(Root decoction drunk for venereal diseases; fresh leaves eaten as a cough remedy.)

Cassia arereh Del.

Nigeria. Perennial non-climbing tree

(Crushed pods used to stupefy fish.)

See Delile, Alire Raffeneau. Centurie de plantes d’Afrique du voyage à Méroé recueillies par M. Caillaud. Paris, 1826

in Nigeria: malga (Hausa); tjabi maibe (Fulani)

Cassia burttii Baker f.

Mozambique, Tanzania. Perennial non-climbing tree or shrub, aromatic, white flowers

See Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 73: 80. 1935

(Roots purgative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, abortifacient and vermifuge; boiled roots for stomach ailments and syphilis.)

in Tanzania: mkunde-kunde

Cassia fikifiki Aubrév. & Pellegr.

Ivory Coast.

See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 104: 496. 1958

(Dry powdered bark sprinkled on wounds to promote healing; bark decoction for washing leprosy patients. Stem bark and roots decoction drunk to treat river blindness, onchocerciasis, stomachache.)

Cassia fistula L. (Bactyrilobium fistula (L.) Willd.; Bactyrilobium fistula Willd.; Cassia bonplandiana DC.; Cassia excelsa Kunth, nom. illeg., non Cassia excelsa Schrad.; Cassia excelsa Schrad.; Cassia fistula Herb. ex Oliv.; Cassia fistula Schimper ex Oliv., nom. inval.; Cassia fistuloides Collad.; Cassia rhombifolia Roxb.; Cathartocarpus excelsus G. Don; Cathartocarpus fistula (L.) Pers.; Cathartocarpus fistula Pers.; Cathartocarpus fistuloides (Collad.) G. Don; Cathartocarpus fistuloides G. Don; Cathartocarpus rhombifolius G. Don)

Sri Lanka, India. Perennial non-climbing canopy tree, deciduous or semi-deciduous, cylindrical bole, branches spreading, young twigs glabrous, leaves palmately compound, leathery leaflets slightly glaucous below, fragrant bright yellow flowers in drooping racemes, petals broadly ovate, black glabrous indehiscent cylindrical pods, seeds embedded in a black sweetish pulp, cooked flowers eaten as vegetable, bark a source of red dye, bark contains tannin, in open forest and grassland

See Species Plantarum 1: 376–380. 1753, Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 459. 1805, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... [Willdenow] 439–440. 1809, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 31. 1814, Histoire Naturelle et Médicale des Casses 87, t. 1. 1816, Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen unter der Augsicht der Königl.... 1: 717. 1821, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 6: 339. 1823, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 2: 490. 1825, Hort. Brit. [Loudon] 167. 1830, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 2: 453. 1832, Flora of Tropical Africa [Oliver et al.] 2: 271. 1871 and Fl. W. Pakistan 54: 12. 1973, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35(1): 14, 16. 1982, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences 48: 397– 404. 1982, Plant Systematics and Evolution 153: 223–227. 1986, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 23: 183–189. 1988, Kromosomo 54: 1787–1792. 1989, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 28: 1–5. 1993, Ethnobotany 16: 139–140. 2004

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Leaves hypoglycemic, antifungal, antibacterial, purgative, anthelmintic, disinfectant, used in malaria, fever, hyperglycemia, allergy, ring-worm, blood poisoning, inflammation and dysentery; fried leaves eaten with rice to cure syphilis and muscular pain; tender leaves paste applied to cure eczema and skin diseases, and also between the toes to cure wounds. Roots astringent, febrifuge, purgative; root juice given to treat snakebite, fever and cold; root decoction along with roots of Ricinus communis given for rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis. Roots, bark and pulp of the fruit and seeds used as a laxative. Fruit cathartic, antidote, laxative, applied in rheumatism; ash of ripe fruits along with honey given for whooping cough; endosperm eaten to cure diabetes; fruit pulp decoction antidiabetic, used in liver disorders, for toothache; fruit infusion for kidney problems, the dissolution of kidney stones and for relieving constipation. Seeds used in constipation, indigestion and jaundice; seeds powder given as antidiabetic; paste of seeds put on tongue of children to quench thirst. Broken bones and tropical ulcers bandaged with bark scrapings and leaf sap; stem bark mixed with cow’s milk applied to boils; dried fruits of Toddalia asiatica mixed with stem bark of Cassia fistula, ground and the powder given in scabies. Heartwood applied as an anthelmintic. Twigs of the plant along with Ziziphus oenoplia branches used to prevent the elephant’s disturbance; young shoots made as curry and given for ringworm. Veterinary medicine, fruit pulp mixed with Brassica oil, with powdered turmeric, given orally to the cattle for cough, cold and stomach troubles; fumes of wood of Dalbergia latifolia and pods of Cassia fistula applied to head of cattle against fevers; fruits infusion given to cattle for bloated stomach; fruit pulp given to cattle to kill intestinal worms and in indigestion; bark decoction mixed with garlic and powdered pepper and given to cattle as purgative; powdered bark along with water given to goats with diarrhea; bark extract of Crateva magna along with leaves of Cassia fistula, seeds of Ocimum basilicum, butter and salt are pounded and given orally in tympany; leaves applied to heal wounds on shoulders of cattle caused by the yoke.

Related with Vishnu, used in religion and magico-religious beliefs, Jharna Phunkna (= to exorcise, to repeat spells or charms, jharna = to sweep, to brush); wood of plant used in framework of bed used in postpartum; contact therapy, mature pods kept below the pillow during sleep to stop or to ward off bad dreams; leaves used in exorcism and snakebites. Seeds as fish poison.)

in English: cassia stick tree, golden rain, golden shower, golden shower senna, golden shower tree, Indian laburnum, pudding pine tree, pudding pipe tree, purging cassia, purging fistula

in East Africa: mkemini, mkwisimkwi

in Latin America: cana fistula, cañafistula, lluvia de oro, tapira-coinana

in Burma: mai lum, ngujat, pwabet

in Cambodia: reach, reach chhpoeus, reach speu

in China: a po le, chang kuo tzu shu, huai hua ching, la chang shu, po luo men zao jia

in India: aehaela-gaha, ahalla, ahalla-gass, amalta, amaltas, amaltis, amultas, amulthus, aragvadhah, aragwadha, arakvadam, aragbadhu, aragbhada, aragvadha, aragvadhamu, aragwadha, badar lauri, bahava, bahawa, bandar lahari, bandar-lauri, bandar leodi, bandarlauri, bhalmusare, bhava, bundarlati, campikapakam, campurakam, campuvakku, canipakam, canipakamaram, canippakam, carakkonnai, cataimuti, cataimutikkottu, catakavanni, caturankulam, chimkani, conna, contalu, cutareccati, cuvarnakam, dhambabar, dhan-bahera, dhanba, dhodri, ekela, funnel mara, garmala, garmalo, gawkngu, girimalah, girimaloah, girmalah, gurmala, hanalu-araung, hare, hari, haunaru-araung, icalil, icanarani, icankoti, icanrar, ikali, ikuli, ilacatcacam, iracavikuratam, iracavirutcam, irakavinnakamaram, irakavinnatakam, irali, iravankam, iruli, irulimaram, jagaruwa, ka zo, kaki, kakkaemara, kakkai, kakkayi, kakke, kakkemara, kanikkonna, kariar, karkacha, karmala, karmalo, kayarshambar, kerwara, kilwar, kirala, kirmalia, kirvali, kitola, koelapenna, konai, kondrakayi, konna, konnei, konrai, kondrakayi, konnei, konraik-kai, konraikkai, kunda, ngai-ngaw, nripadruma, nurui, raelachettu, railla, raj birij, raj briksh, rajataru, rajavraksha, ramadanda, rela, rela-kayalu, relagujju, reylu, sarakkonnai, sarokkonnoi, sharakkonnai, sinara, sona alu, sonaari, sonal, sonali, sonalu, sonari, sonarli, sonaru, sondal, sondhali, sonhali, sonolo, sonorigoch, soondali, sunaari, sunari, sunaru, sundali, suvarna pusphi, suvarnaka, suvarnam, vakkam, viyatikatam, viyatikkatam

in Indochina: kreete

in Indonesia: bobondelan, klobop, trengguli

in Japan: nanban-saikachi

in Laos: khoun

in Malaysia: bereksa, dulang, rajah kayu, tengguli

in Nepal: amaltas, briksha, raj-briksha, rajbrikcha, rajbriksha, rajbriksya

in Philippines: bistula, bitsula, fistula, kana-pistula

in Sanskrit: suvarnaka

in Sri Lanka: ehela

in Thailand: khuun, ku phe ya, lom laeng, mae laa yuu, poe so, pue yuu, puu yo, ratchaphruek

in Tibet: don ga, don ka, dong-ga

in Tropical Asia: kanier

in Vietnam: bo cap nuoc, c[aa]y b[of] c[aj]p n[uw][ows]c, muong bo-cap, mu[oof]ng ho[af]ng y[ees]n

Cassia grandis L.f. (Bactyrilobium grande Hornem.; Bactyrilobium molle Schrader; Cassia brasiliana Lam., nom. illeg. superfl.; Cassia brasiliana var. tomentosa Miq.; Cassia brasiliensis Buc’hoz; Cassia mollis Vahl; Cassia pachycarpa de Wit; Cassia regia Standl.; Cathartocarpus brasilianus Jacq.; Cathartocarpus brasilianus (Lam.) Jacq.; Cathartocarpus erubescens Ham.; Cathartocarpus grandis (L.f.) Pers.; Cathartocarpus grandis Pers.)

