Immittance Measurement

Authored by: Achim Dreher

Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook

Print publication date:  February  2014
Online publication date:  February  2014

Print ISBN: 9781439848913
eBook ISBN: 9781439848937
Adobe ISBN:


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Electronic circuits consist of numerous elements that can be lumped, distributed, or a combination of both. The components are regarded as lumped if their size is much smaller than the signal wavelength. This condition holds for resistors, inductors, capacitors, transformers, diodes, transistors, or similar devices operating in printed circuits at frequencies up to a few hundred megahertz or even higher in small integrated circuits. In the microwave or millimeter-wave region, the elements and their connecting transmission lines must be considered as distributed. While in lumped circuits a change of voltage or current at one single point immediately affects these quantities at all other points, in distributed circuits the propagation properties now have to be taken into account. The same holds for long connecting cables even at lower frequencies.

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