Anaerobic Microbially Mediated Processes

Authored by: Makoto Kimura , Susumu Asakawa

Handbook of Soil Sciences Properties and Processes

Print publication date:  November  2011
Online publication date:  November  2011

Print ISBN: 9781439803059
eBook ISBN: 9781439803066
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b11267-41

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Abstract

Organisms capable of growing in anaerobic environments can be divided into three groups (Gottschalk and Peinemann, 1992): (1) organisms that are aerobes but can use inorganic oxidized molecules, such as NO3 , NO2 , MnO2, and Fe2O3/Fe(OH)3 as alternative electron acceptors; (2) organisms that are facultative aerobes but can carry out fermentations in the absence of oxygen and can only carry out the substrate-level phosphorylation under anaerobic conditions; (3) obligately anaerobic bacteria such as sulfate reducers, methanogens, and homoacetogens. In the decomposition of plant residue under waterlogged soil conditions, macromolecules, such as lignocellulose, proteins, and lipids, are generally catabolized to low-molecular-weight organic acids, alcohols, H2, CO2, and H2O by microorganisms belonging to Groups 1 and 2, and these intermediate products are further decomposed to CO2, CH4, and H2O by microorganisms belonging to Group 3.

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