Tropical America. Perennial non-climbing tree, semi-deciduous, young branches and inflorescence tomentose, leaves with 10–20 pairs of leaflets, leaflets subsessile elliptical-oblong, inflorescence a lateral raceme, petals red pink and later orange, hirsute anthers, woody fruit blackish pendent compressed, seeds surrounded by sweetish pulp

See Species Plantarum 1: 376–380. 1753, Supplementum Plantarum 230. 1781 [1782], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1(2): 649–650. 1785, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 3: 57. 1794, Syn. Pl. 1: 459. 1805, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... 439. 1809, Supplementum Horti botanici hafniensis 1: 135. 1819, Goett. Gel. Anz. 1: 713. 1821, Linnaea 18: 578. 1844, Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions 5: 119. 1845 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 18(3): 103. 1916, Webbia 11: 259, f. 3. 1955, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 28: 1–5. 1993

(Fruit pulp a powerful laxative; juice from the legumes eaten fresh to strengthen the blood. Leaves decoction used as a laxative and in the treatment of lumbago.)

in English: appleblossom cassia, beef wood, Brazilian cassia, horse cassia, liquorice tree, pink coral shower, pink shower, stinking toe

in Cambodia: sac phle, kreete

in Laos: brai xiem, may khoum

in Malaysia: kotek, kotek mamak

in Thailand: kanpaphruek

in Vietnam: b[oof] c[aj]p d[or], [oo] m[oo]i

in Latin America: bookoot, bookut, bucut, cana-fistula, cañafistula, caragüe, carao, mucut, quapicobaiba, santal

Cassia javanica L. (Cassia agnes (de Wit) Brenan; Cassia bacillus Gaertn.; Cassia bartonii F.M. Bailey; Cassia javanica Sieber ex Benth.; Cassia javanica Vell.; Cassia megalantha Decne.; Cathartocarpus javanicus Pers.)

SE Asia. Perennial non-climbing tree, small tree, deciduous or semi-deciduous, smooth or armed, leaflets elliptical-ovate to oblong, inflorescence a raceme or panicle, flowers dark pink to red, anthers and stamens bright yellow, cylindrical glabrous black fruits, seeds embedded in a flat disk, a very polymorphic species

See Species Plantarum 1: 376–380. 1753, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 2: 313. 1791, Syn. Pl. 1: 459. 1805, Hort. Bengal. 31. 1814, Florae Fluminensis 168. 1825, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 2: 336. 1832, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 27: 517. 1871 and Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 25(3–4): 205. 1974, Recent Res. Pl. Sci. (New Delhi) 7: 252–260. 1979, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences 48: 397–404. 1982, Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands (Dicotyledoneae—Part 1) 4: 334–538. 1988, Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta 2: 1–481. 1988, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 28: 1–5. 1993

(For constipation eat the leaves with food. Ripe pods and seeds used as a laxative; bark and seeds used as antipyretics. Against itch pound the bark and apply it.)

in English: apple-blossom cassia, apple-blossom shower, Javanese cassia, pink and white shower, pink cassia, pink shower, rainbow shower

in Cambodia: bô prùk’

in Indonesia: bobondelan, boking-boking, trengguli

in Laos: khoun loy

in Malaysia: bebusok, bereksa, berekseh, busok-busok, dendulang merah, dulang, dulang-dulang, kayu busok, saga, trenggoeli

in Philippines: anchoan, angsoan, antsoan, apostola, bagiroro, balayong, cana fistula, dulauen, duyong, fugayong, kilkil, narang-dauel, pistula, tindalo, tualing-bakulau

in Thailand: chaiaphruk, kalalphruk, lak khoei lak kluea

in Vietnam: b[uf] c[aj]p, bo cap dong, mu[oof]ng b[of] c[aj]p

Cassia javanica L. subsp. nodosa (Roxb.) K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen (Cassia agnes (de Wit) Brenan; Cassia javanica var. agnes de Wit; Cassia javanica L. var. indochinensis Gagnep.; Cassia nodosa Roxb.; Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.)

SE Asia, Vietnam. Perennial non-climbing tree, low growing, deciduous or semi-deciduous, spreading, smooth or armed, inner bark reddish-brown with fetid smell, white pinkish flowers in axillary clusters behind leaves, slender cylindrical pod, circular seeds

See Hort. Bengal. 31. 1814, Flora Indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 2: 336. 1832 and Observationes Botanicae 2(2): 158. 1913, Webbia 11: 220–222, f. 1. 1955, Kew Bulletin 13(1): 180. 1958, Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 25(3–4): 205. 1974, Acta Bot. Austro Sin. 7: 26–39, pl.1. 1991, Nordic Journal of Botany 13(4): 403. 1993

(For constipation eat the leaves with food. Ripe pods and seeds used as a laxative, purgative; bark and seeds used as antipyretics. Against itch pound the bark and apply it.)

in English: cassie rose, Javanese cassia, joint wood, pink cassia, pink and white shower, pink mohur, pink shower, rainbow shower, white shower

in China: jie jia jue ming, shen huang dou

in Malaysia: busok-busok

Cassia mannii Oliv.

Gabon, Sudan and Uganda. Tree, slash orange, leaflets not distinctly emarginate, margin of the leaflets pubescent, white or pink petals, fruits and leaves eaten by gorillas, very similar to Cassia angolensis

See Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 272. 1871

(Bark infusion taken to cure bronchial problems. Crushed seeds to treat neuralgia.)

in Central African Republic: etembele, etebele ti bye, mokete

in Zaire: checheche, ndugu ya tafa, tchetchetche

Cassia moschata Kunth (Cassia moschata Benth.; Cathartocarpus moschatus (Kunth) G. Don)

West Indies. Perennial non-climbing tree, spreading crown, dark-brown rod-like seed pods

See Synopsis Plantarum 1: 459. 1805, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (folio ed.) 6: 266. 1824, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 2: 453. 1832, Journal of Botany, being a second series of the Botanical Miscellany 2(10): 75. 1840 and Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 35: 32–33. 1982

(Purgative.)

in English: bronze shower

in Central America: cañafistola sabanera, cañafistula

Cassia sieberiana DC. (Cassia kotschyana Oliv.; Cassia sieberana DC.)

Tropical Africa. Perennial non-climbing tree, shrub, twisted trunk, leaves pinnately compound, elliptic leaflets, pendulous racemes, large golden yellow flowers, cylindrical pods indehiscent

See Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) 2: 489–490. 1825, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 2: 271. 1871 and Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia. 4: 461–472. 1981, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 8: 257–263, 265–277. 1983, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 5–9. 2001, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 97: 327–336. 2005

(Leaves febrifuge, laxative, cholagogue, diuretic, tonic. Powder from the dried ripe fruits used in sexual asthenia. Roots washed, cut into pieces, put in a bottle of water, the yellow liquid useful for stomach problems. Crushed pods used to stupefy fish.)

in English: African laburnum

in Congo: musama, ratu

in Guinea: bangboua, gbangba, sambasintch-andje, sindia, sindja, sindya, sindyan

in Ivory Coast: aloui yassoua, alui iasouai, bédelé, démené, esila, gnama, goma fadabi, guientrou, i sandiani, kohodi, kombissaka, kombresaka, koumbrissaka, linto, malgahi, naoublé, naoulobo, oulou nou faka, padwou doubi, pangouelémé, sendian, sin’guian, sinda, sindian, sindjan, sinla, tiopon, woulou nou faka

in Kenya: mzangaye

in Mali: bamba, bang boua, dieisse, gamba fadahi, pèlpèlmun’gu, poupougou, shinanga, signan, sindia, sindian, sinesan, sinja, sinjan, sinsan, sinzan

in Niger: gama – houda, malga, sinsan, sisangahi

in Nigeria: apagban, aridan tooro, aridan-toro, gama fada, gamma fada, ifo, kuhwa, malga, malgahi, marga, sireih

in Senegal: baga, boland, bosse, bu saet, bu sensent buseit, endgi, gama fadahi, golo, ka seit, kaseit, malgohi, samba sinnjan, sambasindi, seden, sedendi, selo, selum, side, sinan, sindia, sindian, sindo, singuian, sinnia, tineravi

in Sierra Leone: a kon-korot, gba gba, gbangba, gbangbei

in Sudan: sendigine, sindian, sinnia

in Togo: gati, gatigati, mikéli, panpagunu, tschamanu

in Zimbabwe: munzungu

Cassine L. Celastraceae

After a Florida Indian name for Cassine glauca or for Ilex vomitoria; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 1: 268. 1753, Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 129. 1754, Georg Christian Wittstein, Etymologisch-botanisches Handwörterbuch. 163. Ansbach 1852 and Virgil J. Vogel, American Indian Medicine. 539. [Index] University of Oklahoma Press 1977, Taxon 44: 611–612. 1995, South African Journal of Botany 63: 146–157. 1997. Some confusion with the genus Elaeodendron.

