In This Chapter

Quantitative Biological Raman Spectroscopy

Authored by: Shih Wei-Chuan , Bechtel Kate L. , Feld Michael S.

Handbook of Optical Sensing of Glucose in Biological Fluids and Tissues

Print publication date:  December  2008
Online publication date:  December  2008

Print ISBN: 9781584889748
eBook ISBN: 9781584889755
Adobe ISBN:


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Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for identifying the molecular composition of materials. It can also be used to quantify the substances present. Recently, quantitative Raman spectroscopy has been used in biological tissue for disease diagnosis and, in blood, to measure concentrations of analytes such as glucose noninvasively. A characteristic feature of biological tissue is its high turbidity, due to the interplay of scattering and absorption. In addition, the complexity of biological tissue results in significant spectral overlap. These factors make the quantification of analyte concentrations difficult. Measurement accuracy can be improved if these difficulties can be overcome. This chapter discusses the application of quantitative Raman spectroscopy to biological tissue. Section 12.1 provides an introduction to Raman spectroscopy. Section 12.2 reviews existing work relevant to quantitative analysis in biological media. Quantitative and biological aspects of Raman spectroscopy are discussed in sections 12.3 and 12.4. Section 12.5 discusses instrumentation, using the instrument developed in our laboratory as an example. Data preprocessing is discussed in section 12.6. In section 12.7 we review our glucose studies in blood serum, whole blood and human subjects. Section 12.8 introduces two new techniques, constrained regularization (CR) and intrinsic Raman spectroscopy (IRS), which are shown to significantly improve measurement accuracy. Additional considerations are discussed in the context of future directions. Section 12.9 concludes the chapter.

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