Nutrition and Diabetes

Authored by: Zhaoping Li , David Heber

Handbook of Nutrition and Food

Print publication date:  July  2013
Online publication date:  April  2016

Print ISBN: 9781466505711
eBook ISBN: 9781466505728
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b15294-64

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Abstract

Nutrition is central to the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), but the approaches to type 1 DM (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) are different. T1DM results from an autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas and requires insulin replacement and matching of the diet to the insulin provided. 1 On the other hand, T2DM is closely associated with excess adiposity and requires primary attention to weight management in prevention and treatment until the late stages of T2DM when insulin stores are depleted. 2 This chapter will begin by outlining the history and evolution of diabetes as a public health problem. Given the prevalence of T2DM, weight reduction and weight management in T2DM will be discussed first followed by sections on the various foods that can have a role in controlling blood sugar in patients with either T1DM or T2DM. Controlling blood sugar is an important component of treatment, but not the sole aspect of improving the quality of life of diabetes patients. Overall lifestyle change can help control risk factors for cardiovascular disease that is heightened by inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid abnormalities that frequently accompany poor control of blood glucose.

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