Cassine albens Kosterm. (Cassine albens (Retz.) Kosterm.)

India.

The Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 39: 178. 1987 [1986 publ. 1987]

(Stem bark as fish poison.)

in India: bhutyapalas

Cassine buchananii Loes. (Elaeodendron buchananii (Loes.) Loes.)

Tropical Africa.

See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 17: 551. 1893 and Journal of Ethnopharmacology 25(3): 339–359. 1989

(Very toxic plant. Bark on wounds. Powdered roots applied on wounds, used also for venereal diseases. Leaf chewed, juice for diarrhea and dysentery; leaves decoction for cough. For onychomycosis crushed fruit applied on the affected site. Veterinary medicine.)

in Kenya: saunet, saonet

in Rwanda: umusabanyana

in Tanzania: mhakumo, mnenekanda

Cassine crocea (Thunb.) Kuntze (Cassine crocea C. Presl; Cassine crocea Kuntze; Cassine papillosa (Hochst.) Kuntze; Crocoxylon croceum (Thunb.) N. Robson; Elaeodendron capense Ecklon & Zeyher; Elaeodendron croceum (Thunb.) DC.; Elaeodendron croceum DC.; Elaeodendron papillosum Hochst.; Ilex crocea Thunb.; Salacia zeyheri Planch. & Harv.) (the specific epithet from the Latin croceus, a, um ‘saffron-colored, yellow’)

South Africa. Shrub or small tree, evergreen, small greenish flowers in axillary clusters, fleshy fruits

See Flora Capensis 1: 577. 1813, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 11. 1825, Flora 27: 305. 1844, Abhandlungen der königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften ser. 5, 3: 467. 1845, Botanische Bemerkungen (C. Presl): 37. [Jan-Apr 1846], Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 114. 1891 and Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 39: 41. 1965

(Most parts of the plants are poisonous. Magic, ritual, the bark.)

in English: common saffron, saffron cassine, saffron wood, small-leaved saffron, yellow wood

in Southern Africa: Duka, fynblaarsaffraan, geelhout, gewone saffraan, muKute, saffraan, umBomvane (= red), umBovana, umbovani, umGugutu, umKukutu, umkulu

Cassine glauca Kuntze (Cassine glauca (Rottb.) Kuntze; Elaeodendron glaucum (Rottb.) Pers. Elaeodendron glaucum (Vahl) Pers.; Elaeodendron glaucum Pers.; Elaeodendron glaucum Szyszyl., nom. illeg.)

India. Evergreen unarmed tree, greenish flowers in axillary cymes

See Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 114. 1891 and J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 27(4): 894–896. 2003

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. A decoction of leaves, bark and seeds is poisonous. Paste of bark taken orally against snakebite and also rubbed over the affected parts; fresh extract of stem bark and leaves applied on cuts and wounds. Leaves as snuff; cooked leaves eaten for gastritis; leaves to control wound maggots. Stems and leaf juice dropped into nose to cure headache. Roots astringent, for dysentery, also antidote for snakebite and all poisonous bites; powdered roots fumigation as mosquito repellent. Veterinary medicine, to heal wounds as a result of defective castration. Magic, ritual, a twig on person or in house wards off the evil spirits; mature stems used as a tool to tie cattle and it is believed that cattle are protected from ghosts, and supposed to bring good health and working against black magic.)

in India: alan, alan bhutalan, aran, asitamuskaka, bayamaka, beera, bhootha keshi, bhoothaankusamu, bhoothapala, bhuskat, bhut zad, bhutan-kusamu, bhutikes, bhutkes, bhutphal, bhutyakes, bhutyapalas (bhut = ghost), bilur, burkas, buscut, buskut, butapala, butkus, butyakalas, ciluppai, ciluppaimaram, ciri, dhebri, hekkaralu, irkuli, jamrasi, jangle, kaalamokha, kanaire, kanguni, kanneer, kannilu, kanniramaram, kannire, kanniru, kannivamaram, kannurmara, karikkuvakai, karkkavam karuneerakam, karukkuva, karukkuvacci, karuvali, karvaliyu, keeri, khavalli, khiri, kondgaidh, krsnamuskaka, kurukuvu, malkakni, mamar, mirgu, mookaarthi, mookarike, mookurichi, mukkarike, mukkaritte, mukkarive, mukkarki, mukkathri, mulkangni, muskaka, neradi, nerasi, nerdi, nerinja, neurjar, neurjer, niraja, niraja maanu, nirija, niuri, noorijia, noridi, pigavi, selluppaimaram, sillupamaram, tamruj, veeri, wellia-tagera

Cassine matabelica (Loes.) Steedman (Cassine matabelicum (Loes.) Steedman; Elaeodendron capense sensu O.B. Mill.; Elaeodendron matabelicum Loes.)

South Africa. Tree, drooping, small cream to greenish flowers in dense axillary heads

See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 61. 1907, Descr. Trees S. Rhodesia 41. 1933

(The plant may have toxic properties.)

in English: condiment saffron

in Southern Africa: speserysaffraan

Cassine peragua L. (Cassine capensis L.; Cassine capensis var. colpoon (L.) DC.; Cassine colpoon (L.) Thunb.; Cassine aethiopica auct.; Cassine kraussiana Bernh.; Cassine kraussiana Hochst.; Cassine kraussiana Bernh. ex Harv. & Sond.; Elaeodendron kraussianum (Bernh.) Sim) (peragua = from Paraguay, incorrectly spelled by Linnaeus)

South Africa. Evergreen shrub or tree, saffron-coloured trunk, rounded crown, tough thick leathery shiny dark green leaves, small white fragrant flowers in loose branching clusters, bird-attracting fleshy fruits

See Hort. Eltham. 2: 315, t. 236, f. 305. 1732, Species Plantarum 1: 268. 1753, Mantissa Plantarum Altera 220. 1771, Prodromus Plantarum Capensium, ... 52. 1794, Flora 27(1): 305. 1844, Flora Capensis 1: 466. 1860 and Taxon 41: 559–560. 1992, Flowering Plants of Africa 55: 70–74, t. 2133. 1997

(Leaves reported to be toxic. Bark for pulmonary troubles.)

in English: bastard saffron, bastard saffronwood, Cape saffron, false saffron, forest spoonwood

in Southern Africa: bastersaffraan, bastersaffron, boslepelhout, iKhukhuzi, lepelhout, umBofanyamagone, umKhukhuze

Cassine transvaalensis (Burtt Davy) Codd (Cassine transvaalensis Codd; Crocoxylon transvaalense (Burtt Davy) N. Robson; Elaeodendron croceum var. triandrum Dinter; Elaeodendron croceum var. heterophyllum Loes.; Pseudocassine transvaalensis (Burtt Davy) Bredell; Salacia transvaalensis Burtt Davy)

South Africa. Shrub or small tree, many-branched, small greenish white flowers in stalked axillary clusters, leaves browsed by game and stock

See Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1921: 51. 1921, South African Journal of Science 33: 330. 1937, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 39: 41. 1965, Bothalia ix. 124. 1966, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 12: 35–74. 1984, Journal of the South Africa Veterinary Association 72: 189– 196. 2001

(Root infusion laxative, diuretic, for stomachache, diarrhea, cough, venereal diseases; decoction of barks and roots laxative; roots powder stomachic and laxative. Veterinary medicine, bark for diarrhea, dysentery.)

in English: Transvaal saffron

in Southern Africa: dikulukhazi, iNgwavuma (a Zululand district is named after the tree, in KwaZulu-Natal), iNqotha, lepelhout, majelemane, monamane, monomani, mukuvhazwihi, mulumapamana, oupitjie, shimapana, Transvaalsaffraan, umGugudo

Cassiope D. Don Ericaceae

Cassiope or Cassiopea, mother of Andromeda, see Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 17(33): 157–158. 1834 and American Midland Naturalist 40(2): 493–495, f. 1. 1948, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 64: 37. 1971.

Cassiope fastigiata (Wall.) D. Don (Andromeda fastigiata Wall.)

