Bioactive Substances and Botanical Dietary Supplements

Authored by: David Heber

Handbook of Nutrition and Food

Print publication date:  July  2013
Online publication date:  April  2016

Print ISBN: 9781466505711
eBook ISBN: 9781466505728
Adobe ISBN:


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The recommended dietary allowances, dietary guidelines, and many government licensing and regulatory policies are based on the early twentieth century science that identified classical nutritional deficiency diseases for vitamins and minerals. In the 1990s, nutrient recommendations for foods were broadened as dietary reference intakes (DRIs) and population reference intakes (PRIs) that now incorporate a tolerable upper intake level (UL) below which no adverse effects are noted. 1 3 As discussed in the last chapter, these guidelines are not designed to deal with any substances beyond those recognized to be essential to human health based on some demonstration of function or an instance of deficiency. Attempting to move beyond a deficiency model, this effort extended to establishing macronutrient ranges for protein, carbohydrate, and fat and provided information for a very limited number of trace minerals where the evidence of essentiality was weak.

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