In This Chapter

Measurement Techniques

Authored by: David J. Whitehouse

Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology

Print publication date:  December  2010
Online publication date:  December  2010

Print ISBN: 9781420082012
eBook ISBN: 9781420082029
Adobe ISBN:


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The development of instruments for examining surfaces began in about 1919 with a simple mechanical device by Tomlinson at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The first instrument for engineering use is ascribed to Schmalz [1]. Earlier than this, thought had already been given to the measurement of engineering surfaces using optical methods by Berndt in 1924 [2] and Andrews in 1928 [3]. That there was concern about surface measurement in countries other than Germany and the UK becomes apparent when it is realized that the first call for surface finish standards was made in the USA by Harrison in 1930 [4]. (Needless to say it took 10 years before the first B46 standard emerged.)

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