India, Himalaya. Aromatic plant, leaves used for making namkeen tea

See Species Plantarum 1: 393–394. 1753, Asiatic Researches 13: 394. 1820, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 17: 157–158. 1834

(Plant’s smoke used to ease respiration. Leafy twigs ground into a paste and applied on burns. Ceremonial, ritual, whole plant as incense.)

in India: phalu tsa, tolashang

Cassytha L. Lauraceae

Greek kassyo, kassyein ‘to sew, to patch, to warp’; Latin cassis, is (casses, ium) means web, hunting-net, spider’s web; Akkadian kasitu ‘binding’, kasû ‘to join, to tie objects together’; the stems and the leaves are herbaceous, the plant is a parasite and has a typical intricate interlacing of the stems; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 1: 35–36. 1753, Lindley, John (1799–1865), Nixus plantarum, Londini: apud Ridgway et filios, 1833 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(4): 302–344. 1946, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores 81: 1–86. 1950.

Cassytha filiformis L. (Calodium cochinchinense Lour.; Cassytha americana Nees; Cassytha aphylla (Forssk.) Raeusch.; Cassytha aphylla Raeusch.; Cassytha brasiliensis Mart. ex Nees; Cassytha cuscutiformis F. Muell.; Cassytha cuscutiformis Meisn.; Cassytha dissitiflora Meisn.; Cassytha filiformis Jacq., nom. illeg., non Cassytha filiformis L.; Cassytha filiformis Mill., nom. illeg., non Cassytha filiformis L.; Cassytha filiformis Thunb., nom. illeg., non Cassytha filiformis L.; Cassytha guineensis Schumach.; Cassytha guineensis Schumach. & Thonn.; Cassytha guineensis Thonn. ex Schumach.; Cassytha guineensis var. livingstonii Meisn.; Cassytha paradoxae Proctor; Cassytha senegalensis A. Chev.; Cassytha zeylanica Gaertn.; Nectandra cuneata Griseb.; Ocotea cuneata Urb.; Ocotea cuneata Mez; Ocotea cuneata (Nees) J.F. Macbr.; Ocotea cuneata M. Gómez; Ocotea cuneata (Griseb.) M. Gómez; Volutella aphylla Forssk.) (Nectandra Rol. ex Rottb. Lauraceae, Greek nektar ‘nectar’ and andros ‘man, male, stamen’.)

Pantropical. A perennial, orange, twining parasitic or hemi-parasitic plant, clinging parasitic habit, stems filiform, many-branched, leaves spirally arranged reduced to tiny scales, inflorescence an axillary short spike, flowers small, petals white or yellowish, fruit a globose drupe, fleshy perianth, harmful to the host

See Species Plantarum 1: 35–36. 1753, Selectarum Stirpium Americanarum Historia ... 115, t. 79. 1763, The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition. 1768, Flora AegyptiacoArabica 84. 1775, Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise 2: 781, pl. 310. 1775, Descr. Rar. Pl. Surin. [Rottbøll] 11. 1776, Flora Cochinchinensis 247. 1790, Prodromus Plantarum Capensium, ... 78. 1794, Nomencl. Bot. [Raeusch.] ed. 3, 116. 1797, Beskrivelse af Guineeiske planter 199–200. 1827, Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Naturvidensk. Math. Afh. 3: 219–220. 1828, Systema Laurinarum 644, 648. 1836, Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Science, new series 8: 188. 1861, Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn 8–11: 145. 1870, Diccionario botánico de los nombres vulgares cubanos y puerto-riqueños 30. 1889 and Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30(1, Beibl. 67): 17. 1901, Symb. Antill. (Urban). 4(2): 246. 1905, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 11: 18. 1931, Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 8: 67–128. 1939, Taxon 28: 269. 1979, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 3: 229. 1981, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 68: 222–223. 1981, Journal of Ethnobiology 3(2): 149–156. December 1983, Moscosoa 2(1): 20. 1983

(Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Whole plant astringent, tonic, diuretic, antitrypanosomal, hair tonic, laxative, febrifuge, uterotonic, vermifuge, antidote, antiparasitic, stomachic, for cough, venereal diseases, suppression of lactation after stillbirth; whole plant crushed with sugar taken for curing chronic ulcers; whole plant crushed with turmeric applied for body pains and rheumatism. Because of the Doctrine of the signatures, stem powdered and mixed with Sesamum oil used as a hair tonic. Love potion, the vine. Veterinary medicine, tender twigs extract given for liver troubles; for bone fracture, plant pounded in human urine and bandaged over the affected part; plant decoction given to treat diarrhea; plant given to increase milk yield.)

in English: dodder-laurel, false dodder, love vine, seashore dodder, woe vine

in Brunei: akar janjang

in China: wu gen teng, wu ye teng

in India: aakaasha balli, aakasha balli, aakashaballi, aakashavalli, acatagabulli, acatsja-valli, acatsjavalli, aiyapala, akacavalli, akasa balli, akasaballi, akasavalli, akasavela, akasbel, akash bel, akashaballi, akashavalli, akashavuli, akasvalli (akas, the sky; valli, a climber), akaya valli, alarntapu, amaraballi, amaravallari, amaravalli, amaravela, amarbaela, amarbeli, amarvela, ammaiyarkoonthal, amrtavalli, anantai, ananti, anantikkoti, antaravallitige, antharavallithige, anthrapachya, aral, astimu, bangaru teega, beelu balli, beeluballi, beluballi, calantirati, canaki, cankutam, cavuttumananci, curai, cure, daarada balli, emanatanki, erumaikkorran, erumaikkottan, haadaragithi balli, inci, incikakkoti, indiravalli, intiravalli, irumpacceti, itumpakakkoti, itumpakam, janivaara balli, karukkutaiyalmuli, karulananki, khavalli, kodikkottan, korran, kothan, koththan, kotikkorran, kottan, kottankoti, kunacali, mangana udidaara, mativalli, mudeludantiburu, mulacci, nalil, nandei, nantai, nattai, nelil, nelilkoti, nimtecan, nipattia, nooluthige, notiyatipputu, nuli, nulikkoti, nulu, nulutega, ovaiyarkoonthal, paachi teega, paachi theega, paachithige, pachatige, pachi teega, pachiteega, pachitiga, pachitige, pachungottan, pacitige, pacunkorran, pacunkottan, parsi tivva, paunchtiga, punchatige, seethammaavaari jadaalu, seethammapogunoolu, seethammavaarupogulu, sitammapogunulu, sitammavarupogulu, tega, tirkki, tudakkarupan, tumbi, tumpi, tumpu, tumpukkoti, tutakkaruppan, utaiyavalitam, vacaki, vancimalikkoti, vancimalitali, vinmativalli, viranakkopini, visnupari, viti

in Indonesia: akar pengalasan, sangga langit, tali puteri, tali putri

in Japan: suna-zuru

in Okinawa: niinashi-kanda

Malayan name: chemar batu, chemar hantu

in Philippines: barutbarut, kaduad-kawaran, malabohok

in Thailand: chong naang khlee, khiang kham, khueang kham khok

in Vietnam: d[aa]y t[ow] xanh, t[ow] h[oof]ng xanh

in Hawaii: kauna’oa pehu, kauna’oa malolo, kauna’oa uka, kaunoa, malolo, pololo

in Brazil: cipó-de-chumbo

in Rodrigues Isl.: liane jaune, liane sans fin

in Southern Africa: nooienshaar, vrouehaar; luangalala (Venda)

Castanea Miller Fagaceae

Latin castanea and Greek kastanon, kastana for the chestnut and the chestnut tree; see Pietro Bubani, Flora Virgiliana. 33–34. Bologna 1870.

Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen (Castanea americana (Michx.) Raf.; Castanea sativa var. americana (Michx.) Sarg.; Castanea sativa var. pendulifolia Lavallée; Castanea vesca var. americana Michx.; Castanea vesca var. denuda Alph.Wood; Castanea vulgaris var. americana (Michx.) A. DC.; Fagus castanea var. dentata Marshall; Fagus dentata Marshall)

Canada, North America. Perennial tree

See Species Plantarum 2: 997–998. 1753, The Gardeners Dictionary ... Abridged ... fourth edition 1: (278). 1754, Arbust. Amer. 46–47. 1785, Theoretisches-praktisches Handbuch der Forstbotanik und Forsttechnologie 1: 741. 1800, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 193. 1803, Fl. Ludov.: 134. 1817, Prodr. 16(2): 114. 1864

(Leaves decoction to treat whooping cough, heart trouble, rheumatism, colds; leaves infusion stomachic, for whooping cough; wood powder for chafed skin. Bark infusion to stop bleeding after childbirth. Insecticide. Veterinary medicine, bark for worms.)

in English: American chestnut, chestnut

Castanea mollissima Blume (Castanea bungeana Blume; Castanea duclouxii Dode; Castanea fargesii Dode; Castanea formosana (Hayata) Hayata; Castanea hupehensis Dode; Castanea mollissima var. pendula X.Y. Zhou & Z.D. Zhou; Castanea sativa var. bungeana (Blume) Pamp.; Castanea sativa var. formosana Hayata; Castanea sativa var. mollissima (Blume) Pamp.; Castanea sinensis Perr.; Castanea vulgaris var. yunnanensis Franch.)

