Animal Deterrents/Security

Authored by: Mike Stine

Electric Power Substations Engineering

Print publication date:  May  2012
Online publication date:  May  2012

Print ISBN: 9781439856383
eBook ISBN: 9781439856390
Adobe ISBN:


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The vast majority of electrical utility substations designed to transform transmission voltages to distribution class voltages employ an open-air design. The configurations may vary, but usually consist of equipment that utilizes polymer or porcelain insulators or bushings to create electrically insulated creepage and dry arc distances between the potential voltage carried by the bus or conductor and the grounded portions of the equipment or structure. Although these insulators or bushings provide the proper insulation distance for normal operation voltages (AC, DC, and BIL), they do not provide sufficient distances to eliminate bridging of many animals from potential to ground. This animal bridging situation usually exists at the low side or distribution voltage portion of the substation (12–36 kV), but depending on the size and type of the animal, it can also affect higher voltage equipment. Utilities have reported that animal-caused outages have become a major problem affecting the reliability and continuity of the electrical system and are actively taking steps to prevent it.

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