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6 Riboflavin (Vitamin B )

Authored by: Janos Zempleni , John W. Suttie , Jesse F. Gregory III , Patrick J. Stover , John Thomas Pinto and Richard Saul Rivlin

Handbook of Vitamins

Print publication date:  July  2013
Online publication date:  July  2013

Print ISBN: 9781466515567
eBook ISBN: 9781466515574
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b15413-7

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Abstract

Although riboflavin can be synthesized de novo by plant, yeast, and prokaryotic cells, mammals need to obtain riboflavin by consuming plant-based foods or, if necessary, supplemental sources. Riboflavin is the precursor to the coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Historically, both FMN and FAD are referred to as nucleotides. Since the phosphate group of FMN is not esterified to a ribose moiety but rather to the N-10 ribitol side chain of riboflavin, a more appropriate term is riboflavin-5′-monophosphate. In similar fashion, FAD has its adenosine monophosphate bound in a pyrophosphate arrangement with riboflavin-5′-phosphate and thus could be viewed as adenosine riboflavin pyrophosphate. For convenience, this chapter will provide the more widely utilized and familiar terms FMN and FAD as the standard abbreviations for the flavin coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, respectively.

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