China. Deciduous tree, spreading, round-topped, kernels edible, very rich in tannin

See Museum Botanicum 1(18): 284, 286. 1851 and Bull. Soc. Dendrol. France 1908: 150–151. 1908, Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, new series 17(2): 250. 1910, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6(Suppl.): 71. 1917, J. Jiangxi Agric. Univ. 1982(1): 7. 1982, J. Asian Natural Prod. Res. 3(2): 89–93. 2001

(Kernels antidote, astringent, stomachic, antiinflammatory, styptic, anti-diarrhea and analgesic, to treat gastroenteritis, bronchitis, nausea and regurgitation; decoction for diarrhea, dysentery.)

in English: Chinese chestnut

in China: li zi, pan li

in Japan: shina-kuri

Castanea pumila (L.) Miller (Castanea alnifolia Nuttall; Castanea alnifolia subsp. floridana (Sarg.) A.E. Murray; Castanea alnifolia var. floridana Sargent; Castanea alnifolia var. pubescens Nutt.; Castanea ashei (Sudw.) Sudw.; Castanea ashei (Sudw.) Sudw. ex Ashe; Castanea chincapin K. Koch; Castanea floridana (Sargent) Ashe; Castanea floridana var. angustifolia (Ashe) Ashe; Castanea floridana var. arcuata (Ashe) Ashe; Castanea floridana var. margaretta (Ashe) Ashe; Castanea margaretta (Ashe) Ashe; Castanea margaretta var. angustifolia Ashe; Castanea margaretta var. arcuata Ashe; Castanea nana Muhl.; Castanea paucispina Ashe; Castanea pumila subsp. ashei (Sudw.) A.E. Murray; Castanea pumila var. ashei Sudworth; Castanea pumila var. margaretta Ashe; Castanea pumila var. margarettiae Ashe; Castanea pumila var. nana (Muhl.) A. DC.; Castanea pumila var. pumila; Fagus nana Du Roi ex Steud.; Fagus pumila L.; Fagus pumila var. serotina Walter)

North America. Perennial tree or shrub

See Species Plantarum 998. 1753, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Castanea no. 2. 1768 and Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 49: 265–267. 1922, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 50: 359. 1923, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 40: 46. 1924, Quart. Charleston Mus. 1: 30. 1925, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 41: 268. 1926, Kalmia 12: 19. 1982

(Roots decoction taken for stomach troubles. Leaves used to relieve headaches and as a wash for chills and cold sweats; preparations from unspecified parts of the plants were used to treat fever blisters.)

in North America: Allegheny chinkapin, Allegheny chinquapin, chinkapin, chinquapin, dwarf chestnut

Castanea sativa Mill. (Fagus castanea L.; Castanea castanea (L.) H. Karst., nom. inval.; Castanea prolifera (K. Koch) Hickel; Castanea sativa Skan, nom illeg.; Castanea sativa f. discolor Vuk.; Castanea sativa var. hamulata A. Camus; Castanea sativa var. microcarpa Lavialle; Castanea sativa var. prolifera K. Koch; Castanea sativa var. spicata Husn.; Castanea vesca Gaertn.; Castanea vulgaris Lam., nom. superfl.; Fagus procera Salisb., nom. illeg.)

Iran. Edible fruits, cattle and goats feed on the fruit

See The Gardeners Dictionary: ... eighth edition no. 1. 1768, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 391. 1796, Dendrologie 2(2): 21. 1873, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 26(178): 525. 1899 and Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 133: 301–318. 1996

(Used in Sidha. Bark useful in dislocated joints. Catkins infusion antiinflammatory, astringent, tonic, expectorant, in the treatment of vascular disorders. Seeds oil applied in rheumatism. Veterinary medicine, fruits and seeds medicinal for horses; fruits given to horses in colic.)

in English: common chestnut, congo stick, Eurasian chestnut, european chestnut, Spanish chestnut, sweet chestnut

in China: chui li, li, pan li, shan li

in India: kaskottai, mitha khanor, poo, soh oh heh

Castanola Llanos Connaraceae

See Species Plantarum 2: 675. 1753, Linnaea 23: 437–438. 1850, Memorias, Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de Madrid 2: 503. 1859.

Castanola paradoxa (Gilg) Schellenb. ex Hutch. & Dalziel (Agelaea brevipaniculata Cummins; Agelaea fragrans Gilg; Agelaea paradoxa Gilg; Castanola paradoxa G. Schellenb.)

Tropical Africa. Shrub, lianescent, woody vine, fragrant flowers, yellow-orange aril at the base of the seeds

See Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien [Engler & Prantl] 3(3): 65, f. 35. 1888, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 23: 209. 1896, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1898: 73. 1898 and Flora of West Tropical Africa [Hutchinson & Dalziel] 1: 516. 1928

(Stem and leaves for mouth infections. Leaves laxative, tonic.)

in Zaire: anamjenje

Castanopsis (D. Don) Spach Fagaceae

Resembling the genus Castanea Miller, see The Gardeners Dictionary ... Abridged ... fourth edition 1: 1754, Prodromus Florae Nepalensis 56. 1825, Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux 11: 142, 185. 1841 and Journal of Japanese Botany 5(5): 19, 23. 1928, Acta Botanica Taiwanica 1: 1. 1947.

Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A. DC. (Castanea indica Roxburgh ex Lindl.; Castanea indica Roxb., nom. illeg.; Castanopsis indica A. DC.; Castanopsis macrostachya Hu; Castanopsis sinensis A. Chev., nom. illeg.; Castanopsis subacuminata Hayata; Quercus acutissima subsp. roxburghii (Endl.) A. Camus; Quercus acutissima var. roxburghii (Endl.) Schottky; Quercus dubia Lindl. ex Wall., nom. inval.; Quercus dubia Lindl.; Quercus dubia L., nom. inval.; Quercus indica Drake; Quercus indica (Roxburgh ex Lindl.) Drake; Quercus prinodes Voigt; Quercus prinoides Willd.; Quercus prinoides Raf.; Quercus roxburghii Endl.; Quercus serrata Roxb., nom. illeg.; Quercus serrata Thunb.; Quercus serrata Murray; Quercus serrata var. roxburghii (Endl.) A. DC.)

Nepal, India, Himalaya, China. Tree, greyish-yellow wood, ovate-oblong leaves, ripe involucres densely covered with spines, ovoid nuts, kernels eaten fresh or fried

See Species Plantarum 2: 994–997. 1753, Pl. Surin. 15. 1775, Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (J.A. Murray). 858. 1784, Fl. Jap. (Thunberg) 176. 1784, Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4(1): 440. 1805, Hort. Bengal. 68. 1814, Plantae Asiaticae Rariores 2: 5. 1830, Numer. List [Wallich] n. 2786. 1830, Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 541, 641, 643. 1832, Gen. Pl. [Endlicher] Suppl. iv. II. 28. 1848, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 1: 182. 1863, Journal de Botanique (Morot) 4(8): 153. 1890 and Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 47: 639. 1912, Icones plantarum formosanarum nec non et contributiones ad floram formosanam. 3: 189– 190. 1913, Bulletin Economique (de l’Indochine) 20: 875. 1918, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 1(1): 105. 1951, Taxon 29(5–6): 604. 1980

(Plant resin to treat diarrhea. Bark and kernels pounded and mixed with water and the filtrate given in dysentery. Pounded mixture of kernels of Castanopsis indica with flower of Dillenia indica and flowers of Musa balbisiana given in blood dysentery. To eat large quantities of kernels can cause constipation. Magic, ceremonial, a piece of stem tied on the wrist of babies to protect from evil spirits; plant regarded as sacred, flowering twigs used in ceremonies of worship.)

in Bhutan: sokey

in China: yin du zhui

in India: chhakkhu-khokrak, dalne katus, dhalne-katus, phang-rang-araung, phaung-araung, sohstap

in Nepal: aule katus, berkap, dalne katus, dhalay katus, kyakar polo

Castanopsis javanica (Blume) A. DC. (Castanea javanica (Blume) Blume; Fagus javanica Blume; Quercus javanica (Blume) Drake)

Malay Peninsula.

See Flora 7: 295. 1824, Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië 525. 1826, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 1: 182. 1863, Journal de Botanique (Morot) 4: 153. 1890

(Seeds aperient.)

Malayan name: berangan gajah

Castanopsis purpurella (Miq.) N.P. Balakr. (Castanea purpurella Miq.)

India.

See Flora van Nederlandsch Indie, Eerste Bijvoegsel 352. 1861 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1938: 105. 1938, Balakrishnan, N. P. (1935– ), Flora of Jowai and vicinity, Meghalaya: A Contribution towards a Detailed Knowledge of the Flora of the Northeastern Region of India 2: 458. Howrawh, 1981–1983

(Leaves decoction given in bronchitis and cough. Seeds eaten for potency.)

in India: chhakhu

Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A. DC. (Balanoplis tribuloides (Sm.) Raf.; Balanoplis tribuloides Raf.; Castanea microcarpa Lindl. ex Wall., nom. inval.; Castanea tribuloides Wall.; Castanea tribuloides (Sm.) Lindl.; Castanea tribuloides Lindl.; Castanopsis tribuloides A. DC.; Quercus acuta Thunb.; Quercus acuta Raf.; Quercus acuta Siebold ex Blume; Quercus acuta Buch.-Ham. ex Wall., nom. inval.; Quercus armata Roxb.; Quercus armata D. Don; Quercus caudata Lindl.; Quercus caudata Lindl. ex Wall., nom. inval.; Quercus loureiroi Hance; Quercus tribuloides Sm.)

India. Tree, variable leaves, acorn covered with sharp spines, fruit densely spiny

See Fl. Jap. (Thunberg) 175. 1784, Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (J.A. Murray). 858. 1784, Hort. Bengal. 104. 1814, The Cyclopaedia; or, universal dictionary of arts, ... [Rees] 29: n. 13. 1819, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 56. 1825, Plantae Asiaticae Rariores 6: 102. 1830, Numer. List [Wallich] n. 2765 B, 2787, 3735. 1831, Mus. Bot. 1(19): 290. 1851 [Nov 1850 publ. early 1851], J. Bot. 1: 182. 1863, Alsographia Americana 29. 1838, Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 1(6): 182. 1863, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 10: 201. 1868 [1869 publ. 1868]

(Dried stem peels decoction for cough, indigestion and goiter; cut stem juice used in mouth infection and tongue troubles.)

in Bhutan: sokey

in China: ni li zhui

in India: bol phalak, dieng sninglong, dieng sohot, harai-ching, phul hingori, ricoh, thingsia

in Nepal: musre katus, musure katus, patle katus

Castanospermum A. Cunn. ex Hook. Fabaceae (Sophoreae)

Greek kastanon, kastana and sperma ‘seed’, referring to the shape of the seed; in Hooker’s Botanical Miscellany. 1: 241. 1830, related to Angylocalyx and Xanthocercis.

Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & C. Fraser (Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. ex Mudie)

Australia, Queensland. Perennial non-climbing tree, evergreen, finely fissured grey bark, dense rounded canopy, strong extensive root system, large glossy compound leaves, orangered flowers in short sprays from older woody branches, thick hard cylindrical pods, nectar produced by the flowers attracts birds, bats and butterflies

See Botanical Miscellany 1: 241, pl. 51. 1830 and Phytochemistry 31(8): 2805–2807. 1992, J. Nat. Prod. 61(3): 397–400. 1998

(Toxins, leaves and seeds may be toxic to livestock and humans. Pods astringent. Seeds have been shown to have anti-HIV, antihyperglycemic, anticancer properties. Insecticide, analgesic.)

in English: Australian chestnut, bean tree, black bean, black bean tree, Moreton Bay chestnut

Castilleja Mutis ex L.f. Orobanchaceae (Scrophulariaceae)

Named for the Spanish botanist Domingo Castillejo, see Species Plantarum 602. 1753, Supplementum Plantarum 47–48, 293. 1782 [1781 publ. Apr 1782], The Genera of North American Plants 2: 54–58. 1818, Linnaea 8(Litt.-Ber.): 5. 1833, Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences 1(4A): 182. 1886[1885] and Fl. Rocky Mts. 788. 1917, Contributions from the Dudley Herbarium 1: 175. 1933, Ill. Fl. Pacific States 3: 821. 1951, Brittonia 22: 20–21. 1970, Fieldiana, Bot. 24(9/4): 319–416. 1973, Syst. Bot. 16(4): 644–666. 1991, Novon 2(3): 185–189. 1992, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 974–986. 1993, Phytologia 76: 409. 1994, Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. 41: 1–69. 2000, Bol. Soc. Bot. México 69: 101–121. 2001, Phytologia 90(1): 63–82. 2008, Syst. Bot. 34(1): 182–197. 2009.

Castilleja affinis Hook. & Arn. (Castilleja affinis Hook. & Arn. subsp. insularis (Eastw.) Munz; Castilleja affinis Hook. & Arn. var. contentiosa (J.F. Macbr.) Bacig.; Castilleja californica Abrams; Castilleja douglasii Benth.; Castilleja douglasii Benth. subsp. insularis (Eastw.) Pennell; Castilleja inflata Pennell; Castilleja wightii Elmer; Castilleja wightii Elmer subsp. anacapensis (Dunkle) Pennell; Castilleja wightii Elmer subsp. inflata (Pennell) Munz; Castilleja wightii Elmer subsp. rubra Pennell)

North America. Perennial

See The Botany of Captain Beechey’s Voyage 154. 1833 and Bol. Soc. Bot. México 69: 101–121. 2001

(Disinfectant, applied to infected sores.)

in English: coast Indian paintbrush, Indian paintbrush

Castilleja angustifolia (Nutt.) G. Don (Castilleja angustifolia A. Gray, nom. illeg.; Castilleja angustifolia (Nutt.) G. Don var. bradburii (Nutt.) Fernald; Euchroma angustifolia Nutt.)

North America. Perennial

See Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 7(1): 46. 1834, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 616. 1838, Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, ... 2(1): 118. 1858

(Whole plant infusion taken for stomach troubles, to regulate menstruation and as an abortifacient.)

in English: desert Indian paintbrush, Northwestern Indian paintbrush

Castilleja applegatei Fernald subsp. martinii (Abrams) T.I. Chuang & Heckard (Castilleja clokeyi Pennell; Castilleja gyroloba Pennell; Castilleja martinii Abrams; Castilleja martinii Abrams var. clokeyi (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren; Castilleja roseana Eastw.)

North America. Perennial

See Erythea 6(5): 49–50. 1898 and Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1(6): 69. 1902, Novon 2(3): 186. 1992

in English: wavyleaf Indian paintbrush

Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. (Bartsia coccinea L.; Castilleja coccinea Spreng.; Castilleja coccinea Douglas; Castilleja ludoviciana Pennell; Euchroma coccinea (L.) Nutt.)

North America. Annual

See Species Plantarum 602. 1753, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 2: 775. 1825, Botanical Register; consisting of coloured ... 14: t. 1136. 1828

(Poisonous infusion. Flower infusion taken for colds. Love charm.)

in English: bloody warrior, election posies, Indian paintbrush, painted-cup, scarlet Indian paintbrush, scarlet paintbrush, wickaawee

Castilleja densiflora (Benth.) T.I. Chuang & Heckard (Orthocarpus densiflorus Benth.; Orthocarpus densiflorus Benth. var. noctuinus (Eastw.) J.T. Howell; Orthocarpus noctuinus Eastw.)

North America. Annual

See Scrophularineae Indicae 13. 1835 and Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 32(4): 211. 1905, Leaflets of Western Botany 5(6): 107. 1948, Systematic Botany 16(4): 656. 1991

(Ceremonial, the flowers.)

in English: denseflower Indian paintbrush

Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I. Chuang & Heckard (Castilleja exserta Eastw. & C.F. Baker, nom. nud.; Orthocarpus exsertus A. Heller; Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth.; Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth. var. pallidus D.D. Keck; Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth. var. palmeri A. Gray)

North America. Annual

See Scrophularineae Indicae 13. 1835, Synoptical Flora of North America 2(1): 300. 1878 and West American Plants 3: 4. 1904, Muhlenbergia; a journal of botany 1(5): 109–110. 1904, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 4, 16(17): 544–545. 1927, Systematic Botany 16(4): 657. 1991

(Ceremonial, the flowers.)

in English: exserted Indian paintbrush

Castilleja hispida Benth. (Castilleja angustifolia subsp. hispida (Benth.) Piper & Beattie; Castilleja angustifolia (Nutt.) G. Don var. hispida (Benth.) Fernald; Castilleja hispida Benth. subsp. abbreviata (Fernald) Pennell)

North America. Perennial

See Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 105. 1838, Erythea 6(5): 47. 1898 and Newslett. Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. (Oslo) 29: 18–22. 1998

(For skin diseases.)

in English: harsh Indian paintbrush

Castilleja integra A. Gray (Castilleja elongata Pennell)

North America. Perennial

See Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary ... Botany 2(1): 119. 1859

(Leaves for burns, easy labor, stomach troubles, blood purifier.)

in English: wholeleaf Indian paintbrush

Castilleja linariifolia Benth. (Castilleja linariaefolia Benth.; Castilleja linariifolia Benth. var. omnipubescens (Pennell) Clokey; Castilleja linearis Rydb.; Castilleja trainii Edwin)

North America. Perennial

See Prodr. (DC.) 10: 532. 1846 and Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 89: 424. 1938, Madroño 8: 61. 1945

(Plant or root decoction used as a contraceptive, blood purifier, physic, emetic, analgesic, for venereal diseases, excessive menstrual discharge, menstrual difficulties, stomachaches. Ceremonial.)

in English: Wyoming Indian paintbrush

Castilleja lineata Greene

North America. Perennial

See Pittonia 4(22C): 151. 1900

(Crushed dried leaves infusion drunk for stomachaches.)

in English: marshmeadow Indian paintbrush

Castilleja miniata Douglas ex Hook. (Castilleja confusa Greene; Castilleja gracillima Rydb.; Castilleja inconstans Standl.; Castilleja oblongifolia A. Gray; Castilleja pallida Kunth; Castilleja pallida (L.) Spreng. var. miniata (Douglas ex Hook.) A. Gray; Castilleja uliginosa Eastw.)

North America. Perennial

See Sp. Pl. 2: 602. 1753, Syn. Pl. (Kunth) 2: 100. 1823, Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 2: 774. 1825, Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 106. 1838, American Journal of Science, and Arts II, 34: 337. 1862 and Taxon 58(3): 978. 2009

(Whole plant decoction diuretic, cathartic, purgative, for sore eyes, kidney trouble, lame back, for bleeding stiff lungs. Seeds decoction for coughs. Magic, protection, witchcraft medicine.)

in English: giant red Indian paintbrush, scarlet Indian paintbrush

Castilleja minor A. Gray (Castilleja exilis A. Nelson; Castilleja minor (A. Gray) A. Gray)

North America. Perennial or annual

See Bot. California [W.H. Brewer] i. 573. 1876

(Diuretic, cathartic, purgative.)

in English: lesser Indian paintbrush

Castilleja minor A. Gray var. spiralis (Jeps.) J.M. Egger (Castilleja minor subsp. spiralis (Jeps.) T.I. Chuang & Heckard; Castilleja spiralis Jeps.; Castilleja stenantha A. Gray; Castilleja stenantha subsp. spiralis (Jeps.) Munz)

North America. Annual

See Bot. California [W.H. Brewer] i. 573. 1876 and A Flora of Western Middle California 412. 1901, Aliso 4(1): 98. 1958, Phytologia 90(1): 74. 2008

(Decoction of leaves used as a wash for sores.)

in English: lesser Indian paintbrush

Castilleja parviflora Bong. (Castilleja peirsonii Eastw.)

North America. Perennial

See Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 2(2): 158. 1832

(Roots antihemorrhagic, used for bowel troubles, vaginal bleeding.)

in English: mountain Indian paintbrush, smallflower Indian paintbrush

Castilleja thompsonii Pennell (Castilleja villicaulis Pennell & Ownbey)

North America. Perennial

See Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 99(7): 178–179. 1947

(Antiseptic, for open cuts, wounds.)

in English: Thompson’s Indian paintbrush

Casuarina L. Casuarinaceae

From the Malay kasuari, common name for the Australian bird Casuarinus, the cassowary, in allusion to the long feathers of the bird and the drooping branches and twigs of the plant; see C. Linnaeus, Amoenitates academicae. 4: 123, 143. 1759, A Voyage to Terra Australis 2: 571. 1814, Lindley, John (1799–1865), Nixus Plantarum 167. Londini, 1833, Allgemeine Gartenzeitung 9: 163. 1841, Lehmann, Johann Georg Christian (1792–1860), Plantae Preissianae sive Enumeratio plantarum quas in Australasia occidentali et meridionali-occidentali annis 1838–1841 / collegit Ludovicus Preiss. Partim ab aliis partim a se ipso determinatas descriptas illustratas edidit Christianus Lehmann. Hamburgi, 1844–47 and Fieldiana, Bot. 24(3): 227–228. 1952, Flora of Australia 3: 191, 194. 1989, Novon 9(4): 549. 1999, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 1: 592–593. 2001.

Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. & G. Forster; Casuarina equisetifolia L. ex J.R. & G. Forster; Casuarina equisetifolia Blanco; Casuarina litorea L.; Casuarina litorea L. ex Fosberg & Sachet, nom. illeg.; Casuarina littorea L.; Casuarina littorea Oken)

East Africa. Coastal tree, fast growing, thin branches, leaves minute scales, terminal inflorescences, male flowers in spikes, heads of female flowers with red stigmas, dense clusters of prickly fruit cone-like, winged wind-dispersed seeds, timber, bark contains tannin, roots nodules contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria, pollination by wind, a pioneer seashore tree

See Herb. Amboin. 3: t. 57. 1743, Amoenitates academicae... 4: 143. 1759, Characteres Generum Plantarum [second edition] 104, pl. 52. 1775, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 661. 1837, Allg. Naturgesch. iii. (1) 354. 1841 and Journ. Arn. Arb. xxxi. 273. 1950, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 24: 4. 1975, Taxon 29: 499–500. 1980, Chen Te-chao. Casuarinaceae. In: Tseng Yung-chien, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 20(1): 1–5. 1982, Regnum Veg. 127: 31. 1993

(Used in Sidha. Plant antifungal, molliscicidal, hypoglycemic, cytotoxic, antiviral. Leaves for dysentery, diarrhea, sprue, stomach disorders and toothache. Bark astringent, inner bark scraped and mixed with water to drink for dysentery and diarrhea; inner bark juice as a sedative; bark infusion orally for ulcers, constipation and stomachache. Roots to treat dysentery, diarrhea and stomachache; twigs decoction for treating swellings; powdered bark used for facial pimples.)

in English: Australian pine, beach she-oak, beefwood, bloodwood, bull oak, casuarina, coast she-oak, coast sheoak, coastal beefwood, common ironwood, horsetail tree, iron-wood, mile tree, river she-oak, sheoak, sheoke, South Sea ironwood, swamp she oak, whistling pine

in East Africa: moinga, mvinje (Swahili)

in South Africa: bewerasieboom

in Hawaii: paina

in Burma (Myanmar): tin-yu

in Cambodia: snga:w

in China: mu ma huang

in India: cabaku, caboku, cabuku, catatari, catatarimaram, cattutai, cattutaivirutcam, cauku, cavokku, cavukku, cavukkumaram, cavuku, chabuku, chavokku, chavuka, chavuku, chola, chowku, chulamaram, civacivamaram, civamaram, civavarci, cola, colaimaram, gali, jangli-jhau, jangli-saroo, janglisaru, jhaw, karcuramatitam, karcuramatitamaram, karrati, kasrike, kattati, kesarike, kettivanci, kettivancimaram, korata, panas, phiramgi-saro, sabako, sampirani, saravina, sarau, saravu, sarova, sarpuhala, sarugu, sarugudu, saruku, sarve, sarve mara, sarviku, savukku, savukku maram, savukkumaram, serva, sowku, sura, surgu, suru, tsavukumanu, uromacakkari, uromacakkarimaram, utirppakam, utirppakamaram

in Indonesia: cemara laut, eru

in Japan: tokiwa-gyoryû, moku-maô

in Laos: pè:k namz, sôn th’ale:

in Malaysia: aru, chemara laut, common ru, eru, kayu ru, ru, ru laut

in Papua New Guinea: iria, manar, musim, owalu, yar, yara, yawale

in Okinawa: makumowo

in the Philippines: agoho, aro-o

in Thailand: son-thale

in Vietnam: c[aa]y phi lao

Catabrosa P. Beauv. Poaceae (Gramineae)

Greek katabibrosko, katabibroskein ‘eat up, devour’, kato, kata ‘below, downward, down from’ and broskein, brosko, bibrosko ‘to eat, to devour’, katabrosis ‘eating up, devouring’, used as fodder for cattle and goats or referring to the glumes, related to Colpodium Trin., containing HCNglucoside, type Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv., see Essai d’une nouvelle Agrostographie, ou nouveaux genres des Graminées. 97. Paris 1812, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 119, t. 7. 1820, Flora Orientalis 5: 578. 1884 and Darwiniana 23(1): 179–188. 1981 [Catabrosa P. Beauv. y Phippsia R. Brown (Gramineae) en America del Sur.], R.R. Mill, “Eremopoa, Nephelochloa, Catabrosella, Colpodium, Hyalopoa, Catabrosa, Paracolpodium.” in P.H. Davis (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 486–501. 1985, American Journal of Botany 81(1): 119–126. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 228–230. 2003.

Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv. (Aira aquatica L.; Catabrosa aquatica subsp. pseudairoides (Herrm.) Tzvelev; Catabrosa aquatica var. uniflora S.F. Gray; Catapodium aquaticum Trin. ex Willk. & Lange; Colpodium aquaticum (L.) Trinius; Diarrhena aquatica (L.) Raspail; Festuca airoides (Koeler) Mutel, nom. illeg., non Festuca airoides Lam.; Festuca albifolia Reverd.; Festuca lenensis Drob. subsp. albifolia (Reverd.) Tzvelev; Glyceria airoides (Koeler) Reichb.; Glyceria airoides (Nutt.) Fries, nom. illeg., non Glyceria airoides (Koeler) Reichb.; Glyceria aquatica (L.) J. Presl & C. Presl; Glyceria catabrosa Klett & Richt.; Glyceria dulcis (Salisb.) Holmb.; Hydrochloa airoides (Koeler) Hartm.; Melica aquatica (L.) Loisel.; Molinia aquatica (L.) Wibel; Poa airoides Koeler; Poa aquatica L.; Poa dulcis Salisb.; Poa pseudairoides Herrm.)

North temperate. Species variable, creeping, leaf sheaths open, open inflorescence very lax, panicle pyramidal or oblong, glumes unequal to nearly equal, lemmas truncate and erose at the apex, palatable, weed species, grows in moist meadows and along lakeshores or streambanks

See Species Plantarum 1: 64, 66–70, 73–76. 1753, Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium. 20. 1796, Primitiae Florae Werthemensis 116. 1799, Descriptio Graminum in Gallia et Germania 194. 1802, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 179. 1810, Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 3, t. 13. 1812, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 97, 135, 142, 149, 157, 160, 162, 165, pl. 19. 1812, Genera Graminum 5. 1819, Flora Cechica 25. 1819, A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 133. 1821, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique 5: 447. 1825, Flora Gallica, éd. 2, 1: 59. 1828, Flora der Phanerogamischen Gewächse der Umgegend von Leipzig 96. 1830, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 1(4): 395. 1830, Flore Française 4: 115. 1837, Novitiae Florae Suecicae 3: Add. 176. 1843, Prodromus Florae Hispanicae 1: 77. 1861 and Botaniska Notiser 97. 1919, Arch. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. Vanamo 2: 100–106. 1947, Bot. Zurn. (Kiev) 56(9): 1254. 1971, Bot. Zhurn. SSSR 70(5): 698–700. 1985, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1986: 29. 1986, Bot. Zhurn. SSSR 71: 1426–1427. 1986, Fl. Libya 145: 84. 1988, Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Botanica 33: 37–38. 1991, Flora Mediterranea 5: 340–345. 1995, Opera Botanica 137: 1–42. 1999

(Plant decoction taken as a stimulant, tonic. Ceremonial, magico-religious beliefs, medicine, burned as incense.)

in English: brookgrass, water hairgrass, water whorl grass, water whorlgrass, waterhair, whorlgrass

Catalpa Scop. Bignoniaceae

A North American Indian name, catawba or kathulpa; Catawba is the name of a tribe of North American Indians, along the Catawba River (the Wateree), South Carolina; catawba is also an American red grape and a dry white wine made from it; see Familles des Plantes 2: 199, 546. 1763, Introductio ad Historiam Naturalem 170. 1777, Princ. Somiol. 27. 1814 and Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 19: 8. 1918, Nanjing Techn. Coll. Forest. Prod. 1980(1): 123. 1980.

Catalpa ovata G. Don (Bignonia catalpa Thunberg; Bignonia catalpa L.; Catalpa catalpa (L.) H. Karst.; Catalpa henryi Dode; Catalpa kaempferi Siebold & Zuccarini)

China.

See Species Plantarum 2: 622. 1753, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 230. 1837, Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 4(3): 142. 1846 and Bulletin de la Société Dendrologique de France 1907: 199. 1907

(Fruits diuretic.)

in English: Chinese catalpa, Chinese catawba

in China: chio ch’iu, zi, zi bai pi

in Japan: ki-sasage

Catasetum Rich. ex Kunth Orchidaceae

Greek kato, kata ‘below, downward’ and Latin seta ‘bristle’, an allusion to the horned column or to the column appendages or to the antennas of the staminate flowers.

Catasetum fimbriatum (C. Morren) Lindl. (Catasetum cogniauxii L. Linden; Catasetum fimbriatum (E. Morren) Lindl. & Paxton; Catasetum fimbriatum subsp. fissum Rchb. f.; Catasetum fimbriatum var. aurantiacum Porsch; Catasetum fimbriatum var. brevipetalum Porsch; Catasetum fimbriatum var. fissum Rchb.f.; Catasetum fimbriatum var. inconstans (Hoehne) Mansf.; Catasetum fimbriatum var. micranthum Porsch; Catasetum fimbriatum var. morrenianum Mansf.; Catasetum fimbriatum var. ornithorrhynchum (Porsch) Mansf.; Catasetum fimbriatum var. platypterum Rchb.f.; Catasetum fimbriatum var. subtropicale Hauman; Catasetum fimbriatum var. viridulum Rchb.f.; Catasetum inconstans Hoehne; Catasetum ornithorrhynchus Porsch; Catasetum pflanzii Schltr.; Catasetum wredeanum Schltr.; Myanthus fimbriatus E. Morren)

S. Trop. America.

See Synopsis Plantarum 1: 330–331. 1822, Edwards’s Botanical Register 18: sub t. 1538. 1832, Annales de la Société Royale d’Agriculture et de Botanique de Gand: Journal d’Horticulture et des Sciences Accessoires 4: 453, t. 231. 1848, Paxton’s Fl. Gard. 1: 124. 1850, Journal des Orchidées 6: 223. 1895 and Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 161. 1905, Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 79: 127. 1908, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 11: 45. 1912, Commissão de Linhas Telegraphicas, Botanica 5: 57. 1915, Orchis. Monatsschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orchideenkunde 9: 14. 1915, Anales Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires 29: 379. 1917, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 31: 108–109. 1932, Icon. Pl. Trop. Fasc. 6: 501–600. 1982

(A sterilizer, the pseudobulb is boiled in water with the rhizome of Typha latifolia.)

Catha Forssk. ex Schreber Celastraceae

From the Arabian name qat or khat; see Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 63. 1775, Introductio ad Historiam Naturalem 228. 1777, Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber, Genera Plantarum. 147. 1789 and The East African Agricultural Journal 13: 98–102. 1947.

Catha edulis (Vahl) Endlicher (Catha edulis Forssk. ex Endl., nom. illeg.; Catha edulis Forssk.; Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl.; Catha forskalii A. Rich. nom. illegit.; Catha inermis J.F. Gmelin, nom. illegit.; Celastrus edulis Vahl; Celastrus edulis (Forssk.) Vahl; Dillonia abyssinica Sacleux; Methyscophyllum glaucum Eckl. & Zeyh.; Trigonotheca serrata Hochst.)

Arabia, East Africa to the Cape. Shrub or tree, highly polymorphic, small white cream flowers in stalked clusters in axillary cymes, fruit splitting into 3 valves, seeds reddish brown with a small brown papery wing at the base, leaves aromatic and astringent, savanna, riverine forests, Combretum wooded grassland, in moist montane forests, Olea and Juniperus forests, evergreen forests

See Species Plantarum 1: 196–197. 1753, Flora AegyptiacoArabica 63. 1775, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 1: 21. 1790, A Voyage to Terra Australis 2: 554. 1814, Enchiridion Botanicum 575. 1841 and Fitoterapia 4: 291–300. 1991

(A narcotic drug. Khat is primarily used as a masticatory. Khat chewing causes gastrointestinal disturbances, chronic elevation of the blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias; excess use of khat may induce symptoms of hallucination, intoxication or poisoning and, in extreme cases, insanity; khat corrosive to the mouth wall. Leaves stimulant, antidepressant. Roots and bark boiled in tea or soup as a remedy for gonorrhea. Bark stimulant. Ritual, ceremonial, an important plant during wedding ceremonies.)

in English: Abyssinia kat, Abyssinian tea, African salad, African tea, Arabian tea, Boesmans tea, Bushman’s tea, Chirinda redwood, flower of paradise, four of paradise, khat, Somali tea

in Arabic: khat

African names: m’mke, mandama, mfeike, msuruti, msuvuti, mulungi, mutsawhare, muzaramashawa, taksin

in Eastern Africa: kitandwe, liss, lutandwe, mamiraa, meongi, miraa, miungi, msuruti, muandama, muirungu, muraa, murungu, mutabungwa, mwandama, ngongo, olmeraa, omunyaga, tumayot, tumeyondet

in Ethiopia: cat (Amharinya, Guragenya and Tigrinya); cata (Kembatinya); cati, gofa, jima’ (Orominya); catiyya (Welaytinya)

in Kenya: cati, chat, chati, emairugi, kat, khat, mailyungi, mairungi, mamiraa, miirungi, miraa, miungi, muirungi, muraa, olmeraa, qat, tomoiyot, tumayot

in Southern Africa: boesmanstee; umHlwazi, umHlawazi (Zulu); iGqwaka (Xhosa); lwani, luthadzi (Venda); muT-sawhare, muTsawhari, muZaramashawa (Shona)

in Tanzania: mira, miraa, mlonge, muhulo, murungu

Catharanthus G. Don f. Apocynaceae

Greek